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U m V SR SIT Y

OP

SOUTHERN

CALIFORNIA

A CRITICISM OF CHINESE ETHICAL

SYSTEMS

BUDDHISM,

TAOISM AND CONFUCIANISM

A

D is s e r t a ti o n

Submitted

to

the

Council

on

Graduate

Study

and

Research

 

In

Candidacy

for

the

Degree

of

Doctor

of

Philosophy

DEPARTMENT OF PHILOSOPHY

By

Clarence

C,

Hahn

May,

1928

UMI Number:

DP29594

All rights reserved

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This

thesis,

having

been

approved

by

the

special Faculty

Committee,

is accepted by

the

Council

on

Graduate

Study

and

Research

of

the

University

of

Southern

California,

in

partial

fulfillment

of

the

requirements

for the degree o/. Doc tor _ of Ph i los ophj

.

Date

Cune

1 9 2 8

Secretary

Dean

FOREWORD

makes

What

i s

t h i n g s

t h e a s

u n d e r l y i n g

th e y

a r e ?

To

c a u s e a

me

o f

e x is t e n c e

i s

outward

o f

a

c i v i l i z a t i o n ?

c i v i l i z a e x p r e ssio n

t i o n

of

or

any

l i f e -

What

s t a t e energy

which,

in

the

an words

of

Spinoza,

 

" is

a i t s e l f

and

i s

conceived

through

 

i t s e l f . "

C iv iliz a tio n

in i s

the

d ir e c t

 

exp ression l it y .

r

e

a

In

and

achievem ent

of

t h is

order

to

understand

the

r

s e ] f-dependent

is e

and

the

cosmic

d e c lin e

of

a

c i v i l i z a t i o n ,

we

m ust

f i r s t

o f

i t s

m oving

p

r

i n c

i p

%mod e s i

l e . ,

The

more

th e

more

we

a l l th e th e

we u n d e r st a n d

u n d e r st a n d

u n d e r sta n d e x t e r n a l

e x p r e ss i o n s

L i f e

( S u b st a n c e ),

" fo r

modes

are

ways

in

which

Substance

i s

expressed."T

 
 

The

main

p u rp o se

 

o f

our

work

i

s

to

understand

what

i s

r ig h t

and

what

i s

wrong

w ith

Chinese

c i v i l i z a t i o n ,

the

back­

of

the

A s ia t ic

 

ways

of

l i f e .

With

purpose

in

mind,

bone the

w riter

seeks

to

fin d

a

j u s t i f i c a t i o n

t h is of

the

c h a r a c te r is tic s

of

the

Chinese

mind

in

c i v i l i z a t i o n

through

the

study

of

Chinese

C la s s ic s ,

fo r

 

he

i s

deeply

convinced

that

no

o b ject

or

even t

takes

p la c e

 

w ithout

an

u n d erlyin g

cause

fo r

i t ,

and

th at

no

change

can

be

made

w ithou t

an

in te r n a l

change

phenomenal l i f e .

of

 
 

The

plan

o f

the

work

The

w i l l

be

c le a r

t

two

from

the

a rra n g e­

 

ment

o f

the

c h a p t e r s.

 

f i r s

d ea l

w ith

the

general

nature

of

the

Chinese

mind

c h a p te r s which

ex p resses

i t s e l f

 

in

the

three

Chinese

 

e th ic a l

of

Taoism.

Buddhism,

and

C o n f u c i a n is m .

To

each

o f

system s t h e s e

s y st e m s

two

c h a p t e r s

are

devoted,

one

i s

d e sc r ip tiv e

and

the

other

c r i t i c a

l .

In

Chapter

IX

L a o tze

 

and

C on fu ciu s

are

compared.

The

th ree

f i n a l

chapters

are

more

a

review

of

the

fo re g o in g

 

s t u d i e s ,

 

s e p a r a t e l y

d

e

or a l i n g

l e s s with

th e

g e n e r a l

t o p i c s

o f

Man,

God.

and

Family

r e s p e

c

t i v e l y .

 

C.C.H.

 
 

TSp i n o z a

's

E t h i c s ,

V,

24-.

11

 

CONTENTS

 

Chapter

 

Page

I.

Introduction:

the

Nature

of

Chinese

E th ics

-

- - -

- - - -

I

 

Chinese

P hilosophy

and

O riental

L ife

 

- - - - - - — - - - - 2 <

D

iv isio n

of

Chinese

Thought

- - - - - - - - - —

-----------

 

4

Confucianism

as

a

Guide

of

L i f e - - - - - - - --------- - - - - - - 5

O bstacles

to

Chinese

T h o u g h t

-----------------

 

---7

C

h a r a c te r istic s

of

Chinese

E th ics

-

-

-

-

- - - - -

- - - - - - 1

0

I

I

.

The

Chinese

Mind

in

the

L ig h t

o f

Western

Dynamic

 

Ideas

------

13

P resent

Chinese

Awakening

and

i t s

Causes

 

------------- I 3

D

if f e r e n c e

o f

C hinese

and

Western

Though ts

 

-

- - - - -

1

6

Chinese

Formalism

and

Pragmatism -------------------------

 

19

Chinese

Conservatism

A n a ly z e d

---------

 

24

C

o n c lu s io n

---------------------

 

--2 6

I I I .

Indian

Buddhism

in

China

----- -29

 

The

Buddha *s

R e f l e c t i o n

upon

L i f e

 

-

- - -

 

----------29

 

C

h a r a c te r istic s

of

Hindu

Thought

-

-

-

-

-

-

- -

-

-

- -

- - - -

3 I

Buddhist

View

of

L ife --S u ffe r in g

and

 
 

Emancipation

 

--------

33

The

Four

N oble

Truths

 

-----^ -----------3 5

The

Chinese

Buddhism:

Mahayana

and

 

i t s

 

Developm ent--—

----------------------------------------------- 41

 

C

h a r a c te r istic s

of

Chinese

Buddhism

 

--------- - - - 4 3

i

i i

Chapter

 

Page

 

B u d d h ist

I n f l u e n c e

upon

C h in e s e L i f e - - - - - - - - - - 4 6

IV.

C r itic ism

of

Chinese

Buddhism ----

 

-- ---4 8

 

Change

and

Permanence-—

 

------------- —

 

Examination

of

the

Four

Buddhist

T ru th S -------5 C

Karma

and

N i r v a n a - - - - - - - - ------

 

^6

C

r itic ism

of

Chinese

Buddhism- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ^8

E astern

and

Western

C i v i l i z a

t i o n - - - - - - - -

--60

V .

Taoism:

th e

D

o c t r i n

e

o f

T a o - - - - - - - - - - - ----- - - - - - - - - - - 6 2

 

Three

R e

l i g i o

n

s

o r

Ban

Kio

-----

62

The

P l a c

e

o f

T a o is m - - - - - - - - —

 

-------—

--- - - 6 4

e

L ife

of

L aotze,

Old

P h ilo s o p h e r - - - - - -

- - 6 ^

 

Tao

Teh

C h in g -- C l a s s ! c

o f

Tao

and

Teh- —-

- - - - - 6 6

 

P h i l o s o p h i c a l

T a o - - - - - - - - - - - - -

— - - - - - - - - -

-67

E th ica l

T

a o

- - - - - - - - - - -

- -

- -

- -

-

- - -

- - -

- - -

- - -

-69

 

L

a t e r

T a o is m --

 

C h

u a n

g t z e - - - - - - ----------------

--72

Degeneration

of

T a o ism ------

 

----- - - - - 7 6

VI.

C r i t i c a l

E x a m in a ti o n

o f

Wu

Wei,

N

o n - a c ti o n

---------- -- 7 9

D

iffer en t

Meanings

of

T aoism --R eligion,

and

 
 

P h ilo s o p h y

 

o f

Tao

-----

79

 

Two

T e n d e n c i e s

in

C h in e s e

P h i l o s o p h y - - - - - - - - - - 8 2

C

riticism

of

N on-action - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 8 3

E ffe c ts

of

N o n - a c t io n - - - - - - - --------

 

87

R e c o n st r u c t i o n :

R e st o r a t i o n

o f

W i l l- - - - - - - - - - - 8 9

IV

Chapter

 

Page

V II.

The

E th ic a l

System

of

C d n f u

c i i i B - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 9 ^

 

Introductory

R

e m

a

r k - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ---•*-9^

The

L if e

and

Works

of

Confucl u s - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 9 5

The

P

o l i t i c a l

 

World

o f

C o n f u c i u s’

T im e --- - - - - - - - 9 9

P h ilo so p h ic a l

Im p lication

of

the

T each in g---- - - 1

0 3

The

D o c trin e

o f

the

"Superior

Man"--

— - - - - - I 0

5

System

o f

Human

R e l a t i o n s - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - I I P

V III.

C r i t i c a l

Remarks

on

Confucian

E t h i c s - - - - - - - - - - - - I I 7

 

P o p u la r ity

of

Confucian

E t h i c s - - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - I 17

The

P r in c ip le

 

of

R e c ip r o c it y

----- -121

A u tocratic

B a sis

of

Confucian

E t h ic s - - - - - - - - - - - 124

S tr e s s

upon

Outward

 

Conduct

and

C erem o n ia lism --12 6

Synopsis

of

Confucian

T e a c h

in g - - - -- - -

------- 128

Worship

of

C o n f u c iu s - - - - - - - - -----------

---1 3 3

 

IX.

A Comparison

o f

L a o t z e

and

C

o n f u c i u

s - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 3

4

 

Summary

S ta te m en t

o

f

L a o t z e ’s

E t h i c a l

I d e a s - - - - I 3 4

 

'

O r i g i n

o f

th e

 

L a o t z i a n

T h e o r y - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - I 3 6

> Comparison

o f

L a o t z e

and

C o n f u c iu

s ------------------------- 138

 

C r itic a l

E valuation

of

C o n f u c ia n is m ------------I 4 2

Weaknesses

in

L a o t z e ’s

E t h i c s - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 46

E

t h i c s

o f

Y a n g t z e

and

Moh

T i h -

-----------

«148

E v a l u a ti o n

o f

Moh

T i h ’s

T h o u g

h t - - - - - - ------------

IJ3

V

Chapter

 

Page

X,

The

C hinese

Idea

of

M

a n - - - - - - - - - - -----------

 

-154

The

Word

Tao

i n

C h in e s e

Thought

*-----------------------

 

155

The

O r ig in

and

N ature

o f

M

a n - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ------1^6

S t a t e m e n ts

on

th e

Goodness

o

f

Human

N a t u

r e - - - -

- - - 1 5?

D

i v e r g e n t

Views

o f

Human

N a t u r e --------------------------------»------- 1 59

D

octrine

of

Five

V irtu es

and

th e ir

C F a s s if ic a tio n - -- 1 64

Idea

of

Im m ortality

and

Ancestorworship

---------------------1 66

X I,

The

C h in ese

Id ea

o f

G o d - - - - - ----------------

 

---- --169 ..

Animism

in

Chinese

R e lig io u s

Thought------------------------------1 69

D

iffe r e n t

R e lig io n s

of

C h i n a - - - - - - - - - - - - - -----^------

..

-170

The

R

e

l i g i o n

o f

S h a n g t i - - - - - - - - ---------

 

iy2

The

T a o ist

 

R

e lig io n

o f

M agic --------------------------------------------- -173

The

N atu re

o f

the

C hinese

Id ea

o f

H e a v e n - - - - - - - - ---- -175

The

C h r is t i a n

God

and

the

C h in e s e

H e a v e n -- - ---------- - -

- I 80

C

onclu s i on--W hat

s h a l l

we d o ? ---------------

 

- - l 82

X

I I , C o n c lu si o n

:

The

F a

m il y

and

Other

B a s e s

o f

C h in e s e

 

C iv iliz a t io n

 

--------------- --------184

 

The

Fam ily

as

F oundation

o f

C hinese

C i v

i l i z a t i o

n - - - - l 8 4

Consequences

of

Family

C ulture -----------------------

 

186

M a te r ia lis t ic

Bent

of

the

F a m

ily -- ------------

-« -----1 8 7

The

D o c trin e

of

E q u ilih riu m

 

and

C r it ic is m ------------- --------190

C

o n c lu s io n ----

----------------------

 

193

A

CRITICISE!

OP

CHINESE

ETHICAL

SYSTEMS:

BUDDHISM.

TAOISM AND

CONFUCIANISM

 

CHAPTER

I

INTRODUCTION:

THE NATURE OF

CHINESE ETHICS

 

P h ilo so p h y

may

he

d efin ed

 

to

 

mean

a

sy stem a tic

and

 

c o n s is t e n t

r e f l e c t i o n

a b o u t

t h

e

t o t a l i t y

o f

one *s

onn

,ex-

p e r i e n c e .P

What

i s

t h e

n a t u r e

and

 

o

r i g

i n

o f

man ♦s

e x is t e n c e

and

h is

r e l

a t

i o n s h i p

t o

t h

e

u n i v e r s e ?

What

i s

t h e

m e an in g

 

o f

h i s

e x is t e

n c e

and

e x p e r i e n c e

 

t h

e r e o

f ?

A

s y st e m a t i c

 

treatm ent

of

these

u ltim a te

problems

c o n s t it u

t e s

a

system

 

of

philosophy.

 

The

r i s e

o f

p h ilo s o p h ic a l

 

r e f l e c t i o n

seems

to

demand

 

( l )

a

development

o f

s u f f ic ie n

t

power

of

th in k in g

r e f l e c ­

t iv e

ly ;

( 2 )

st r e n

g t h

and

c o u r a g e

 

t o

t a k e

t h e

r

is k

o f

th in k in g ;

(3 )

some

elem en t

 

o f

p e r s is t e n c e ;

(4 )

power

o f

lo g ic a l

dem onstration;

 

and

( 5 )

l e i s u

r e

f o r

r e f l e c t i o n .

Thus,

as

F.

Ueberweg

has

sa id .^

 

philosophy

as

scien ce

of

r e f l e c t i o n

could

o r ig in a t e

 

e a s i l y

n e ith e r

among

the

p e o p le s

o f

th e

N o rth ,

who

w ere

 

em inent

 

f

o

r

st r e n

g t h

and

c o u r a g e,

but

devoid

of

c u ltu r e ,

nor

among

th e

O r ie n ta ls,

who,

though

s u sc e p tib le

of

the

elem ents

of

h ig h er

cu ltu r e,

were

content

sim ply

to

remain

them selves

in

the

s p ir it

of

conservation

 

and

p a s siv e

r e s i g n a

t io

n ,- - b u t

o n ly

among

the

i n t e l l e c t u -

th e

l

a s t

a

s is

,

what

we

 

th e

sio m -to ta l

o f

l l n human

n a l y i s

e x p e r ie n c e

n o th in g

more

c a l l than

an

in d

iv id u a l

a l l ex­

p e r i e n c e .

C f.

F . P a u ls e n ,

I n

t r o ,

t o

P h i l o s o p h y ,

19.

 

2F.

Ueberweg,

H is t o r y

 

o f

P h i l o s o p h y ,

I,

1 4 .

a l i

S t i c

H e l l e n

e s,

who

h a r m o n i o u sl y

com bined

t h e

e n d u r in g

and

courageous

c h a r a c t e r is t ic s

 

o f

both.

The

geograp h ical

 

and

p o l i t i c a l

environm ents

of

the

H ellen es

were

a lso

fa v o ra b le

fo r

r e f l e c t i v e

l i f e . ^

 
 

S t

r i c t l y

sp eak ing,

the

O r ie n ta ls

have

developed

no

system s

o f

p h ilosop h y.

Their

thoughts

are

unorganized

and

d

e s u l t o r

y .

Th ou gh ts

w h ic h

we

can

g a t h e r

 

from

t h e

C l a s s i c a

l

books

of

the East^

la ck

the

most

important

tendency to

 

s t r i c t

dem onstration

and

lo g ic a l

coherence

both

of

which

are

e s s e n t ia l

fo r

the

co n stru ctio n

of

any

system

of

p h ilo ­

sophy.

I t

 

i s

very

d i f f i c u l t

to

fin d

any

s c

i e n t i f i c

character

 

in

them.

Even

i f

th ere

were

some

p h ilo s o p h ic a l

elem ents

of

c

o n siste n c y

and

sy stem a tiza tio n

they

would

be

discon nected

and

la r g

e ly

blended

w ith

m yth ological

n o tio n s.

This

i s

very

tru e

o f

Chinese and Indian

thought.

 

The

tea c h in g s

 
 

of

e a r ly

Chinese

th in k ers,

l ik e

Confucius,

Laotze

and

th e ir

d

is c ip le s ,

c o n sist

m erely

of

p r a c tic a l

p recep ts

of

Epicurean

tendency.

 

Even

th ese

were

not

s

c i e

n t i f i c a l l y

wrought

ou t.

 

I C f.

A.W.Benn,

The

Greek

P h i l o s o p h e r s,

I ,

2The

most

important

E n glish

c o lle c t io n

of

1 - 5 2 . primary

o f

t h e

sources

on

t h e

by

E a st e r n

t h o u g h t

i s

The

S a c r e d

Books

E a st ,

e d i t e d

 

Max

M

u ll e r

( O x fo rd ,

1879 ).

A

c o m p l e t e

c o l l e c t i o n

 

of

a l l

Eastern

l it e r a t u r e s

in

any

one

of

O rien tal

languages

i

s

not

y e t

attem pted.

so u rc es

and

For

a

q u ite

s a t is f a c t o r y

l i s t

of

secon dary

r e c e n t

s t u d i e s

on

th e

r e

l i g

i o u s

system s

o f

the

E ast,

consu lt

Lehrbuch

der

R e lig io n s g e s c h te ,

 

b y

De

l a

S a u ss a y e .

 

Whenever

thought

i s

not

s c i e n t i f i c a l l y

organized

i t

u s u a l l y

te n d s

t o

he

m y s t i c a

l

and

m isle a d in g .

The

r ic h

but

immoderate

fa n cy

of

the

Hindus

g en era ted ,

on

the

b a s is

of

a

p a n th e is tic

conception

of

the world,

 

a

m u lt ip lic it y

of

d i v i n i t i e s ,

without

in v e s tin g

them

with

harmonious

form

and

i n d i v i d u a l

c h

a r a c t e r .

The

p r a c t i c a l

m inded

C h in ese,

on

the

other

hand,

v

i r t u a ll y

d e ifie d

everyth in g

both

natural

and

s u p e r n a tu r a l.

And

th u s,

th e

th in k in g

l i f e

o f

the

O r ie n t a ls

may

r

i g h t l y

be

co n sid ered

under

the

h eadin gs

of

m ythology

and

r

e l i g i o n .

The

term

p h ilo s o p h y ,

a s

a

com prehensive

and

system atic

view

of

l i f e

and

the

u n iv erse,

i s

h a rd ly

f

i t

to

d e sc r ib e

the

O rien ta l

mode

o f

th in k in g .

Sin ce

the

O rie n ta l

r e lig io n s

a l l

aim

to

teach

a

good

and happy l i f e

here

as

w ell

as

beyond,

they

are

a ls o

e th ic a l.

 
 

O rien tal

ph ilosop h y,

thereby meaning the whole

thinking

l i f e

o f

the

O r ie n ta ls,

may

be

d iv id ed

in to

two

main

branches,

C h in e se

and

I n d

i a n . 1

By

C h in ese

p h i l o s o p h y

we

mean

c h i e f l y

Taoism

and

C o n f u c i a n is m ,

and

by

I n d i a n

p h i l o s o p h y

we

l a r g e l y

imply

 

Buddhism.

O rien tal

thought

i s

said

thus

to

c o n sist

of

three

elem ents,

namely,

Taoism,

Confucianism,

and

Buddhism.

T h is

a

n a l y

s is

may

be

si m i la r

to

t h a t

o f

O c c id e n ta l

thought

which

i s

sa id

to

be made

up

o f

the

elem ents

o f

H ellen ism ,

Romanism,

and

H eb r a ism

.

When

H e l l e n is m

was

t a k e n

up

by

t h e

i C f .

 

Hu

S h ih ,

O u t l i n e

s

o f

th e

H is t o r y

o f

C h i n e s e

4

e a r l y

Roman

and Hebrew

t h i n k e r s,

t h e

p h i l o s o p h y

o f

Hindu

Buddhism

was

 

introduced

 

in to

Chinese

ph ilosoph y.

This

 

in tro d u ctio n

and

absorp tion

of

Buddhism

by

the

e a rly

Chinese

 

th in k ers

has

r e s u lte d

in

a

p e c u lia r

Chinese

conception

of

 

l i f e

and

the

world,

which

i s

fundam entally

based

upon

the

fo reg o in g

 

three

branches

of

O rien tal

thoughts

Our

stu d y

in

t

h i s

t h e s i

s

h a s

t o

do

w ith

th e

e t h i c a l

a s p

e c t

of

Chinese

th o u g h t.i

 

Chinese

 

p h ilo so p h y ,

 

thus

d e fin e d ,

may

be

again

d iv id e d

i n t o

th r e e

p e r io d s:

a n c i e n t ,

m e d ie v a l,

and

modern.

The

an cien t

 

p erio d

of

the

Chinese

ph ilosoph y

b eg in s

w ith

L aotze,

th e

fo u n d e r

o

f

Taoism,

and

e x te n d s

 

to

t h e

Han

D y n a sty

(a b o u t

th e

s i x

t h

c e n

tu r y ,

B .C .) ;

t h

e

m e d ie v a l

p e r io d

from

th e

Han

Dynasty

 

to

the

Song Dynasty;

the

modern

period

from

the

Song

Dynasty

to

the

Ming

D ynasty.

The

f i r s t

p e r io d

i s

c h a r a c te r ­

ize d

by

the

tea ch in g s

o f

 

Laotze

and

h i s

d is c ip le s ,

or

m y sti­

cism

and

t r a n s c e n

d e n t a lis m .

The

secon d

p e r io d

i s

dominated

b y

th e

r

e - i n

t e r p

r e t a

t i o n

 

o f

th e

p r e v i o u s

Taoi s

t

t h i n k e r s

and

the

in tr o d u c tio n

o f

Buddhism

from

In d ia .

The

th ir d

p e r io d

i s

ch a ra cterized

by

the

submersion

 

o f

Buddhism and

the

r is e

of

Confucianism

and

i t s

sc h o o ls.

Confucianism

thus

has

been

most popular

 

and

in flu en ttta l

of

a l l

the

o th ers.

 
 

C hinese

p h ilo s o p h y ,

f

 

a s

d e fin e d

above,

may

mean

in

a

E n g lish

 

t r a n s la t io

n

o f

the

Chinese

C la s s ic s

be

iThe f o u n d

in

Dr.

 

James

L e g g e^ s

The

S a c r e d

Books

o f

 

th e

may Ea st ,

e s p e c ia lly

volumes

I I I .

 

XVI,

XXVII,

XXVIII.

 

way

p r a c t i c a ll y

the whole

th in k in g

l i f e

of

the

O rien ta l

 

p e o p le s.

Buddhism

( # iic h

i s

nothing

hut

a

re-sta tem en t

of

Brahmanism),

Taoism,

and Confucianism absorbed

the

mental

e n e r g i e s

o f

O r ie n ta l

r a c e s

l i v i n g

e a st

o f

A fg h a n ista n .

The

e th ic a l

d octrin e

of

Confucius

has