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Running head: DEFORESTATION IN THE AMAZON

Deforestation in the Amazon

Vanessa Corrales

Arizona State University

Kandice Kardell
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Abstract
Deforestation is a negative impact on the environment. Workers cut down trees and/or go to find

natural resources like gold, land, and many other sources. The animals are harmed because their

homes are destroyed. Then climate change causes global warming, forest fires, and releasing

gasses into the atmosphere. The Dangers in the Amazon included Climate change, Soil erosion,

Global Warming, loss in the number of Biodiversity, and displacement of Indigenous

communities and their traditional way of life. There are many solutions and alternatives to

decrease the number of trees and animals being killed/ damaged in the Amazon.
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Deforestation In the Amazon

Deforestation is one of many destructive and controversial environmental issues.

Deforestation is the removal of trees to be used for non-forest use. Study has shown that about

17% of the Amazon rainforest has been lost due to deforestation (Pfaff, 2015). There are

solutions to reduce the number of trees being cut down, animals being killed, and damages

effecting the Amazon. Many are not aware of deforestation because the resources from the forest

are used and provided for families. Deforestation is a problem in the Amazon because climate

change, soil erosion, global warming, loss in the biodiversity, displacement of Indigenous

communities, all effecting the environment of the area. There have been people trying the

reinforce economic inequalities based on land that has impact on the ecosystem the government

in the amazon has no reason to change anything due to needed resources. There are many

different programs that have tried making a difference in the Amazon. One of these programs is

REDD+ they have made a significant difference with alternatives by finding other ways to cut

less down out of the amazon. As the Brazilian government knows the threats with global

environmental issues like pollution, overpopulation, resource from deforestation; have been

causing political, social, and economic.

Most of the world today are not aware of how the Brazilian government is not taking any

action towards deforestation is in the Amazon and only making it worst. The Amazon needs to

be protected from being destroyed more than it already is. Such as, the extreme hunting in the

Amazon, certain animals are becoming instinct. In the States there are many animals people

aren’t even aware that they exist and don’t know they are going instinct (Constantino, 2016).

Although, the people whom live in the area such as Indigenous rely on the agriculture in the

amazon that translates to carbon emission. Then leads to the Brazilian government buying it
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from them and the indigenous make the off the resources given from the amazon as well as the

government. If the government would buy less from Indigenous the carbon emission prices start

to go up trying to find different alternatives. There is this program REDD+ (Reducing Emission

from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) that has been trying to find better ways to get

resource to use and trying to get the Brazilian government to pay attention to damage they are

continuing to cause. They are trying to find alternatives and give special attention for income

generation, food security, social security, legal and political legitimacy (Bottazzi, 2014). The

alternative for carbon emission would be byproducts with high energy value and biodiesel.

Although, these alternatives may cost more but they will be better for the environment in the

long run.

Moreover, since there is so much carbon emission in the air due to constant change in the

amazon. Carbon emission is one of many causes of global warming. Although, global warming

has not only an effect on people, but it also has taken affected on the animals. It is hard for most

species to adapt and to keep up with climate change of the water and temperature. Since there

aren’t as many trees for the creatures to have shelter during the day; when the sun is beaming on

them can make it extremely hot. Then at night the leaf’s hold in the extra heat from the day to

protect wildlife from freezing temperatures. Feely states, “Deforestation may altogether

eliminate any potential forest migration corridors connecting current ranges to their future

climate analogs, effectively resulting in the creation of ‘disappearing climates’ (2012). It’s very

difficult for these animals to adjust to climate change. Making a great loss in the number of

biodiversity. Killing rare animals that have not yet to be discovered and making animals going

extinct. Many don’t see any change in the environment and don’t see how it’s affecting them. To

add, climate change interrupts the water cycle causing soil erosion in the Amazon. Taking out all
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the moisture in the ground leaving the trees dry. When the trees get dry to easier for forest fires

to happen. When he soil is exposed to rainwater its harder for it to absorb any then the nutrients

and other organic materials in the soil that make it fertile will wash out. This then leads to

flooding into lower regions like coastal fisheries and coral reefs suffer from sedimentation

(Lejeune, 2014). The REDD+ has been trying to help reduce emissions from deforestation which

helps global warming. Since one of these factors are gasses being released into the atmosphere.

The carbon effects farmers, it decreases their basic crop production which makes a significant

drop in income and food security (Bottazi, 2014). If there are other programs and people that are

helping to keep the amazon as good as possible, the Brazilian government should be able to help

lessen deforestation. Since the government has more power and better resources to put a stop in

deforestation in the Amazon. Congress can agree to laws that help protect the amazon. This will

at least help decrease the amount of deforestation that is being lost.

Since deforestation begin in the early 1960s the amazon has the highest absolute rate in

the world, about 7000,000km of the forest has been deforested in 2000 and increased by 2,000

by 2008 (Bouchardet, 2016). In the forest farmers or miners can get natural resources like

bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, and diamonds they need to clear out the forest to be able to

mine. Thus, creating jobs make a living from these resources and saving everything and finding a

way to sell to those that are interested in these resources. The government isn’t taking any action

on how they find their way around to getting these resources as long as they are getting income

out of it. Deforestation has influenced the factor of gross domestic product (GDP) to get out of

debt by selling parts from the deforested amazon (Bouchardet, 2016). Many environmentalists

have tried to give the U.S other options for logging, agriculture and other cattle companies.

Though many farmers work around the area of the amazon to still get the resources they need.
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Then there are hunters are finding different ways around the way of the law to hunt. So, they can

provide for their family and make income to sell to consumers. They get around using secret

roads they are basically going off roading to continue to hunt (Jusys, 2018). These roads can be

very dangerous, and the people aren’t protected if something bad happens. According to Jusys,

“The National Protected Areas System defines and regulates protected area categories at federal,

state, and municipal levels, diving them into two types: strictly protected, which prohibits

resources use and often access expect for tourism and scientific research...” (2018). To explain,

they only protect the areas that they think is more important than protecting the Amazon rain

forest. With the unprotected areas there are no boundaries, or any prohibit laws protecting these

areas. Leading to more damages being done there than in the areas where the roads are protected.

There are different division that is motivated by the prevent and control deforestation this plan

lowers the demand of agricultural commodities, voluntary agreements by meatpacking

companies (Jusys, 2018). The program REDD+ is one of many divisions has made an impact on

controlling the demands for agricultural demands. A contributing factor that should help control

these out of control deforestation demands should be the Brazilian government. For instance,

they should put more effort into finding alternative resources and start planting trees closer to

home. So, it’s easier to replant and have more control of the agriculture.

In the Amazon the culture of Indigenous take shelter in the forest. There whole cultural is

based on the amazon producing for them and their families. The Brazilian government and other

corporations overlook their cultural and take over their land as well as their traditions. Studies

show major public health problem in malaria (non-indigenous or indigenous depending from

certain villages) in the State of Amazons (Terrazas, 2015). The reason for this is because

environmental factors in the Amazon such as forest cover, draining, rainfall, and poverty.
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Indigenous population are vulnerable to many diseases and disorders. Most of these people don’t

get better or end up relapsing. For this reason, they should be provided with healthcare to get

better even if it doesn’t go with their tradition. It’s a way for the government to be helping

instead of using them to get to the Amazon. If the government has tried helping them because

their traditional ways of living is different the Indigenous can help introduce them to a better way

of using the natural resources provided close to home instead of selling and cutting through the

amazon to get timber. When other people found reinforcement, they started developing policies

then took over the Indigenous, so they started losing resources, loss of medical attention, and

many other stabilities. The highest rate of deforestation was between 2003 and 2012, then

deforestation effected the influence of the watercourses (Terrazas, 2015). This leads to a

decrease of natural ways for Indigenous to continue living in their natural cultural. Over the

years the rate of deforestation in the Amazons has not yet decreased. Still leaving the people with

undrinkable water, poverty, and forest coverage. The government has been taking over their land

not letting them continue their cultural traditions. Indigenous may use the amazon for resources

as well, but they aren’t destroying it as bad as the Brazilian government. To add, the Indigenous

replant crops, use their own cattle to provide for their families. They use the water stream to bath

and wash their clothes. Since there has been many droughts in the Amazon, the Indigenous have

been affected. Then to only have limitation to the amazon.

Furthermore, the government has been cutting down more of the amazon to make room

for more people to live. There has been an increase of population. So, there have been more tree

cutting to make more room for new homes and businesses. These new businesses also use

deforestation to make a living to be able to provide for their families just like everyone else.

With clear cutting biodiversity will disappear, so it will be harder to find resources with less of
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the forest. Overpopulation will also lead to improper disposal and water quality will change

significantly. Overall, the quality of the living space will be poorer than it should be. It becomes

more difficult every year to prevent overpopulation and stopping deforestation to make more

room for all these people. This is what leads to more deforestation to produce more crops turning

the forest into large fields. Not only housing and settlements, but more roads and highways are

needed. To add, it leads to enchanting greenhouse effects (carbon emission) since there is more

people driving and not enough plants to aboard that emission causes more pollution in the air.

Making it deadly to breathe without natural oxygen coming from the trees. Therefore, causing

old diseases to emerge and new ones are introduction becoming out of control. For this reason, it

is important to be buying from sustainable companies that work against deforestation. According

to Henderson, “A strong theoretical argument can e made that leaders try to deal with

overpopulation through coercive means. A burdensome population can create anxiety in society

over whether or not economy and government can meet the needs and wants of large numbers of

people that are increasing (1993). To help stop deforestation and still satisfy the needs of what

the people desires is to start buying from better resources. Other than companies that rather go

against may laws killing more of the plant and animals just to make a few more extra bucks. It is

equally important to use renewable wood like charcoal is a great alternative than carbon emission

this includes recycling as much as possible to help lessen deforestation.

In conclusion, since the amazon has lost 17% of the rain forest already no more should be

lost. Moreover, with the many problems that comes with deforestation there needs to be an end

to it. There are many alternatives that can be used which the government has took into

consideration but does not want to use of any of to save money and other resources.

Overpopulation will continue to intensify if there are not some better government officials to
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take the extra step to help prevent deforestation, Along with finding alternatives to getting

natural resources for the people’s needs. To add, there are more laws that can be passed so there

will be less deforestation. As well as, the unprotected roads, so hunters and other people can’t

access through the amazon. So, these animals can stay safe. There are other resources farmers,

hunters, and other people can do to save as much and as possible (Lopez-Carr, 2018). The

REDD+ has found alternatives to carbon emissions being used and sold. A policy should require

not buying or selling illegal timber from less-managed companies. If deforestation continues

then the will be no more resources left, the atmosphere will continue to have more major

problems, and the population will keep growing and there will be fewer natural resources for the

indigenous to use for their cultural needs. Therefore, there needs to be a political stance of what

needs to be done before matters get any worse.


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