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PRACTICES MANUAL  

PRACTICES MANUAL

 

Unit Ref.: TECNEL

Date: June 2008

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INDEX

PRACTICES MANUAL

 

3

7.1

INTRODUCTION

3

7.1.1

Equipment description

3

7.2

THEORETICAL BASIS

5

7.2.1 Single-phase half-wave uncontrolled rectifiers

5

7.2.2 Single-phase full-wave rectifier

13

7.2.3 Uncontrolled three-phase full-wave rectifier

28

7.2.4 Controlled single-phase half-wave rectifier

33

7.2.5 Full-control single-phase rectifier

44

7.2.6 Full-control single-phase rectifier: DC motor supply

50

7.2.7 Full-control three-phase full-wave rectifier

53

7.2.8 Semi-controlled single-phase rectifier

59

7.2.9 Semi-controlled three-phase rectifier

66

7.2.10 Chopper voltage assembly

69

7.3

LABORATORY PRACTICES

78

7.3.1 Practice 1: Single phase half-wave rectifier with R load

78

7.3.2 Practice 2: Single phase half-wave rectifier with R-L load

81

7.3.3 Practice 3: Single-phase half-wave rectifier with R-L load with free wheeling diode (FWD)

83

7.3.4 Practice 4: Single-phase full-wave rectifier

 

84

7.3.5 Practice 5: Three-phase half-wave uncontrolled rectifier

88

7.3.6 Practice 6: Three-phase full-wave uncontrolled rectifier

91

7.3.7 Practice 7: Single-phase half-wave controlled rectifier

94

7.3.8 Practice 8: Single-phase full-wave controlled rectifier

98

7.3.9 Practice 9: Single-phase full-wave controlled rectifier with a DC motor

101

7.3.10 Practice 10: Three-phase full-wave completely controlled

104

7.3.11 Practice 11: Single-phase semi-controlled rectifier

 

107

7.3.12 Practice 12: Three-phase full-wave semi-controlled rectifier

110

7.3.13 Practice

13:Chopper

113

7.3.14 Practice 14: Single-phase square-wave inverter

 

116

7.3.15 Practice 15: Single-phase displaced-phase inverter

118

7.3.16 Practice 16: Single-phase inverter. PWM control

120

7.3.17 Practice 17: Three-phase inverter. PWM control with R load and R-L load

122

7.3.18 Practice 18: Three-phase inverter. PWM control with AC motor

125

7.3.19 Practice 19: Alternating regulators: R and R-L load

 

127

7.6 APPENDIX A: CONSIDERATIONS WITH DC MOTOR

158

7.7 APPENDIX B: CONSIDERATIONS WITH IGBTS

159

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Date: June 2008

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IMPORTANT NOTE :

TO OBTAIN THE PROPER WORKING OF THE EQUIPMENT, SEE THE APPENDICES C AND D IN THE END OF MANUAL.

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PRACTICES MANUAL

7.1

INTRODUCTION

7.1.1 Equipment description

The equipment has the following interface:

description The equipment has the following interface: Figure 1.1.1: Equipment Interface The SACED-TECNEL system is

Figure 1.1.1: Equipment Interface

The SACED-TECNEL system is a Data Acquisition and Control System entirely developed by EDIBON technicians. In its development, we have not given our back to our experience developing teaching equipment spanning more than 20 years.

The different configuration levels allow the instructor to design virtually the whole execution of the different practical exercises. The basic level is aimed for data capture and storage that the student will process to work with later. The intermediate level provides the student with graphic tools, which allows visualizing the experiment in real time. The advanced level is specially aimed for Data Capture Configuration and the calibration of all the equipment sensors.

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NOTE: The equipment is provided with two switches: a magnetic switch and a differential switch. Both elements are located on the backside of the equipment. Remember these switches when turning on the module.

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7.2

THEORETICAL BASIS

 

7.2.1 Single-phase half-wave uncontrolled rectifiers

 

Uncontrolled rectifiers are constituted by diodes that, as uncontrolled elements, provide a dependent output voltage of fixed magnitude. From a theoretical point of view, they may be considered as switches that are opened or closed depending on the direction of the voltage applied. That is, with a positive voltage between anode (A) and cathode (K) the switch is closed, and it is opened if the voltage is negative.

 

K

A

 
     
 
     
 
 

+

-

I

 
     
 
     
 

-

+

I = 0

In a real way, the diodes support a fixed voltage between A and K in the conduction (Vd), implying a power loss (rd). Electrically, it may be represented:

 
   
 
 
    Vd rd
 

Vd

rd

+

-

Typically

Vd has

a

0,7V value for signal diodes, and a bit higher,

PRACTICES MANUAL Unit Ref.: TECNEL Date: June 2008 Pg: 6/159 approximately 1,3V, for power diodes.

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approximately 1,3V, for power diodes. The rd resistance is of dozens of mW. Other

features of the diode are important, as, for instance, the threshold voltage (Vg) or elbow voltage, the Qrr inverse recovery load, the maximum current, the maximum inverse voltage that supports or breakdown voltage, the repetitive peak inverse voltage, the inverse current, etc. Even if we should keep in mind these parameters, they do not change the philosophy of the study of this rectifier.

To calculate the diode voltages and currents we should know that:

Id (average) = I load (average) Id (effective) = I load (effective)

V d = V e + V load

R Id Ve Vload N
R
Id
Ve
Vload
N

Figure 1.1

In figure 1.1, the single-phase half-wave rectifier is shown. It is the most simple that can be made, and therefore, the one with less quality. In this study, we may consider an input voltage high enough to ignore the drop in the diode, that is, it behaves as a closed switch in conduction (direct polarization). We will also consider the resistance in inverse polarization big enough to consider the diode an opened switch. As diode commutation times last only a few nanoseconds (ns), they may be considered of no importance in comparison with the semicycle of the 50 Hz input voltage.

The behavior of the rectifier will depend considerably on the used load type, so we may have:

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- Pure resistive load (R), where the voltage is annulled when its direction changes.

- Inductive load (R-L), where the conduction continues until the moment when the current in the coil is annulled, although the output voltage inverts its polarity.

In order to separate the output voltage and the load type, we may use the free wheeling diode (FWD), which avoids the inversion of polarization in the output voltage.

7.2.1.1 INFLUENCES OF LOAD TYPE

 

7.2.1.1.1 Resistive load

 

With this load type, the voltage and the current will be in phase so that the diode will begin to conduct as soon as the input voltage becomes positive during the positive semicycle. This voltage will be blocked when the current at the end of this period is annulled, remaining blocked all through the negative semicycle.

The input voltage is:

 
 

ve(t) = V ·sin(wt )

 

And the current will have a value:

 
 

i ) =

(

t

i )

(

t

= v

v

e(

t

R

)

e

t

( )

=

V sen

R

·

= 0

(

w

t

)

0 < t < T/2

T/2 < t < T

 

The average value of the output wave will be:

PRACTICES MANUAL Unit Ref.: TECNEL Date: June 2008 Pg: 8/159 2 p p 1 1
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2 p
p
1
1
V
V
V
Ú
V sin wt dwt
·
(
)
=
Ú
V sin wt dwt
·
(
)
+
0
=
·
[
-
cos(
wt
)
]
p
=
[
1
+
1
]
=
V average =
0
T
T
T
2 p
p
0
0
The effective value will be calculated as follows:
2 p
p
2
2
1
1
V
È
p
˘
V
2
2
2
2
2
V
=
Ú
V
·
sin
(
wt dwt
)
=
Ú
V
·
sin
(
wt dwt
)
+
0
=
·
=
Í
˙
effective
T
2 p
2
p
2
4
Î
˚
0
0
2
V
V
V
=
=
effective
4
2
If we repeat the same process for the currents, we will obtain:
V
V
I average
= =
average
R
p· R
V
V
I effective
= =
effective
R
2· R
The voltage in the diode will be:
V
=V
-V
diode
input
output
The main waveforms of the resistive load half-wave rectifier are shown in
figure 1.2.
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PRACTICES MANUAL Unit Ref.: TECNEL Date: June 2008 Pg: 9/159 Figure 1.2 7.2.1.2 R-L load In
PRACTICES MANUAL Unit Ref.: TECNEL Date: June 2008 Pg: 9/159 Figure 1.2 7.2.1.2 R-L load In

Figure 1.2

7.2.1.2 R-L load

In this case the conduction begins when the input voltage becomes positive. However, due to the presence of the inductance, a delay of the current as regards the voltage is originated, so when the voltage at the end of the positive semicycle becomes zero, the current continues circulating, therefore the diode is not blocked. This would explain the presence of a negative voltage peak in the output, that is annulled when the current becomes zero.

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PRACTICES MANUAL Unit Ref.: TECNEL Date: June 2008 Pg: 10/159 Output voltage Output current Diode Voltage

Output voltage

Unit Ref.: TECNEL Date: June 2008 Pg: 10/159 Output voltage Output current Diode Voltage Figure 1.3

Output current

Date: June 2008 Pg: 10/159 Output voltage Output current Diode Voltage Figure 1.3 When we observe

Diode Voltage

Figure 1.3

When we observe the waveforms of figure 1.3, we should notice the

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transients appearing in the step from conduction to cut. If the selected diode in a hypothetical design stage may not have a high value of repetitive peak inverse voltage, it may be destroyed if those transients were not treated. That explains the importance of some parameters of the semiconductors that we were alluding to at the beginning of the practice. These transients are improved in the practice by using snubber nets that muffle the voltage and current peaks.

 

Now the average value of the output voltage will be:

 

V

average

=

1

T

 

2 p

Ú

V sin wt dwt

·

(

)

 

=

1

T

p

Ú

V sin wt dwt

·

(

)

+

1

T

w

t 1

Ú

V sin wt dwt

·

(

)

+

1

T

2 p

Ú

V sin wt dwt

·

(

)

0

0

p

w

t 1

V

average

=

V

T

·

[[

-

cos(

wt

)

]

p

0

+

[

-

cos(

wt

)

]

w t 1

p

+

0

]

=

V

2 p

[1

-

cos(

w

t

1)]

If we consider for this theoretical analysis that the voltage drop in the coil has no value, the value of the current will be:

 

I

 

=

V

average

V

=

(1

-

cos(

wt

1

)

average

R

 

2p R

 

In this load type, the rectifier works in discontinuous conduction. The inductive load causes an increase of the conduction angle and, therefore, a diminution

of the average value of the rectified voltage in a factor of 1-cos(wt 1 ), where (w t 1 is the angle where the conduction of the diode finishes.

7.2.1.3 R-L load with Free wheeling Diode

 

We can see that when using a load with inductive character, the following effects appear:

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- when the input voltage is inverted, a peak of negative voltage appears in the output, and it is not annulled until the current becomes zero.

- In a part of the cycle, the current is interrupted, that is, the conduction is discontinuous.

These two effects may be eliminated, as well as the reduction of the harmonic content, with the introduction in parallel with the load of a diode called Free wheeling Diode (FWD) or Flying Diode.

When the input voltage is annulled at the end of the positive semicycle, the voltage in the coil is inverted. It begins to act as a generator, forcing the conduction of the FWD and the load current going through it, annulling the peak of negative voltage, as we can see in the following graphs:

going through it, annulling the peak of negative voltage, as we can see in the following

Input current

Figure 1.4

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We may see here that from 10ms the waveform of the current load (graph
in previous page) is an exponential one, that proves the discharge of the coil for the
resistance through the FWD. This is corroborated by the input current, ceasing at
10ms.
7.2.2 Single-phase full-wave rectifier
The full-wave rectifiers can be presented in two ways:
-
By a center-tap transformer (Figure 2.1).
-
By a Graetz bridge (Figure 2.2).
TRANSFORMER
D1
Vload
D2
Figure 2.1
+
D1
D2
R
R2
Vload
N
1k
D3
D4
Figure 2.2
- - Unit Ref.: TECNEL Rect.Halfwave common cathod R S Rect.halfwave common ‘Anode Date: June
- - Unit Ref.: TECNEL Rect.Halfwave common cathod R S Rect.halfwave common ‘Anode Date: June
- - Unit Ref.: TECNEL Rect.Halfwave common cathod R S Rect.halfwave common ‘Anode Date: June

-

-

- - Unit Ref.: TECNEL Rect.Halfwave common cathod R S Rect.halfwave common ‘Anode Date: June 2008

Unit Ref.: TECNEL

Rect.Halfwave common cathod R S Rect.halfwave common ‘Anode
Rect.Halfwave
common
cathod
R
S
Rect.halfwave
common
‘Anode
common cathod R S Rect.halfwave common ‘Anode Date: June 2008 + Vload _ Pg: 14/159 PRACTICES

Date: June 2008

+

Vload

_

common ‘Anode Date: June 2008 + Vload _ Pg: 14/159 PRACTICES MANUAL During the development of

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PRACTICES MANUAL

During the development of this practice we will study the operation of the full-bridge or Graetz’s bridge that, although using twice as much semiconductors, is easier to assemble due to the absence of a center-tapped transformer. As we may see, these rectifiers can be considered as two half-wave series rectifiers, one with common cathodes and the other with common anodes, as we can see in figure 2.3.

the other with common anodes, as we can see in figure 2.3. Figure 2.3 The operation

Figure 2.3

The operation of the bridge circuit works as follows:

The D1 and D4 diodes conduct when V R –V S is positive.

The D2 and D3 diodes conduct when V R –V S is positive.

For all load types the continuity of the conduction exists always between two diodes and the current circulation has always the same direction.

The fundamental pulsation of the output voltage is 2w , where w is the pulsation of the alternating input, since two periods in the output are originated for each period in the input.

In the R-L-E load the beginning and the end of the conduction zone are

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determined by the load.

 

The formulation for the rectifier theoretical analysis is the same as the one in the former practice, considering the waveform of the output voltage, shown below (figure 2.4).

waveform of the output voltage, shown below (figure 2.4).   Figure 2.4   The average and
 

Figure 2.4

 

The average and effective voltage in the output will be:

 
 

p

 

V

average

=

1

T

Ú

0

V sin wt dwt

·

(

)

=

V

T

[

-

cos(

wt

)

]

p

0

2 V

=

p

 

p

V

T

2

p

 

V

2

effective

=

1

T

Ú

0

V

2

·

sin

2

(

wt dwt

)

=

Ú

0

sin

2

(

wt dwt

)

And as we know the trigonometric relationship:

 

1 - cos 2

a

=

sin

2

a

V

2

p

1

-

cos(2

wt

)

 

V

2

 

1

 
 

V

effective

=

Ú

 

dwt =

p

 

·

2

· p

 

T

0

2

 

V

 

V

effective

=

2
2
 
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Therefore, the full-wave rectifier generates an average voltage value that doubles the value generated by the half-wave rectifier. Regarding the diode currents and voltages, we may have:

 

V

average

 

2

V

 

I

diode

=

R

= p

R

V

diode

=V

input

-V

output

V

block

=V

input

We must emphasize that the voltage blocking each non-conducting diode may be the input voltage.

The average value of the phase current is null since the two diodes connected to the same phase conduct currents with the same average value and different directions.

The behavior of the rectifier will depend, to a great extent, on the load type that it feeds. We may distinguish:

7.2.2.1 R load

We can choose between a phase-neuter or a phase-phase input. We may

keep in mind the latter is ÷3 times bigger, so the average voltage follows the same ratio, and we may consider the R load minimum value that we may use according to the power to dissipate. We take a rectifier with resistive load and V RS input.

We know that in this type of rectifier two diodes are conductive during a

semicycle of the input wave, or, equally, during an interval [0, p]; then the average value of the voltage in the load may be:

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V

input

=

V

average

3
3

(

V sin wt

·

)

=

p 1 Ú 3
p
1
Ú
3

T

0

V sin wt dwt

·

(

)

 

=

3 V
3 V

p

[

-

cos(

wt ]

)

p

0

=

2 3
2
3

p

V

 

where V is the phase-neuter maximum voltage, or phase-neuter peak

voltage

 

The effective voltage in the load:

 
   

=

V

T

2

p

V

2

2

V

effective

2

=

p 1 Ú ( 3
p
1
Ú
(
3

T

0

·

V sin wt

(

))

2

dwt

Ú

0

sin

2

(

wt dwt

)

=

V

effective

=

3 2
3
2

V

To determine the voltage drop in the non conducting diode we may observe figure 2.5, where we may clearly see that the D3 and D2 blocking voltages are the input voltages. So the peak inverse voltage per diode is:

 

The current in the load has the following value:

 
 

(

i wt

) =

3 V sen wt · ( )
3
V sen wt
·
(
)
 

for 0 < wt < p

 
 

R

 
Unit Ref.: TECNEL D1 D2 R S D3 D4 Figure 2.5 2 I average =
Unit Ref.: TECNEL D1 D2 R S D3 D4 Figure 2.5 2 I average =
Unit Ref.: TECNEL D1 D2 R S D3 D4 Figure 2.5 2 I average =
Unit Ref.: TECNEL D1 D2 R S D3 D4 Figure 2.5 2 I average =
Unit Ref.: TECNEL D1 D2 R S D3 D4 Figure 2.5 2 I average =

Unit Ref.: TECNEL

D1 D2 R S D3 D4 Figure 2.5 2 I average = p · 3
D1
D2
R
S
D3
D4
Figure 2.5
2
I average
= p
·
3
=
I effective
2
D4 Figure 2.5 2 I average = p · 3 = I effective 2 Date: June
D4 Figure 2.5 2 I average = p · 3 = I effective 2 Date: June

Date: June 2008

3

· V

R

 

V

·

 

R

June 2008 3 · V R   V ·   R Pg: 18/159 PRACTICES MANUAL Therefore,

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PRACTICES MANUAL

  V ·   R Pg: 18/159 PRACTICES MANUAL Therefore, the average and effective current for
  V ·   R Pg: 18/159 PRACTICES MANUAL Therefore, the average and effective current for
  V ·   R Pg: 18/159 PRACTICES MANUAL Therefore, the average and effective current for
  V ·   R Pg: 18/159 PRACTICES MANUAL Therefore, the average and effective current for
  V ·   R Pg: 18/159 PRACTICES MANUAL Therefore, the average and effective current for
  V ·   R Pg: 18/159 PRACTICES MANUAL Therefore, the average and effective current for
  V ·   R Pg: 18/159 PRACTICES MANUAL Therefore, the average and effective current for
  V ·   R Pg: 18/159 PRACTICES MANUAL Therefore, the average and effective current for
  V ·   R Pg: 18/159 PRACTICES MANUAL Therefore, the average and effective current for
  V ·   R Pg: 18/159 PRACTICES MANUAL Therefore, the average and effective current for
  V ·   R Pg: 18/159 PRACTICES MANUAL Therefore, the average and effective current for
  V ·   R Pg: 18/159 PRACTICES MANUAL Therefore, the average and effective current for
  V ·   R Pg: 18/159 PRACTICES MANUAL Therefore, the average and effective current for
  V ·   R Pg: 18/159 PRACTICES MANUAL Therefore, the average and effective current for
  V ·   R Pg: 18/159 PRACTICES MANUAL Therefore, the average and effective current for
  V ·   R Pg: 18/159 PRACTICES MANUAL Therefore, the average and effective current for
  V ·   R Pg: 18/159 PRACTICES MANUAL Therefore, the average and effective current for
  V ·   R Pg: 18/159 PRACTICES MANUAL Therefore, the average and effective current for
  V ·   R Pg: 18/159 PRACTICES MANUAL Therefore, the average and effective current for
  V ·   R Pg: 18/159 PRACTICES MANUAL Therefore, the average and effective current for
  V ·   R Pg: 18/159 PRACTICES MANUAL Therefore, the average and effective current for

Therefore, the average and effective current for the load may be:

the average and effective current for the load may be: In the figure 2.6 the main

In the figure 2.6 the main wave forms appearing in the rectifier are represented with resistive load

be: In the figure 2.6 the main wave forms appearing in the rectifier are represented with

Output voltage

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PRACTICES MANUAL Unit Ref.: TECNEL Date: June 2008 Pg: 19/159 Voltage in D1 and D4 Voltage

Voltage in D1 and D4

PRACTICES MANUAL Unit Ref.: TECNEL Date: June 2008 Pg: 19/159 Voltage in D1 and D4 Voltage

Voltage in D2 and D3 Figure 2.6

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7.2.2.2 R-L load

To load the rectifier with an inductive load does not imply a variation of the conduction angle of the diodes. So, the study carried out for the voltages with resistive load is still valid.

The current average value, considering that the terminal voltage of the coil is zero, is given by:

2 3 = · V I average p · R
2
3
=
· V
I average
p
· R

In figure 2.7 the main wave forms appearing in the rectifier with R-L load

are represented

average p · R In figure 2.7 the main wave forms appearing in the rectifier with

Output voltage

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PRACTICES MANUAL Unit Ref.: TECNEL Date: June 2008 Pg: 21/159 Output current Coil Voltage Input current

Output current

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Coil Voltage

TECNEL Date: June 2008 Pg: 21/159 Output current Coil Voltage Input current Uncontrolled three-phase half-wave rectifier

Input current

Uncontrolled three-phase half-wave rectifier

- - Unit Ref.: TECNEL D1 R D2 S D3 T Date: June 2008 0
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- - Unit Ref.: TECNEL D1 R D2 S D3 T Date: June 2008 0

-

-

- - Unit Ref.: TECNEL D1 R D2 S D3 T Date: June 2008 0 Load

Unit Ref.: TECNEL

D1

R

R

D2

S

S

D3

T

T
- - Unit Ref.: TECNEL D1 R D2 S D3 T Date: June 2008 0 Load

Date: June 2008

0 Load

0

Load

D1 R D2 S D3 T Date: June 2008 0 Load Pg: 22/159 PRACTICES MANUAL In

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PRACTICES MANUAL

In figure 3.1 an Uncontrolled Three-phase Half-valve Rectifier is represented, in which a neuter connection is required for its operation. As it is a half- wave assembly, each phase of the voltages to be rectified is connected to the load by a diode, returning the load current through the neuter. As a consequence, each diode will conduct when its corresponding phase voltage has the highest value (positive) of all three, so each diode will conduct during a third part of the period (120º) because it is a three-phase system.

of the period (120º) because it is a three-phase system. We can say: D1, D2, D3

We can say:

D1, D2, D3 conducts when V1, V2 and V3 are, respectively, the most

positive. Each of them will conduct the current during (2 p) /3 radians.

As the curling of these rectifiers is smaller, the condenser that may be

placed in the output as a filter is smaller as well.

To Calculate the theoretical values of the voltages and currents, we will particularize the equations for this case, where p=3 since it is a three-phase half-wave rectifier

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Date: June 2008

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5 p

6

5 p

=

3 3 ·
3
3
·

2

p

V

 

V

average

=

1

T

Ú

p

6

Vsin wt dwt

(

)

=

V

2 p 3
2
p
3

[

-

cos(

wt ]

)

6

p

6

7.2.2.3 Influence of the load type

 

The behaviour of the rectifier will depend on the load type used, so we may distinguish between Pure Resistive Loads (R) and Combined Loads (R-L).

7.2.2.3.1 Resistive load

 

Regardless of the type of rectifier with diodes supplying the rectified output voltage we may be using, the curling of the voltage will only depend on the number of rectified waves forming the output voltage in a T period, therefore in a three-phase rectifier system the curling will be smaller.

In order to calculate the average and effective value of the voltages in the load, we will make the integration in function of the cosine, since in three-phase systems is much easier than to integrate in function of the sine. Therefore, at each moment the only conductor will be the diode with the highest voltage, and considering

we are using the cosine to integrate, each diode will conduct from –60º (- p/3) up to

+60º (p/3), so in the end, each diode will conduct during 120º (2p/3), as commented previously at the beginning of the practice.

To calculate the average value of the voltage in the load, we will first make a generic calculation of the average voltage in function of the P parameter (the number of pulses in a T period). We integrate in three-phase systems in function of the cosine, as the calculation is easier:

PRACTICES MANUAL Unit Ref.: TECNEL Date: June 2008 Pg: 24/159 p p 1 pV ·
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: TECNEL
Date: June 2008
Pg: 24/159
p
p
1
pV
·
È
Ê p
ˆ
Ê -
p
ˆ ˘
p V
·
È
Ê p
ˆ
˘
max
max
V
=
Ú
V
·cos(
w
t
d
w
t
=
sin Á
˜ -
sin Á
˜
=
sin Á
˜
Í
Á
˜
Á
˜
˙
Í
Á
˜
˙
effectiveoutput
max
2 p
2 p
p
p
p
p
Î
Ë
¯
Ë
¯ ˚
Î
Ë
¯
˚
-
p
p
p
For the Uncontrolled three-phase half-wave rectifier, p=3
3· V
È
Ê p
ˆ
˘
V
=
max
sin
Á
˜
=
0.827·
V
averageout put
Í
˙
max
p
Î
Ë
3
¯
˚
The equation to obtain the effective output voltage is:
p
p
p
p
2
2
1
pV
·
pV
·
2
2
2
max
p (
2
)
max
p (
2
)
V
=
Ú
V
·cos
(
w
t
d
w
t
=
Ú
1
-
sin
(
w
t
) ·
d
(
w
t
)
=
Ú
1
-
sin
(
w
t
) ·
d
(
w
t
)
effectiveoutput
max
2 p
2 p
4 p
- p
p
-
p
p
- p
p
p
2
p V
·
È
2
p
Ê
2
p
ˆ
˘
2
max
V
=
+ sin Á
˜
Í
˙
effectiveoutput
Á
˜
4 p
p
p
Î
Ë
¯
˚
Specifying again for p=3:
2
3· V
È 2 p
Ê 2 p
ˆ ˘
2
max
2
V
=
+ sin
Á
˜
=
0.7067·
V
Æ
V
=
0.8407·
V
effectiveoutput
Í
˙
max
effectiveoutput
max
4 p
3
3
Î
Ë
¯
˚
The wave voltage forms and output current with resistive load are shown in
figure 3.2.
PRACTICES MANUAL Unit Ref.: TECNEL Date: June 2008 Pg: 25/159 4.0A 2.0A 0A -I(R2) 400V

PRACTICES MANUAL

Unit Ref.: TECNEL

Date: June 2008

Pg: 25/159

4.0A 2.0A 0A -I(R2) 400V 0V SEL>> -400V 0s 5ms 10ms 15ms 20ms 25ms 30ms
4.0A
2.0A
0A
-I(R2)
400V
0V
SEL>>
-400V
0s
5ms
10ms
15ms
20ms
25ms
30ms
V(R)
V(S)
V(T)
V(R2:2)
Time

Figure 3.2

We must be careful with the minimum value of rheostat that we may use, because of its maximum power. For that reason, we must always consider, before applying the voltage to the equipment, the maximum current that the rheostat can support for the output voltage that may exist in each case. We must operate consequently, keeping, at least, that minimum value. The analysis of figure 3.2 has

been made with R = 125 W and Ve = 220 Vef between phase-neuter.

7.2.2.3.2 Inductive load

All the results of the study of the load voltage obtained in the case of resistive load are still valid. In any case, it is important to keep in mind the generic expression that gives us the value of the average load voltage.

V

average

p

= p ·

Ê p

Á ˜

p

Ë ¯

ˆ

˜

V sin Á

·

We know that we are applying to the load a cosine voltage during an

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interval - p/p < wt < p/p, and that the equation that governs the operation of the circuit is:

 

V ·cos(wt) = L

di

+

R i

·

 

dt

The solution is the sum of a cosinoidal term and an exponential term that disappears as t time increases.

4

0A

Isalida
Isalida

2

0A

0A

 

-I(R2)

400V

Vsalida
Vsalida
 

0V

SEL>>

-400V

0s

0s 5ms   10ms 15ms   20ms 25ms 30ms

5ms

5ms
 
0s 5ms   10ms 15ms   20ms 25ms 30ms

10ms

15ms

 

20ms

25ms

30ms

V(R)

V(S)

V(T)

V(R2:2)

 

Ti

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Unit Ref.: TECNEL

 

Date: June 2008

 

Pg: 27/159

400V

0V

Vouput VD2 VD1 VD3
Vouput
VD2
VD1
VD3

-400V

-800V

0s

5ms

10ms

15ms

 

20ms

25ms

30ms

V(R2:2)   V(D4:1,R2:2)   V(D5:1,R2:2) V(D6:1,R2:2)  

V(R2:2)

 
V(R2:2)   V(D4:1,R2:2)   V(D5:1,R2:2) V(D6:1,R2:2)  

V(D4:1,R2:2)

 
V(R2:2)   V(D4:1,R2:2)   V(D5:1,R2:2) V(D6:1,R2:2)  

V(D5:1,R2:2)

V(R2:2)   V(D4:1,R2:2)   V(D5:1,R2:2) V(D6:1,R2:2)  

V(D6:1,R2:2)

 
 

Time

 
 

Figure 3.3

 
 

The average value of the output current is:

 

V

average

 

3 V

 

Ê p

ˆ V

 
 

I

average

=

=

·

sin

Á

˜ = 0.8269·

   

R

p

R

Ë

3

¯ R

 

In figure 3.3. are shown the s wave forms of the main magnitudes that may appear in the rectifier. We must pay a particular attention to the blocking voltage of the diodes, which have to support the voltage between one phase and the other.That

implies that they have to support a voltage ÷3 times higher than the output voltage.

R S T Unit Ref.: TECNEL   D 1 D 2   D 4 D
R S T Unit Ref.: TECNEL   D 1 D 2   D 4 D
R S T Unit Ref.: TECNEL   D 1 D 2   D 4 D

R

S

T

R S T Unit Ref.: TECNEL   D 1 D 2   D 4 D 5

Unit Ref.: TECNEL

  D 1 D 2   D 4 D 5  
  D 1 D 2   D 4 D 5  
  D 1 D 2   D 4 D 5  
 
 

D

1

D 1 D 2

D

2

 
 

D

4

D 4 D 5

D

5

 
 
D 1 D 2   D 4 D 5   Date: June 2008 D 3 D

Date: June 2008

D 3 D 6
D 3 D 6
D 3 D 6
D 3 D 6
D 3 D 6

D

3

D

6

4 D 5   Date: June 2008 D 3 D 6 Pg: 28/159 + Voutput -

Pg: 28/159

+

Voutput

-

PRACTICES MANUAL

7.2.3 Uncontrolled three-phase full-wave rectifier

MANUAL 7.2.3 Uncontrolled three-phase full-wave rectifier The three-phase full-wave rectifier circuit is built by
MANUAL 7.2.3 Uncontrolled three-phase full-wave rectifier The three-phase full-wave rectifier circuit is built by
MANUAL 7.2.3 Uncontrolled three-phase full-wave rectifier The three-phase full-wave rectifier circuit is built by
MANUAL 7.2.3 Uncontrolled three-phase full-wave rectifier The three-phase full-wave rectifier circuit is built by
MANUAL 7.2.3 Uncontrolled three-phase full-wave rectifier The three-phase full-wave rectifier circuit is built by
MANUAL 7.2.3 Uncontrolled three-phase full-wave rectifier The three-phase full-wave rectifier circuit is built by
MANUAL 7.2.3 Uncontrolled three-phase full-wave rectifier The three-phase full-wave rectifier circuit is built by
MANUAL 7.2.3 Uncontrolled three-phase full-wave rectifier The three-phase full-wave rectifier circuit is built by

The three-phase full-wave rectifier circuit is built by using a Graetz’s bridge, but with the particularity of having a three-phase net as input. Or equally two three-phase half-wave rectifier configurations, one with common cathodes and the other one with common anodes, which makes the current return from the output to the input.

The diodes with common cathodes will conduct when their voltage is the most positive, while the diodes with common anodes will conduct when its phase voltage is the most negative. Consequently, we may deduce that each couple of diodes will conduct during a third part of the period, that is, during 60º. The wave forms of the output voltage are shown in figure 4.2.

PRACTICES MANUAL Unit Ref.: TECNEL Date: June 2008 Pg: 29/159 Figure 4.2 So, when the

PRACTICES MANUAL

Unit Ref.: TECNEL

Date: June 2008

Pg: 29/159

PRACTICES MANUAL Unit Ref.: TECNEL Date: June 2008 Pg: 29/159 Figure 4.2 So, when the voltage

Figure 4.2

So, when the voltage between R and S is the most positive, D1 and D5 diodes will conduct, as the voltage in S is the most negative, and later the D6 diode as the voltage in T is the most negative. As we can appreciate in the 4.2 figure, the output voltage is constituted by six sine waves domes corresponding to the three- phase compound voltages, which is quite logical since they always conduct a diode at the top and another at the bottom, thus the load is connected between two of the phases.

To sum it all up, the operation will be:

- D1, D2, D3 will conduct when VR, VS, VT are the most positive, so all

of them will conduct the total current during 2p/3 radians. D4, D5, D6 conduct when VR, VS, VT are, respectively, the most negative, so in all

of them the total current will circulate during 2p/3 radians as well.

- The voltage in the load has the smallest wave of all rectifiers studied so

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far, and V average tends to come closer to V effective .

 
 

-

The maximum blocking voltage that the diodes will support will be the

 

voltages among phases currently appearing in the output.

 

The generic formulation to find the theoretical values may be calculated as follows, using figure 4.2 as a reference:

 

2

p

/3

3· V
3· V

T

 
3· V
3· V

T

[

0.5

+

 
3 3· V
3
3· V

p

 

V

average

=

1

Ú 3·
Ú

T

p

/3

V sin wt dwt

·

(

)

=

[

-

cos(

wt

)

]

2

p

p

/3

/3

=

0.5

]

=

Or using the generic formulation with the cosinodal input:

     

˘

V

averageoutput

=

p p p Ú 2 p - p p
p
p
p
Ú
2
p
-
p
p

3·cos(

w

t

d

w

t

=

2· p · 3· V maz
p
·
V
maz

2 p

È Í sin (

Î p

p

p

)

˙

˚

=

3 3
3
3

· V

maz

The average value of the phase current is null, because two diodes connected to the same phase conduct currents with the same average value and different directions.

The behavior of the rectifier depends, to a great extent, on the load type used, so we may distinguish between pure resistive load and inductive load, resistance and inductance union. We will explain some important aspects in detail:

7.2.3.1 Influence of the load type

 

7.2.3.1.1 R load

 
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We know the average value of the voltage in the load, and its value is (3 ÷3

V)/p, where V is the peak voltage between phase and neuter.

 

The effective voltage in the load will be:

V

effective

2

Ê

Á

Á

2 p /3 1 Ú 3·
2
p
/3
1
Ú

= V sin wt dwt

·

(

)

2

ˆ

˜

˜

¯

Ê

= Á

Á

1 Ú 3· = V sin wt dwt · ( ) 2 ˆ ˜ ˜ ¯

V ˆ

˜

2

2

p

/3

˜ sin

¯ Ú

·

2

(

Ê

wt dwt = Á

Á

)

2

3·

V ˆ

˜

2

p

/3

¯ ˜ Ú

1

-

cos(2

wt

)

dwt

Ë

T

p

/3

Ë

T

p

/3

Ë

T

p

/3

2

 

ˆ

2

 

V

effective

2

Ê

= Á

Á

Ë

2 3· V ˆ È p 3 ˜ + ˜ Í ¯
2
3· V
ˆ
È
p
3
˜
+
˜
Í
¯

T

Î

6

4

˘ Ê

ª

˚ Á

Ë

˙ Á

3· V
3· V

T

˜

˜

¯

And, as the wave period is p/3, we may obtain an effective value almost equal to the average value.

 

V

ª

V

=

3 3 ·
3
3
·

V

effective

average

p

 

In figure 4.3, the main wave forms of the three-phase full-wave rectifier with resistive load are shown. If we observe the first graph, the output voltage is formed by the line voltage peaks (voltage among phases) and not of the phase-neuter

voltage. The theory of circuits tells us that the line voltage is ÷3 times higher than the phase-neuter one, and something very important: it is with a phase angle * of 30º.

* If we talk about a VRS direct sequence system, it will be retarded in relation to VRN. In an inverse sequence system, this line voltage will be early. Now an analysis for a direct sequence system is carried out.

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Unit Ref.: TECNEL   Date: June 2008 Pg: 32/159   Figure 4.3 The load current will
 

Figure 4.3

The load current will be in phase with the voltage, because it is pure resisve load, and it will have the following value:

I

average

=

V 3 3 average = ·
V
3
3
average
=
·

R

p

R

V

ª

I

effective

7.2.3.1.2 Inductive load

 

To add an inductance to the load doesn’t imply a variation of the diode angle of conduction. Therefore, the study of voltages carried out for resistive load is still valid.

The average current value considering that the coil terminal voltage is zero, may be given by:

I

average

=

V 3 3 V average = ·
V
3
3
V
average
=
·

R

p

R

 
PRACTICES MANUAL Unit Ref.: TECNEL Date: June 2008 Pg: 33/159 where V is the phase-neuter

PRACTICES MANUAL

Unit Ref.: TECNEL

Date: June 2008

Pg: 33/159

where V is the phase-neuter voltage.

The effective current is almost equal to the average current.

effective current is almost equal to the average current. Figure 4.4 As we can see in

Figure 4.4

As we can see in figure 4.4, the wave form of the voltage is identical to the one obtained with resistive pure load, but the current is delayed due to the coil. The quantity of ripple that will appear in the output current will depend on the inductance

value. In figure 4.4 the simulation was made with R=100 W and L=236mH.

Finally, we must point out, as a conclusion of the study of bridge rectifiers, that they have an important advantage: they avoid dc circulation in power-supply transformers, which improves the operation of the magnetic circuits notably, that in compensation, forces us to have more losses because of the use of twice as much semiconductors.

7.2.4 Controlled single-phase half-wave rectifier

7.2.4.1 The thyristor

The thyristor could be basically defined as a diode controlled by a positive

PRACTICES MANUAL Unit Ref.: TECNEL Date: June 2008 Pg: 34/159 voltage among gate (G) and

PRACTICES MANUAL

Unit Ref.: TECNEL

Date: June 2008

Pg: 34/159

voltage among gate (G) and anode (A) and a gate current that causes its interlocking and therefore its conduction until the current that circulates through it becomes zero. We must consider that, in order to make the interlocking of the device possible, a minimum current known as “interlocking current” is necessary. If this current is not over when the trigger of the thyristor takes place, it causes the thyristor non- interlocking.

A K
A
K

G

Figure 5.1 Symbol of the thyristor.

The main feature of these thyristors is that no other thyristor has still overcome the power supported by these devices. But they have a disadvantage: they can only be used in low frequencies.

The thyristors triggering ways vary. We may distinguish between wanted and unwanted ways, stressing in the latter the voltage trigger (the direct voltage of disruption is the maximum anode-cathode voltage that the thyristor supports without starting up, when the gate current is zero) and derived of voltage trigger (caused by a derived abrupt anode-cathode voltage).

Ideally the thyristor would work as a switch (opened/closed), but, as it happens with the conducting diode, thyristors support a fixed voltage between A and K in the conduction (Vd), and implying a power loss (rd) that may be represented electrically:

i r D D
i
r D
D

V D

Figure 5.2 Equivalent circuit.

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Unit Ref.: TECNEL

 

Date: June 2008

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Causing losses in conduction:

 
 

P =V

i

+ r

i

2

 

·

·

D

D

D

D effective

(

)

Finally we should add, as the thyristor is a semi-controlled device, we may control its set up operation, but not its switching off, which should be produced by the external circuit. This switching off may be natural (e.g. when the current passes by zero within the circuit), or forced, by voltage inverse source, or by intensity inverse source.

7.2.4.2 Theoretical introduction to controlled rectifiers

 

With this practice we will start a study section focused on the controlled half-wave rectifiers. The main difference between these sort of rectifiers and the former ones (Uncontrolled rectifiers) may be based on the fact that thyristor conduction and non-conduction states should be controlled externally, not within the circuit.

In this section of the study we will always deal with rectifiers in which we are capable to decide the moment when we may trigger the thyristors by using the PC.

The controlled single-phase half-wave rectifier may be seen in figure 5.3, where it may be easily seen that it is equivalent to the Uncontrolled single-phase half- wave rectifier, if the diode is replaced by a thyristor.

PRACTICES MANUAL Unit Ref.: TECNEL Date: June 2008 Pg: 36/159 Figure 5.3 Controlled single-phase half-wave

PRACTICES MANUAL

Unit Ref.: TECNEL

Date: June 2008

Pg: 36/159

PRACTICES MANUAL Unit Ref.: TECNEL Date: June 2008 Pg: 36/159 Figure 5.3 Controlled single-phase half-wave rectifier
PRACTICES MANUAL Unit Ref.: TECNEL Date: June 2008 Pg: 36/159 Figure 5.3 Controlled single-phase half-wave rectifier
PRACTICES MANUAL Unit Ref.: TECNEL Date: June 2008 Pg: 36/159 Figure 5.3 Controlled single-phase half-wave rectifier
PRACTICES MANUAL Unit Ref.: TECNEL Date: June 2008 Pg: 36/159 Figure 5.3 Controlled single-phase half-wave rectifier
PRACTICES MANUAL Unit Ref.: TECNEL Date: June 2008 Pg: 36/159 Figure 5.3 Controlled single-phase half-wave rectifier
PRACTICES MANUAL Unit Ref.: TECNEL Date: June 2008 Pg: 36/159 Figure 5.3 Controlled single-phase half-wave rectifier

Figure 5.3 Controlled single-phase half-wave rectifier

Controlled rectifiers are formed by power poles with direct and inverse blocking capacity, usually thyristors, therefore as they are controlled elements, they provide a rectified output voltage of adjustable magnitude.

The behavior of the rectifier will depend, to a great extent, on the load type used. So we may distinguish:

- Pure Resistive Load (R), where the voltage is annulled when the voltage changes its direction.

- Inductive Load (R-L), where the conduction lasts until the current in the

coil is annulled, although the output voltage may invert its polarity.

In order to make the output voltage independent of the load type, we may use the free wheeling diode (FWD), which avoids the polarization inversion of the output voltage.

7.2.4.3 Influence of the load type in the rectifier operation

7.2.4.3.1 Pure Resistive Load

The substitution of the diode by a thyristor allows delaying the beginning of the conduction of the power switch. Whereas the diode required only a forward bias condition, a thyristor requires a gate impulse as well, so by controlling the

400V 0V -400V PRACTICES MANUAL Unit Ref.: TECNEL Date: June 2008 Pg: 37/159 sending angle

400V

0V

-400V

PRACTICES MANUAL

Unit Ref.: TECNEL

Date: June 2008

Pg: 37/159

sending angle of the gate pulse, we can control the rectifier output. This is reflected

in the following graphs, where we may observe the triggering a angle clearly:

Vsalida Ventrada 0s 10ms 20ms 30ms 40ms V(V1:+) V(R1:2)
Vsalida
Ventrada
0s
10ms
20ms
30ms
40ms
V(V1:+)
V(R1:2)

Time

Figure 5.4 (a = 60º)

We may observe that, whereas the beginning of the thyristor output conduction requires two conditions, the step to the thyristor cut only required inverse polarization. Therefore, the thyristor interval of conduction may be:

a < wt < p

For a > p, the thyristor may never enter in conduction, since the voltage applied to its ends causes inverse bias.

For the rectifier of this practice, the output voltage will depend on the

interval:

For 0 < wt < a

PRACTICES MANUAL Unit Ref.: TECNEL Date: June 2008 Pg: 38/159 V input =V max ·
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: TECNEL
Date: June 2008
Pg: 38/159
V input =V max · sin (wt)
V
Load
V
input
output
V output = 0
For a < wt < p
V
V
Load
output
input
V input =V max · sin (wt)
V output =V max · sin (wt)
For
p < wt < 2p
Thyristor
V input = V max · sin (wt) V output =
Load
V input
V output
0
The average value of the output voltage will be:
i = 0 i i = 0 rectifier. Unit Ref.: TECNEL p 1 = ·
i = 0 i i = 0 rectifier. Unit Ref.: TECNEL p 1 = ·
i = 0 i i = 0 rectifier. Unit Ref.: TECNEL p 1 = ·

i

= 0

i

i

= 0

rectifier.

i = 0 i i = 0 rectifier. Unit Ref.: TECNEL p 1 = · Ú

Unit Ref.: TECNEL

p 1 = · Ú V · sen ( w t )· d w V
p
1
=
·
Ú
V
·
sen
(
w
t
d
w
V media
max
2 p
a
p
2 1
V
2
=
· Ú
V
·
sen
(
w t
d
w
t
=
V eficaz
max
2 p
a
2
V
È 1
˘
max
=
·
sen( 2
a
)
+
p
-
a
V eficaz
Í
˙
4 p
Î 2
˚
for 0 < wt < a
for a < wt < p
for p < wt < 2p
1
p V
2
1
p
V
=
·
Ú
sen
2 (
w t
d
w
t
=
I media
2
2 p
a
R
Ú sen 2 ( w t )· d w t = I media 2 2 p

Date: June 2008

V maz t 2 p 2 1 max ( sen (2 + a ) +
V maz
t
2 p
2
1
max
( sen (2
+
a
)
+
p
-
a
)
4 p
2
V
1
max
=
·
p
-
a
+
sen( 2
a
)
2
p
2
V
1
+
cos a
ˆ
t
=
· Á Ê
˜
R Ë 2 p
¯
V
1
Ê
1
ˆ
·
Á p
-
a
+
sen (2
a
) ˜
R
4 p
Ë
2
¯
1 ˆ · Á p - a + sen (2 a ) ˜ R 4 p

Pg: 39/159

PRACTICES MANUAL

The effective value will be:

Current values may be:

= (V/R) sen (w t)

Their average value will be:

The current effective value will be:

Following, we can see the wave forms of the most important signals in the

=

(1

+

cos

a )

I media

=

2 p

·

Ú sen

(
a

R

w

t

d

w

0s Unit Ref.: TECNEL 10ms R T1 Vinput N Date: June 2008 L R 30ms
0s Unit Ref.: TECNEL 10ms R T1 Vinput N Date: June 2008 L R 30ms
0s Unit Ref.: TECNEL 10ms R T1 Vinput N Date: June 2008 L R 30ms

0s

0s
0s Unit Ref.: TECNEL 10ms R T1 Vinput N Date: June 2008 L R 30ms Pg:

Unit Ref.: TECNEL

10ms

R

T1

Vinput

Vinput

Vinput

N

0s Unit Ref.: TECNEL 10ms R T1 Vinput N Date: June 2008 L R 30ms Pg:

Date: June 2008

L R 30ms

L

R

30ms

R T1 Vinput N Date: June 2008 L R 30ms Pg: 40/159 40ms PRACTICES MANUAL 20ms

Pg: 40/159

40ms

PRACTICES MANUAL

June 2008 L R 30ms Pg: 40/159 40ms PRACTICES MANUAL 20ms Time Figure 5.5. 7.2.4.3.2 R-L

20ms

Time

Figure 5.5.

7.2.4.3.2 R-L Combined load

The circuit for this practice is the following one:

load The circuit for this practice is the following one: Figure 5.6. Controlled single-phase R-L load
load The circuit for this practice is the following one: Figure 5.6. Controlled single-phase R-L load
load The circuit for this practice is the following one: Figure 5.6. Controlled single-phase R-L load

Figure 5.6. Controlled single-phase R-L load rectifier

The equation of meshes that represents the behavior of the circuit when the

PRACTICES MANUAL Unit Ref.: TECNEL Date: June 2008 Pg: 41/159 thyristor is in operation is
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: TECNEL
Date: June 2008
Pg: 41/159
thyristor is in operation is the following one:
di
V ·sin(wt) = Ri + L
dt
The solution to this equation will be the sum of the solution to the equation
in permanent regime added to the solution to the equation in transitory regime:
Solution to the equation in permanent regime:
V
w
L
=
·
sen
(
w
t -
j
)
where
j = arctg
(
)
i f
2
2
2
R
+
L w
R
Solution to the equation in stationary regime:
R
-
t
i
=
Ae
·
L
L
Then:
R
V
-
t
2
2
i
=
·
sen
(w
t
- j) +
A e
·
L
where
Z =
R
+ (wL)
Z
As in this type of rectifiers there is an almost complete semicycle for the
discharge of the coil, we know that for w t = a the current has already a 0 value, so
we may calculate the value of A:
R
a
V
-
·
0
=
·
sin
(
a
-
j
)
+
A e
·
L
w
Z
R
a
V
·
A =
·
sin
(
a
-
j
e
L
w
Z
Therefore, the initial equation is:
R
a
R
È
ˆ
˘
V
Ê t
Á -
˜
Ë
L
w
L
¯
i =
Í sin
(w
t
-
j)
-
sin
(a
-
j)·
e
˙
Z
Í
˙
Î
˚
The thyristor may be in operation from an a angle to p+j, when the
current pass by zero through the coil, since, so far, the current of the coil forces the
V effective V=0 V V = 0 V 1 =   2 p Unit Ref.:
V effective V=0 V V = 0 V 1 =   2 p Unit Ref.:
V effective V=0 V V = 0 V 1 =   2 p Unit Ref.:

V effective

V=0

V

V

= 0

V

1

=

 

2 p

V effective V=0 V V = 0 V 1 =   2 p
V=0 V V = 0 V 1 =   2 p Unit Ref.: TECNEL for 0

Unit Ref.: TECNEL

for 0 < wt < a for a < wt < p + j for
for 0 < wt < a
for a < wt < p + j
for p + j < wt < 2p
+ j
1 p
V
·[cos
V
I average =
p
+ j
V
2
2
· Ú
V
·
sin
(
w
t
d
w
t
=
·
p
+
j
-
2
p
a
R
T1
Vinput
N
)· d w t = · p + j - 2 p a R T1 Vinput

Date: June 2008

a

-

cos(

p

+

j

)]

R

 

a

-

1 [
2

sin 2

j

+

DLC

sen 2

a]

L

R

PRACTICES MANUAL

conduction of the thyristor.

The output voltage will have a value:

= V. sin (wt)

Therefore, the Average Output Voltage Value will be:

Then, the Average Voltage Value will be:

average

The effective value will be:

Voltage Value will be: average The effective value will be: 7.2.4.3.3 R-L load with free wheeling
Voltage Value will be: average The effective value will be: 7.2.4.3.3 R-L load with free wheeling
Voltage Value will be: average The effective value will be: 7.2.4.3.3 R-L load with free wheeling
Voltage Value will be: average The effective value will be: 7.2.4.3.3 R-L load with free wheeling

7.2.4.3.3 R-L load with free wheeling diode

The circuit we may use in this practice is the following one:

circuit we may use in this practice is the following one: Figure 5.7. Controlled half-wave rectifier
circuit we may use in this practice is the following one: Figure 5.7. Controlled half-wave rectifier
circuit we may use in this practice is the following one: Figure 5.7. Controlled half-wave rectifier
circuit we may use in this practice is the following one: Figure 5.7. Controlled half-wave rectifier
circuit we may use in this practice is the following one: Figure 5.7. Controlled half-wave rectifier
circuit we may use in this practice is the following one: Figure 5.7. Controlled half-wave rectifier
circuit we may use in this practice is the following one: Figure 5.7. Controlled half-wave rectifier
circuit we may use in this practice is the following one: Figure 5.7. Controlled half-wave rectifier

Figure 5.7. Controlled half-wave rectifier with FWD

circuit we may use in this practice is the following one: Figure 5.7. Controlled half-wave rectifier

Pg: 42/159

average

=

Ú

V sin

·

(

w

t

d

w

t

=

2 p

a

2 p

PRACTICES MANUAL Unit Ref.: TECNEL Date: June 2008 Pg: 43/159 The circuit works as follows:
PRACTICES MANUAL
Unit Ref.: TECNEL
Date: June 2008
Pg: 43/159
The circuit works as follows: In the positive semicycle, during the interval
in which the thyristor is switched on, the input voltage appears in the output with no
changes. When the input voltage is annulled at the end of the positive semicycle, the
voltage in the coil is inverted, thus, the coil works as a generator. As a consequence,
the free wheeling diode is directly polarized, and the load current circulates through.
The negative peak of the output voltage that took place in the previous paragraph is
annulled. This may be better appreciated in the following graphs:
Vsalida sin DLC
0s
10ms
20ms
30ms
40ms
V(R:2)
V(X12:MT2)
Time
Vsalida
alfa = 120º
carga R-L con DLC
Isalida
0s
10ms
20ms
30ms
40ms
1
V(R:2)
2
-I(R)
Time
Figure 5.8.
  PRACTICES MANUAL  
 

PRACTICES MANUAL

 

Unit Ref.: TECNEL

   

Date: June 2008

Pg: 44/159

The average output voltage may be:

 
 

p

 

V

average

=

1

2 p

·

Ú

a

V

max

·

sin

(

w

t

d

w

t

=

V

maz

2 p

(1

+

cos

a

)

This expression is exactly the same as the rectifier with pure R.

 

7.2.5 Full-control single-phase rectifier

 

Bridge rectifiers use 2q semiconductor devices when the rectification of q alternating voltages is required, being these semiconductors divided in two groups:

one with common cathodes and the other with common anodes. Depending on the nature of the semiconductor devices, we may obtain different configurations:

- Full-controlled bridges, when both groups are formed by thyristors.

- Half-controlled bridges, when one group is formed by diodes and the

 

other one by thyristors.

 

In this practice we will focus on the study of full-controlled bridges. The diagram of this type of rectifiers is represented in the following figure:

V i - Unit Ref.: TECNEL T1 T3 R S T2 T4 1/ 2 wave
V i - Unit Ref.: TECNEL T1 T3 R S T2 T4 1/ 2 wave
V i - Unit Ref.: TECNEL T1 T3 R S T2 T4 1/ 2 wave
V i -

V i

V i -

-

V i - Unit Ref.: TECNEL T1 T3 R S T2 T4 1/ 2 wave rectifier

Unit Ref.: TECNEL

T1 T3 R S T2 T4 1/ 2 wave rectifier Common Cathodes 1/ 2 wave
T1
T3
R
S
T2
T4
1/ 2 wave
rectifier
Common
Cathodes
1/ 2 wave
rectifier
Common
anodes
Common Cathodes 1/ 2 wave rectifier Common anodes Date: June 2008 Load Pg: 45/159 PRACTICES MANUAL

Date: June 2008

Load

1/ 2 wave rectifier Common anodes Date: June 2008 Load Pg: 45/159 PRACTICES MANUAL Figure 6.1.

Pg: 45/159

PRACTICES MANUAL

anodes Date: June 2008 Load Pg: 45/159 PRACTICES MANUAL Figure 6.1. Full-controlled single-phase half-wave rectifier

Figure 6.1. Full-controlled single-phase half-wave rectifier

As we may see, this rectifier type may be divided in two controlled single- phase half-wave rectifiers (one with common cathodes and the other one with common anodes) located in such a way that each one rectifies a semiperiod, appearing in the load a rectified direct voltage.

appearing in the load a rectified direct voltage. Figure 6.2. Equivalent circuit Then: T1 and T4

Figure 6.2. Equivalent circuit

Then:

T1 and T4 conduct when the input voltage is positive, the devices are

- Unit Ref.: TECNEL triggered. thyristors are triggered.     T1 T3   R  
- Unit Ref.: TECNEL triggered. thyristors are triggered.     T1 T3   R  
- Unit Ref.: TECNEL triggered. thyristors are triggered.     T1 T3   R  

-

- Unit Ref.: TECNEL triggered. thyristors are triggered.     T1 T3   R    

Unit Ref.: TECNEL

triggered.

thyristors are triggered.

 
 
 

T1

T3

 
 
 

R

R    
   

N

 
N  
 

T2

T4

    T1 T3   R     N     T2 T4  
    T1 T3   R     N     T2 T4  
 
 
R     N     T2 T4   Date: June 2008 R 150 Load Pg:

Date: June 2008

R 150
R
150

Load

  T2 T4   Date: June 2008 R 150 Load Pg: 46/159 PRACTICES MANUAL T2 and

Pg: 46/159

PRACTICES MANUAL

T2 and T3 conduct when the input voltage is negative and these

Therefore, we will be able to regulate the direct output voltage by using the thyristors angle of conduction.

It is necessary to emphasize the fact that we may connect two phases or phase and neuter as input,. This will imply having a different rectified voltage in the output depending on which one is connected, and, consequently, it will be necessary to estimate the rheostat minimum value, in order to avoid exceeding the maximum intensity allowed.

7.2.5.1 Influence of the load type in the rectifier operation

7.2.5.1.1 Resistive load

We may consider the single-phase rectifier shown in the following figure, where we have the phase-neuter voltage as input. Otherwise, we will have to multiply

all the results obtained by the ÷3 factor.

will have to multiply all the results obtained by the ÷ 3 factor. Figure 6.3. Rect.
will have to multiply all the results obtained by the ÷ 3 factor. Figure 6.3. Rect.
will have to multiply all the results obtained by the ÷ 3 factor. Figure 6.3. Rect.
will have to multiply all the results obtained by the ÷ 3 factor. Figure 6.3. Rect.
will have to multiply all the results obtained by the ÷ 3 factor. Figure 6.3. Rect.
will have to multiply all the results obtained by the ÷ 3 factor. Figure 6.3. Rect.
will have to multiply all the results obtained by the ÷ 3 factor. Figure 6.3. Rect.
will have to multiply all the results obtained by the ÷ 3 factor. Figure 6.3. Rect.

Figure 6.3. Rect. Full-control single-phase (R load)

V effective Unit Ref.: TECNEL 2 p 1 p V 1 - 2 2 =
V effective Unit Ref.: TECNEL 2 p 1 p V 1 - 2 2 =
V effective Unit Ref.: TECNEL 2 p 1 p V 1 - 2 2 =

V effective

V effective Unit Ref.: TECNEL 2 p 1 p V 1 - 2 2 = ·

Unit Ref.: TECNEL

2 p 1 p V 1 - 2 2 = · Ú V · sin
2
p
1 p
V
1
-
2
2
=
·
Ú
V
·
sin
(
w
t
d
w
t
=
·
Ú