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REINFORCED

CONCRETE.

STRUCTURES

-

VOLUME II

_

REINFORCED CONCRETE . STRUCTURES - VOLUME II _ � I I f Dr. B.C. Punmia Er.

I I

f

Dr.

B.C.

Punmia

Er.

Ashok K.

Jain

Dr.

Arun K.

Jain

REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES (VOLUME II) * 1992 * [ CONTAINING 27 CHAPTERS]
REINFORCED
CONCRETE STRUCTURES
(VOLUME II)
*
1992 *
[ CONTAINING 27 CHAPTERS]
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES (VOLUME II) By Dr. B.C. PUNMIA For1111rly, Professor and Head, Deptt. of
REINFORCED
CONCRETE STRUCTURES
(VOLUME II)
By
Dr. B.C. PUNMIA
For1111rly,
Professor and Head, Deptt. of Civil Engineering, &
Dean, Faculty of Engineering
M.B.M. Engineering College,
Jodhpur
Er. ASHOK KUMAR JAIN
Director,
Arihant Consultants,
Jodhpur
Dr. ARUN KUMAR JAIN
Assistant Professor
M.B.M. Engineering College,
Jodhpur
(AS PER IS : 456-1978 AND IS : 1343 : 1980)
THOROUGHLY REVISED AND ENLARGED INCORPORATING
WORKING STRESS AND LIMIT STATE DESIGN METHODS
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REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES C) 1980, 1992 C) 1992 : B.C. PUNMIA : ASHOK KUMAR JAIN
REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES
C) 1980, 1992
C) 1992
:
B.C. PUNMIA
: ASHOK KUMAR JAIN & ARUN KUMAR JAi
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Preface A �ncrete structure, either plain or reinforced, is unique among the many systems of
Preface
A �ncrete structure, either plain or reinforced, is unique among
the many systems of modem construction. It is the only type of
structure that is manufactured from its component materials (Le.
cement, aggregate and water) on the s_ite of the work. Proper reinf)rced
concrete construction depends upon men-men who understand the
action of structures, men who know the characteristics and the limita­
tions of the material that they are handling, and men who are con­
scientious and determined to conduct their work with honour to
themselves and with credit to their profession.
The present text book, in its two volumes, presents modem
methods of design both for ordinary as well as prestressed concrete
structures. Volume I has 1� Chapters and deals with more common
and elementary structures. The present volume, in its 12 Chapters,
deals with more advanced topics. Chapter 1 deals with beams curved·
in plan that are mostly used for water tanks disussed in Chapter
2. Elementary water tanks have already been dealt with in volume I.
Chapter 3 deals with reinforced concrete pipes, mostly used for water
supply. Chapter 4 covers the design of bunkers and silos while
Chapter 5 deals with tall chimneys of reinforced concrete. Chapters
6 and 7 deal with portal frames and building frames respectively.
Design of aqueducts and box culverts have been given in Chapter
8. More common types of concrete bridges-such as deck slab bridges,
T-beam bridges and balanced cantilever bridges have been given in
Chapter 9, Chapter 10 deals with the ultimate load design while
Chapter 11 deals with the principles and design methods for prestressed
concrete. Lastly, Chapter 12 deals with the stresses induced due to
shrinkage and creep of concrete.
Each chapter begins with clear statements of pertinent definions,
design principles and theories, and the design procedures. The basic
principles are supplemented with numerous design examples and il­
lustrations, along with detailed drawings.
Various designs are based on latest Indian Standards. The
tables or curves giving permissible stresses and/or design coefficients,
as well as the basic rules for design, taken from the various Indian
Standards are gratefully acknowledged. In spite of every care takea
to check the numerical work, some errors may remain, and I shall
be obliged for any intimation of these readers may discover.
Jodhpur
B.C. PUNMIA
26th Jan.
1980
(vt) Preface to the Seton•. Edition In the Second Edition, the subject rmtter has been
(vt)
Preface to the Seton•. Edition
In the Second Edition, the subject rmtter has been thoroughly
updated and the revised Indian Standard Codes IS : 456-1978 and
·1s : 1343-1980 have been introduced. Bott these Codes differ from
their earlier versions in two aspect : (1) Some design procedures
have been basically changed and (2) the Codes use SI units. The
Second Edition incorporates both these aspects. However, since the
change over from the MKS to SI units has to be gradual, and since
the revised Codes have yet not been included n the teaching curriculum
of all the Institutions, the design procedures based on earlier versions
of the Codes have been retained. The design procedures laid down
in the Revised Codes have been given at the end of each chapter
and the illustrative examples, using these n�w procedures have been
solved in SI units. Limit State Design has bun introduced in chapter
10 as well as in Chapter 11 on prestressed concrete. lt is hoped
the readers will find the book useful in in:erpreting the provisions
of the new Codes. Further suggestions wiC be greatl � appreciated.
Jodhpur
1st January 1983.
B.C. PUNMIA
Preface to the Third Edition
In the Third Edition of the book, the subject matter has been
thoroughly revised and rewritten in SI units. Revised Indian Standard
Codes IS : 456-1978 and IS 1343-1980 have been extensively used.
Majority of the diagrams have been redrawa. The chapter on Limit
State Design has been separated from the chapter on Ultimate Load
Design. A new chapter on the 'Yield Line Theory and Design of
Slabs' has been introduced at the end. W th these changes, it is
hoped, the book will be more useful to ile, students as well as
practicing Engineers.
Jodhpur
1st March 1987
B.C. PUNMIA

(vfl)

Preface to the Fourth Edition

. In the fourth ,. edition of the book, the subject matter has been thoroughly revised and updated. Seven new chapter have been added on the Limit State Design. With the addition of the new chapters the reader will be better equipped with the latest design methods. It is hoped, the book will be equally useful to the practicing Engineers.

Jodhpur

B.C. PUNMIA

25th April

ASHOK KUMAR JAIN

Preface to the Fifth Edition

In the Fifth Edition, the book has been thoroughly revised, enlarged and updated. The number of chapters have been increased rrom 20 to 27. The book has been divided into six parts. Part l, containing 5 chapters, is on Water Tanks . Part 2 is on Pipes, Silos and Chimneys and contains 3 chapters. Part 3 on Concrete Frames has 2 chapters. Part 4 is devoted to Concrete Bridges and has 2 chapters. Part 5 , containing 13 chapters, is on Limit State Design. Lastly, Part 6, having 2 chapters is on Prestressed Concrete and Miscellaneous Topics. A large portion of the book is now devoted to the limit state design. Due to these additions and updation, the number or the pages in the book have been increased from 1005 to 1144. It is hoped, with these changes, the New Edition will be more useful to both the students as well as Field Engineers.

Jodhpur

B.C. PUNMIA

15th Aug. 1992

ASHOK

KUMAR JAIN

ARUN KUMAR JAIN

56

77

3.4.

Contents

PART I WATER TANKS

CHAPTER 1, l}i:AMS

CURVED IN PLAN

1.1.

Introduction : Torsional

moments

in beams

1.2.

Circular beam supported symmetrically

1.3.

Semicircular beam simply supported on three equally · spaced columns

1.4.

Curved beam simply supported at ends and

continuous

over two equally spaced intermediate

supports

15.

Curved beam fixed at ends

 

1.6.

Semi-circular beam with slab

1.7.

Torsion factor

1.8.

Stresses due to torsion in concrete beams

1.9.

Indian standard Code for design for torsion (IS : 456-1978) Problems

CHAPTER 2. DOMES

Page

1

4

11

17

20

26

29

33

42

2.1.

Introduction

51

2.2.

Nature of stresses in spheri�I domes

51

2.3.

Analysis of spherical domes

59

t.4.

Stresses due to

wind load

65

25.

Design of R.C. domes

65

2.6.

Conical domes

72

Problems

76

CHAPTER 3. CIRCULAR AND INTZE TANKS

3.1.

3.2.

3.3.

3.5.

3.6.

lntroduction

General design requirements according to Indian Standard Code of Practice

(IS

:

3370,

Part II, 1965)

 

78

Joints

in

water

tanks

83

Circular tank with rigid joint between floor and wall

 

86

I.S. Gode method and other methods for cylindrical tanks

95

Design

 

of

flat

base

slab

for

.:levated

circular

tanks

126

(it)

(x) 3.7. Circular tank with domed bouom and roof 139 3.8. lntze tank 160 3.9.
(x)
3.7.
Circular tank with domed bouom and roof
139
3.8.
lntze tank
160
3.9.
Effects of
continuity
166
3.10.
Design
of
tank supporting IOWers
166
3,11.
Design of foundations
Problems
180
230
CHAPTER 4. RECTANGULAR TANKS
4.1
Introduction
231
4.2
Approximate method
232
4.3.
Exact method
Problems
241
260
CHAPTER S.
UNDERGROUND TANKS
5.1.
Introduction
261
5.2.
Earth pressure on tank walls
261
5.3.
Uplift pressure on the floor of the tank
264
5.4.
Design of rectangular tank
Problems
264
278
PART II
PIPES, SILOS & CHIMNEYS
CHAPTER 6. REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPES
6.1.
Loads on pipes
281
6.2
Stresses due to hydrostatic pr�ure
282
6.3.
Stresses due to self weight
283
6.4.
Stresses due to weight
of water inside
286
6.5
Stresses due to earthfill over
haunches
287
6.6.
Stresses due to uniformly distributed load
on top
288
6.7.
Stresses due to uniform pressure from sides
288
6.8.
Stresses due to triangularly distributed
load
289
6.9.
Stresses due to point load on crown
290
6.10.
Stresses due to over-burden and
loads
Problems
external
291
300
CHAPTER 7. BUNKERS AND SILOS
7.1.
Introduction
301
7.2.
Janssen's theory
302
7.3.
Airy's theory
306
7.4.
Bunkers
311
7.5.
Hopper bottom
313
7.6.
Indian Standard on design of bins
Problems
316
340
{xi) CHAPTER 8. CHIMNEYS 8.1. Introduction 341 8.2 Wind pressure 341 8.3. Stresses in chimney
{xi)
CHAPTER 8. CHIMNEYS
8.1.
Introduction
341
8.2
Wind pressure
341
8.3.
Stresses in chimney shaft due to self- weight
and wind
342
8.4.
Stresses in horizontal reinforcement due to wind
shear
347
8.5.
Stresses due to temperature difference
348
8.6
Combined effect of self load, wind and
temperature
350
8.7.
Temperature stresses in horizontal reinforcement
355
8.8.
Design of R.C. chimney
Problems
356
366
PART III
CONCRETE FRAMES
CHAPTER 9. PORTAL FRAMES
9.1.
Introduction
369
9.2
Analysis of portal frames
370
9.3.
Design
of
rectangular porta( frame with vertical ·
loads
370
9.4.
Design of hinge at the base
Problem:.
386
385
CHAPTER 10. BUILDING FRAMES
10.1
Introduction
387
10.2
Substitute frames
388
10.3.
Analysis for vertical loads
391
10.4.
Methods of computing B.M.
394
10.5.
Analysis of frames subjected to horizontal
forces
407
10.6.
Portal method
408
10.7.
Cantilever method
410
10.8.
Factor method
Problems
419
433
PART IV
CONCRETE BRIDGES
CHAPTER 11. AQUEDUCTS
AND BOX CULVERTS
11.1.
Aqueducts
and syphon
aqueducts
437
11.2
Design of an
aqueduct
438
(xii) 11.3. Box culvert 444 11.4. Design of box culvert Problems 444 4'-2 CHAPTER 12.
(xii)
11.3.
Box culvert
444
11.4.
Design of box culvert
Problems
444
4'-2
CHAPTER
12. CONCRETE
BRIDGES
12.1. Introduction
: Various types of· bridges
463
12.2. Selection of type of bridge and
economic
span length
467
12.3. Types of loads, forces and stresses
468
12.4. Live load
468
12.5.
Impact
effect
476
12.6.
Wind
load
478
479
I
12.7. Longitudinal forces
12.8. Lateral
loads
481
12.9.
Centrifugal force
481
.,
12.10.
Width of roadway apd footway
482
1211.
General design requirements
482
12.12.
Solid slab bridges
487
12.13.
Deck girder bridges
12.14. B.M.
in slab supported on four edges
505
12.15. Distribution of live loads on longitudinal bea�
522
507
1216. Method of distribution coefficients
524
12.17.
Courbon's method
12.18.
Design of a T-beam bridge
549
547
12.19.
Balanced cantilever bridge
Problems
613
657
PARTV
LIMIT STATE METHOD
CHAPTER
13. DESIGN
CONCEPTS
13.1.
Methods of design
661
13.2.
Safety and serviceability requirements
(IS : 456-1978)
663
133.
Characteristic and design values and
partial
safety
factors
664
Proble�
14. SINGLY REINFORCED SECTIONS
666
CHAPTER
14.1.
Limit state of collatl5C in flexure
667
14.2.
Stress strain relationship for concrete
669
143.
Stress-strain relatiomhip for steel
669
14.4.
Stress block parameters
672
14.5.
Design stress block parameters (IS : 456-1978)
675
(xiii) 14.6. Singly reinforced rectangular beams Procedure for finding moment of resistance 677 14.7. 679
(xiii)
14.6.
Singly reinforced rectangular beams
Procedure for finding moment of resistance
677
14.7.
679
14.8.
Design of rectangular
Problems
beam .section
682
692
CHAPTERS 15. DOUBLY Rl<:INFORCED SECTIONS
lS.1.
Ncceuity
St� block and N.A
Determination of moment of resistance
IJesigJl of a doubly reinforced section
Problems
693
lS.2.
693
lS.3.
695
lS.4.
697
704
CHAPTER 16. T AND L-BEAMS
16.1.
Introduction
705
16.2.
StrCM block and N.A
706
16.3.
Moment
of �tance
when x. < D 1
707
16.4.
Moment of resistance when N.A falls in the
web
IS Code procedure for finding moment of
r�tance (IS : 456-1978)
708
165.
714
16.6.
Design of T-beam
717
16.7.
Doubly reinforced T-beams
Problems
727
738
CHAPTER 17. "SHEAR, BOND AND TORSION
17.1.
Limit state of collapse : Shear
739
17.2.
Development length
746
74'
17.3.
Limit state of collapse : Torsion
Problems
7�
CHAPTER 18. DESIGN OF BEAMS AND SLABS
18.1.
18.2.
Design of beams
Design of cantilever
Design of doubly reinforced beam
Design of one way slab
Design of one way continuous slab
753
760
18.3.
764
18.4.
769
185.
775
18.6.
Design of T-beam roof
Problems
785
785
CHAPTER 19. AXIALLY LOADED COLUMNS
19.1.
Limit state of collapse : Compres.wn
787
19.2
Short
columm
789
19.3.
789
19.4.
790
195.
Short axially loaded members in axial
comprCMion
Short axially loaded columm with minimum
eccentricity
Design cbans
791
(xiv) 19.6. Compres&on members with helical reinforcement 794 19.7. Design specifications (IS : 456-19l8)
(xiv)
19.6.
Compres&on members with helical reinforcement
794
19.7.
Design specifications (IS : 456-19l8)
Problems
794
806
CHAPTER 20. COLUMNS WITH UNIAXIAL A"'ilD BIAXIAL BENDING
20.1.
. 20.2.
Introduction
Combined axial loa� and uniaxial bending
807
807
20.3.
Construction of interaction curves for colpmn
design·
810
20.4.
Short columns subjected to axial bad anp
biaxial bending
Problems
829
835
CHAPTF.R 21. DESIGN OF STAIR CASES
21.1.
General notes on design of stairs
837
21.2
Design of stairs spanning horizonttlly
841
21.3.
Design of dog-legged stair
843.
21.4.
Design of stairs with quarter space landing
Problems
846
sst
4.•••
-,,
CHAPTER 22. 1WO-WAY SLABS
22.1. Introduction
851·
22.2.
Simply supported slab with comers free to
lift
(I.S. Code method).
22.3. Restrained slabs (I.S. Code method)
Problems
852
859
868
CHAPTER 23. CIRCULAR SLABS
23.1.
Introduction
Stab freely supported at edges and -carrying
U.D.L
Slabs fixed at edges and carrying U.D.L
869
23.2
870
233.
871
23.4.
Slab simply supported at the edg� with load
w uniformly distributed along the circumference
of a concentric circle
872
23.5.
Slab simply supported at edges, wilh U.D.L
inside a concentric circle
Problems
873
882
CHAPTER 24. YIELD LINE THEORY AND Dl!:SIGN OF SLABS
24.1.
Introduction
883
24.2.
Yield line patterns
884
24.3.
Moment capacity along an yield Jin!
888
24.4.
Ultimate load on slabs
889
24.5.
Analysis by virtual work method
890
24.6.
Analysis
by.' equilibrium method
902
Problems
913
(xv) CHAPTER 25. FOUNDATIONS 25.1. _ .915 25.2 Indian Standard Code Recommendations for design of
(xv)
CHAPTER 25. FOUNDATIONS
25.1.
_
.915
25.2
Indian Standard Code Recommendations for
design of footings (IS:·
Isolated footing of uniform depth
···�
25.3.
Isolated sloped footing·
Problems
925
929
PART VI
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE &
MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS
CHAPTER 26. PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
26.1.
Introduction
933
26.2
Basic concepts
935
26.3.
Classification and types of prestressing
952
26.4.
prestressing systems :
End anchorages
956
26.5.
Losses of prestress
971
26.6. -"tAmputation of elongation of tendons
984
26.7.
Properties of materials
995
26.8.
Merits
and demerits 1'f prestressed concrete
1002
26.9.
Basic assumptions
1003
26.10.
Analysis of beams for flexure
1003
26.11.
Kern distances and efficiency of section
1009
26.12
Design of sections for flexure :
Magnet's
method
1015
26.13.
Rectangular section
1025
26.14.
I-Section
1029
26.15.
Alternative design procedure
1044
26.16.
Shear and diagonal tension
1050
26.17.
Stresses at anchorage
1055
26.18. Indian Standard Code recommendations
(IS : 1343-1980)
26.19. Procedure for limit state design
1060
1084
Problems
1101
CHAPTER 27. SHRINKAGE AND CREEP
27.1.
1103
27.2.
1103
27.3.
1107
27.4.
lntrcxluction
Shrinkage of concrete
Shrinkage stresses in symmetrically reinforced
sections
Shrinkage stresses in singly reinforced beams
1109
27.5.
Instantaneous and repeated loading on C•
.,.
1112
27.6.
Sustaif"led loading : Creep
1114

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