
PRACTICES MANUAL 

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INDEX 

PRACTICES MANUAL 
3 

7.1 INTRODUCTION 
3 

7.1.1 Equipment description 
3 

7.2 THEORETICAL BASIS 
5 

7.2.1 Singlephase halfwave uncontrolled rectifiers 
5 

7.2.2 Singlephase fullwave rectifier 
13 

7.2.3 Uncontrolled threephase fullwave rectifier 
28 

7.2.4 Controlled singlephase halfwave rectifier 
33 

7.2.5 Fullcontrol singlephase rectifier 
44 

7.2.6 Fullcontrol singlephase rectifier: DC motor supply 
50 

7.2.7 Fullcontrol threephase fullwave rectifier 
53 

7.2.8 Semicontrolled singlephase rectifier 
59 

7.2.9 Semicontrolled threephase rectifier 
66 

7.2.10 Chopper voltage assembly 
69 

7.3 LABORATORY PRACTICES 
78 

7.3.1 Practice 1: Single phase halfwave rectifier with R load 
78 

7.3.2 Practice 2: Single phase halfwave rectifier with RL load 
81 

7.3.3 Practice 3: Singlephase halfwave rectifier with RL load with free wheeling diode (FWD) 83 

7.3.4 Practice 4: Singlephase fullwave rectifier 
84 

7.3.5 Practice 5: Threephase halfwave uncontrolled rectifier 
88 

7.3.6 Practice 6: Threephase fullwave uncontrolled rectifier 
91 

7.3.7 Practice 7: Singlephase halfwave controlled rectifier 
94 

7.3.8 Practice 8: Singlephase fullwave controlled rectifier 
98 

7.3.9 Practice 9: Singlephase fullwave controlled rectifier with a DC motor 
101 

7.3.10 Practice 10: Threephase fullwave completely controlled 
104 

7.3.11 Practice 11: Singlephase semicontrolled rectifier 
107 

7.3.12 Practice 12: Threephase fullwave semicontrolled rectifier 
110 

7.3.13 Practice 
13:Chopper 
113 

7.3.14 Practice 14: Singlephase squarewave inverter 
116 

7.3.15 Practice 15: Singlephase displacedphase inverter 
118 

7.3.16 Practice 16: Singlephase inverter. PWM control 
120 

7.3.17 Practice 17: Threephase inverter. PWM control with R load and RL load 
122 

7.3.18 Practice 18: Threephase inverter. PWM control with AC motor 
125 

7.3.19 Practice 19: Alternating regulators: R and RL load 
127 

7.6 APPENDIX A: CONSIDERATIONS WITH DC MOTOR 
158 

7.7 APPENDIX B: CONSIDERATIONS WITH IGBTS 
159 
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IMPORTANT NOTE :
TO OBTAIN THE PROPER WORKING OF THE EQUIPMENT, SEE THE APPENDICES C AND D IN THE END OF MANUAL.
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PRACTICES MANUAL
7.1
INTRODUCTION
7.1.1 Equipment description
The equipment has the following interface:
Figure 1.1.1: Equipment Interface
The SACEDTECNEL system is a Data Acquisition and Control System entirely developed by EDIBON technicians. In its development, we have not given our back to our experience developing teaching equipment spanning more than 20 years.
The different configuration levels allow the instructor to design virtually the whole execution of the different practical exercises. The basic level is aimed for data capture and storage that the student will process to work with later. The intermediate level provides the student with graphic tools, which allows visualizing the experiment in real time. The advanced level is specially aimed for Data Capture Configuration and the calibration of all the equipment sensors.
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NOTE: The equipment is provided with two switches: a magnetic switch and a differential switch. Both elements are located on the backside of the equipment. Remember these switches when turning on the module.

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7.2 THEORETICAL BASIS 

7.2.1 Singlephase halfwave uncontrolled rectifiers 

Uncontrolled rectifiers are constituted by diodes that, as uncontrolled elements, provide a dependent output voltage of fixed magnitude. From a theoretical point of view, they may be considered as switches that are opened or closed depending on the direction of the voltage applied. That is, with a positive voltage between anode (A) and cathode (K) the switch is closed, and it is opened if the voltage is negative. 

K 
A 




+ 
 
I 




 
+ 
I = 0 

In a real way, the diodes support a fixed voltage between A and K in the conduction (Vd), implying a power loss (rd). Electrically, it may be represented: 




Vd 
rd 

+ 
 

Typically 
Vd has 
a 0,7V value for signal diodes, and a bit higher, 
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approximately 1,3V, for power diodes. The rd resistance is of dozens of mW. Other
features of the diode are important, as, for instance, the threshold voltage (Vg) or elbow voltage, the Qrr inverse recovery load, the maximum current, the maximum inverse voltage that supports or breakdown voltage, the repetitive peak inverse voltage, the inverse current, etc. Even if we should keep in mind these parameters, they do not change the philosophy of the study of this rectifier.
To calculate the diode voltages and currents we should know that:
Id (average) = I load (average) Id (effective) = I load (effective)
V d = V e + V load
Figure 1.1
In figure 1.1, the singlephase halfwave rectifier is shown. It is the most simple that can be made, and therefore, the one with less quality. In this study, we may consider an input voltage high enough to ignore the drop in the diode, that is, it behaves as a closed switch in conduction (direct polarization). We will also consider the resistance in inverse polarization big enough to consider the diode an opened switch. As diode commutation times last only a few nanoseconds (ns), they may be considered of no importance in comparison with the semicycle of the 50 Hz input voltage.
The behavior of the rectifier will depend considerably on the used load type, so we may have:

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 Pure resistive load (R), where the voltage is annulled when its direction changes. 

 Inductive load (RL), where the conduction continues until the moment when the current in the coil is annulled, although the output voltage inverts its polarity. 

In order to separate the output voltage and the load type, we may use the free wheeling diode (FWD), which avoids the inversion of polarization in the output voltage. 

7.2.1.1 INFLUENCES OF LOAD TYPE 

7.2.1.1.1 Resistive load 

With this load type, the voltage and the current will be in phase so that the diode will begin to conduct as soon as the input voltage becomes positive during the positive semicycle. This voltage will be blocked when the current at the end of this period is annulled, remaining blocked all through the negative semicycle. 

The input voltage is: 

ve(t) = V ·sin(wt ) 

And the current will have a value: 

i ) = ( t i ) ( t _{=} v 
v 
e( t R ) e • t ( ) 
= V sen R · = 0 
( w t ) 0 < t < T/2 T/2 < t < T 

The average value of the output wave will be: 
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Figure 1.2
7.2.1.2 RL load
In this case the conduction begins when the input voltage becomes positive. However, due to the presence of the inductance, a delay of the current as regards the voltage is originated, so when the voltage at the end of the positive semicycle becomes zero, the current continues circulating, therefore the diode is not blocked. This would explain the presence of a negative voltage peak in the output, that is annulled when the current becomes zero.
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Output voltage
Output current
Diode Voltage
Figure 1.3
When we observe the waveforms of figure 1.3, we should notice the

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transients appearing in the step from conduction to cut. If the selected diode in a hypothetical design stage may not have a high value of repetitive peak inverse voltage, it may be destroyed if those transients were not treated. That explains the importance of some parameters of the semiconductors that we were alluding to at the beginning of the practice. These transients are improved in the practice by using snubber nets that muffle the voltage and current peaks. 

Now the average value of the output voltage will be: 

V average = 
1 T 
2 p Ú V sin wt dwt · ( ) 
= 
1 T 
p Ú 
V sin wt dwt · ( ) 
+ 1 T 
w 
t 1 Ú 
V sin wt dwt · ( ) + 
1 T 
2 p Ú V sin wt dwt · ( ) 

0 
0 
p 
w 
t 1 

V average = 
V T 
· 
[[  
cos( wt ) ] 
p 0 
+ 
[ 
 cos( 
wt 
) 
] 
w t 1 p 
+ 0 
] 
= 
V 2 p 
[1 
 
cos( w 
t 1)] 

If we consider for this theoretical analysis that the voltage drop in the coil has no value, the value of the current will be: 

I 
= 
V average 
V = 
(1  
cos( wt 1 
) 

average 
R 
2p R 

In this load type, the rectifier works in discontinuous conduction. The inductive load causes an increase of the conduction angle and, therefore, a diminution 

of the average value of the rectified voltage in a factor of 1cos(wt _{1} ), where (w t _{1} is the angle where the conduction of the diode finishes. 

7.2.1.3 RL load with Free wheeling Diode 

We can see that when using a load with inductive character, the following effects appear: 
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 when the input voltage is inverted, a peak of negative voltage appears in the output, and it is not annulled until the current becomes zero.
 In a part of the cycle, the current is interrupted, that is, the conduction is discontinuous.
These two effects may be eliminated, as well as the reduction of the harmonic content, with the introduction in parallel with the load of a diode called Free wheeling Diode (FWD) or Flying Diode.
When the input voltage is annulled at the end of the positive semicycle, the voltage in the coil is inverted. It begins to act as a generator, forcing the conduction of the FWD and the load current going through it, annulling the peak of negative voltage, as we can see in the following graphs:
Input current
Figure 1.4


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_
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During the development of this practice we will study the operation of the fullbridge or Graetz’s bridge that, although using twice as much semiconductors, is easier to assemble due to the absence of a centertapped transformer. As we may see, these rectifiers can be considered as two halfwave series rectifiers, one with common cathodes and the other with common anodes, as we can see in figure 2.3.
Figure 2.3
The operation of the bridge circuit works as follows:
The D1 and D4 diodes conduct when V _{R} –V _{S} is positive.
The D2 and D3 diodes conduct when V _{R} –V _{S} is positive.
For all load types the continuity of the conduction exists always between two diodes and the current circulation has always the same direction.
The fundamental pulsation of the output voltage is 2w , where w is the pulsation of the alternating input, since two periods in the output are originated for each period in the input.
In the RLE load the beginning and the end of the conduction zone are

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determined by the load. 

The formulation for the rectifier theoretical analysis is the same as the one in the former practice, considering the waveform of the output voltage, shown below (figure 2.4). 



Figure 2.4 

The average and effective voltage in the output will be: 

p 

^{V} 
average 
= 1 T 
Ú 0 
V sin wt dwt · ( ) 
= 
V T 
[ 
 
cos( 
wt 
) 
] 
p 0 
2 V = p 

p 
V T 
2 
p 

^{V} 
2 effective 
= 1 T 
Ú 0 V 
2 · sin 
2 
( wt dwt ) 
= 
Ú 0 sin 
2 
( 
wt dwt ) 

And as we know the trigonometric relationship: 

1  cos 2 
a 
= 2· sin 
2 
a 

V 2 
p 
1  
cos(2 wt ) 
V 2 
1 

V effective 
= 
Ú 
dwt = 
p 
· 
2 
· p 

T 
0 
2 

V 

V effective 
=
2


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Therefore, the fullwave rectifier generates an average voltage value that doubles the value generated by the halfwave rectifier. Regarding the diode currents and voltages, we may have: 

V average 
2 
V 

I 
diode 
= 
R 
^{=} p 
R 

V diode =V input V output V block =V input We must emphasize that the voltage blocking each nonconducting diode may be the input voltage. 

The average value of the phase current is null since the two diodes connected to the same phase conduct currents with the same average value and different directions. 

The behavior of the rectifier will depend, to a great extent, on the load type that it feeds. We may distinguish: 

7.2.2.1 R load 

We can choose between a phaseneuter or a phasephase input. We may 

keep in mind the latter is ÷3 times bigger, so the average voltage follows the same ratio, and we may consider the R _{l}_{o}_{a}_{d} minimum value that we may use according to the power to dissipate. We take a rectifier with resistive load and V _{R}_{S} input. 

We know that in this type of rectifier two diodes are conductive during a 

semicycle of the input wave, or, equally, during an interval [0, p]; then the average value of the voltage in the load may be: 

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V input = V average 
3
( V sin wt · ) =
p
1
Ú
3
T 0 V sin wt dwt · ( ) 
=
3 V
p 
[ 
 
cos( wt ] ) 
p 0 =
2
3
p 
V 

where V is the phaseneuter maximum voltage, or phaseneuter peak 

voltage 

The effective voltage in the load: 

= 3· V T 2 
p 
3· V 2 
2 

V effective 2 
=
p
1
Ú
(
3
T 0 · V sin wt ( 
)) 
2 
dwt 
Ú 0 sin 
2 
( wt dwt ) 
= 

V effective 
= 
3
2

V 

To determine the voltage drop in the non conducting diode we may observe figure 2.5, where we may clearly see that the D3 and D2 blocking voltages are the input voltages. So the peak inverse voltage per diode is: 

The current in the load has the following value: 

( i wt ) =
3
V sen wt
·
(
)

for 0 < wt < p 

R 
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Therefore, the average and effective current for the load may be:
In the figure 2.6 the main wave forms appearing in the rectifier are represented with resistive load
Output voltage
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Voltage in D1 and D4
Voltage in D2 and D3 Figure 2.6
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7.2.2.2 RL load
To load the rectifier with an inductive load does not imply a variation of the conduction angle of the diodes. So, the study carried out for the voltages with resistive load is still valid.
The current average value, considering that the terminal voltage of the coil is zero, is given by:
In figure 2.7 the main wave forms appearing in the rectifier with RL load
are represented
Output voltage
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Output current
Coil Voltage
Input current
Uncontrolled threephase halfwave rectifier


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R 

D2 

S 

D3 

T 

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In figure 3.1 an Uncontrolled Threephase Halfvalve Rectifier is represented, in which a neuter connection is required for its operation. As it is a half wave assembly, each phase of the voltages to be rectified is connected to the load by a diode, returning the load current through the neuter. As a consequence, each diode will conduct when its corresponding phase voltage has the highest value (positive) of all three, so each diode will conduct during a third part of the period (120º) because it is a threephase system.
We can say:
D1, D2, D3 conducts when V1, V2 and V3 are, respectively, the most
positive. Each of them will conduct the current during (2 p) /3 radians.
As the curling of these rectifiers is smaller, the condenser that may be
placed in the output as a filter is smaller as well.
To Calculate the theoretical values of the voltages and currents, we will particularize the equations for this case, where p=3 since it is a threephase halfwave rectifier

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5 p 

6 
5 p 
=
3
3
·
2 p 
V 

^{V} average 
= 
1 T 
Ú p 6 
Vsin wt dwt ( ) 
= 
V
2
p
3

[ 
 
cos( 
wt ] ) 
6 p 6 

7.2.2.3 Influence of the load type 

The behaviour of the rectifier will depend on the load type used, so we may distinguish between Pure Resistive Loads (R) and Combined Loads (RL). 

7.2.2.3.1 Resistive load 

Regardless of the type of rectifier with diodes supplying the rectified output voltage we may be using, the curling of the voltage will only depend on the number of rectified waves forming the output voltage in a T period, therefore in a threephase rectifier system the curling will be smaller. 

In order to calculate the average and effective value of the voltages in the load, we will make the integration in function of the cosine, since in threephase systems is much easier than to integrate in function of the sine. Therefore, at each moment the only conductor will be the diode with the highest voltage, and considering 

we are using the cosine to integrate, each diode will conduct from –60º ( p/3) up to 

+60º (p/3), so in the end, each diode will conduct during 120º (2p/3), as commented previously at the beginning of the practice. 

To calculate the average value of the voltage in the load, we will first make a generic calculation of the average voltage in function of the P parameter (the number of pulses in a T period). We integrate in threephase systems in function of the cosine, as the calculation is easier: 
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Figure 3.2
We must be careful with the minimum value of rheostat that we may use, because of its maximum power. For that reason, we must always consider, before applying the voltage to the equipment, the maximum current that the rheostat can support for the output voltage that may exist in each case. We must operate consequently, keeping, at least, that minimum value. The analysis of figure 3.2 has
been made with R = 125 W and Ve = 220 Vef between phaseneuter.
7.2.2.3.2 Inductive load
All the results of the study of the load voltage obtained in the case of resistive load are still valid. In any case, it is important to keep in mind the generic expression that gives us the value of the average load voltage.
^{V}
average
p
= _{p} ·
Ê p
Á ˜
p
Ë ¯
ˆ
˜
V sin Á
·
We know that we are applying to the load a cosine voltage during an

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interval  p/p < wt < p/p, and that the equation that governs the operation of the circuit is: 

V ·cos(wt) = L 
di 
+ 
R i · 

dt 

The solution is the sum of a cosinoidal term and an exponential term that disappears as t time increases. 

4 
0A 
Isalida


2 
0A 

0A 

I(R2) 

400V 
Vsalida


0V 

SEL>> 

400V 

0s 

5ms 

10ms 
15ms 
20ms 
25ms 
30ms 

V(R) 
V(S) 
V(T) 
V(R2:2) 

Ti 

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400V 

0V 
Vouput
VD2
VD1
VD3


400V 

800V 

0s 
5ms 
10ms 
15ms 
20ms 
25ms 
30ms 


V(R2:2) 

V(D4:1,R2:2) 

V(D5:1,R2:2) 

V(D6:1,R2:2) 

Time 

Figure 3.3 

The average value of the output current is: 

V average 
3 V 
Ê p 
ˆ V 

I 
average 
= 
= 
· 
sin 
Á 
˜ = 0.8269· 

R 
p 
R 
Ë 
3 
¯ R 

In figure 3.3. are shown the s wave forms of the main magnitudes that may appear in the rectifier. We must pay a particular attention to the blocking voltage of the diodes, which have to support the voltage between one phase and the other.That 

implies that they have to support a voltage ÷3 times higher than the output voltage. 
R
S
T
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1 

D 
2 


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4 

D 
5 

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D 
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7.2.3 Uncontrolled threephase fullwave rectifier
The threephase fullwave rectifier circuit is built by using a Graetz’s bridge, but with the particularity of having a threephase net as input. Or equally two threephase halfwave rectifier configurations, one with common cathodes and the other one with common anodes, which makes the current return from the output to the input.
The diodes with common cathodes will conduct when their voltage is the most positive, while the diodes with common anodes will conduct when its phase voltage is the most negative. Consequently, we may deduce that each couple of diodes will conduct during a third part of the period, that is, during 60º. The wave forms of the output voltage are shown in figure 4.2.
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Figure 4.2
So, when the voltage between R and S is the most positive, D1 and D5 diodes will conduct, as the voltage in S is the most negative, and later the D6 diode as the voltage in T is the most negative. As we can appreciate in the 4.2 figure, the output voltage is constituted by six sine waves domes corresponding to the three phase compound voltages, which is quite logical since they always conduct a diode at the top and another at the bottom, thus the load is connected between two of the phases.
To sum it all up, the operation will be:
 D1, D2, D3 will conduct when VR, VS, VT are the most positive, so all
of them will conduct the total current during 2p/3 radians. D4, D5, D6 conduct when VR, VS, VT are, respectively, the most negative, so in all
of them the total current will circulate during 2p/3 radians as well.
 The voltage in the load has the smallest wave of all rectifiers studied so

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far, and V _{a}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{g}_{e} tends to come closer to V _{e}_{f}_{f}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e} . 

 
The maximum blocking voltage that the diodes will support will be the 

voltages among phases currently appearing in the output. 

The generic formulation to find the theoretical values may be calculated as follows, using figure 4.2 as a reference: 

2 p 
/3 
3· V
T 
3· V
T [ 0.5 + 
3
3· V
p 

V average 
= 
1
Ú
3·
T p /3 V sin wt dwt · ( ) 
= 
[ 
 
cos( 
wt ) 
] 2 p p /3 /3 = 
0.5 
] 
= 

Or using the generic formulation with the cosinodal input: 

˘ 

V averageoutput =
p
p
p
Ú
2
p

p
p
3·cos( w t )· d w t =
2·
p
·
3·
V
maz
2 p È Í sin ( Î p p p ) ˙ ˚ =
3
3
· V maz The average value of the phase current is null, because two diodes connected to the same phase conduct currents with the same average value and different directions. 

The behavior of the rectifier depends, to a great extent, on the load type used, so we may distinguish between pure resistive load and inductive load, resistance and inductance union. We will explain some important aspects in detail: 

7.2.3.1 Influence of the load type 

7.2.3.1.1 R load 

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We know the average value of the voltage in the load, and its value is (3 ÷3 

V)/p, where V is the peak voltage between phase and neuter. 

The effective voltage in the load will be: V effective 2 Ê Á Á
2
p
/3
1
Ú
3·
= V sin wt dwt · ( ) 2 ˆ ˜ ˜ ¯ Ê = Á Á 3· V ˆ ˜ 2 2 p /3 ˜ sin ¯ Ú · 2 ( Ê wt dwt = Á Á ) 
2
3·
V ˆ ˜ 2 p /3 ¯ ˜ Ú 
1 
 
cos(2 
wt 
) 
dwt 

Ë T p /3 
Ë 
T p /3 
Ë 
T 
p 
/3 
2 

ˆ 
2 

V effective 2 Ê = Á Á Ë
2
3· V
ˆ
È
p
3
˜
+
˜
Í
¯
T Î 6 4 ˘ Ê ª ˚ Á Ë ˙ Á
3· V
T ˜ ˜ ¯ And, as the wave period is p/3, we may obtain an effective value almost equal to the average value. 

V ª 
V 
= 
3
3
·
V 

effective 
average 
p 

In figure 4.3, the main wave forms of the threephase fullwave rectifier with resistive load are shown. If we observe the first graph, the output voltage is formed by the line voltage peaks (voltage among phases) and not of the phaseneuter 

voltage. The theory of circuits tells us that the line voltage is ÷3 times higher than the phaseneuter one, and something very important: it is with a phase angle ^{*} of 30º. 

^{*} If we talk about a VRS direct sequence system, it will be retarded in relation to VRN. In an inverse sequence system, this line voltage will be early. Now an analysis for a direct sequence system is carried out. 

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Figure 4.3 

The load current will be in phase with the voltage, because it is pure resisve load, and it will have the following value: 

I 
average 
= 
V
3
3
average
=
·
R p R 
V 
ª 
I 
effective 

7.2.3.1.2 Inductive load 

To add an inductance to the load doesn’t imply a variation of the diode angle of conduction. Therefore, the study of voltages carried out for resistive load is still valid. 

The average current value considering that the coil terminal voltage is zero, may be given by: 

I 
average 
= 
V
3
3
V
average
=
·
R p R 
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where V is the phaseneuter voltage.
The effective current is almost equal to the average current.
Figure 4.4
As we can see in figure 4.4, the wave form of the voltage is identical to the one obtained with resistive pure load, but the current is delayed due to the coil. The quantity of ripple that will appear in the output current will depend on the inductance
value. In figure 4.4 the simulation was made with R=100 W and L=236mH.
Finally, we must point out, as a conclusion of the study of bridge rectifiers, that they have an important advantage: they avoid dc circulation in powersupply transformers, which improves the operation of the magnetic circuits notably, that in compensation, forces us to have more losses because of the use of twice as much semiconductors.
7.2.4 Controlled singlephase halfwave rectifier
7.2.4.1 The thyristor
The thyristor could be basically defined as a diode controlled by a positive
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voltage among gate (G) and anode (A) and a gate current that causes its interlocking and therefore its conduction until the current that circulates through it becomes zero. We must consider that, in order to make the interlocking of the device possible, a minimum current known as “interlocking current” is necessary. If this current is not over when the trigger of the thyristor takes place, it causes the thyristor non interlocking.
G
Figure 5.1 Symbol of the thyristor.
The main feature of these thyristors is that no other thyristor has still overcome the power supported by these devices. But they have a disadvantage: they can only be used in low frequencies.
The thyristors triggering ways vary. We may distinguish between wanted and unwanted ways, stressing in the latter the voltage trigger (the direct voltage of disruption is the maximum anodecathode voltage that the thyristor supports without starting up, when the gate current is zero) and derived of voltage trigger (caused by a derived abrupt anodecathode voltage).
Ideally the thyristor would work as a switch (opened/closed), but, as it happens with the conducting diode, thyristors support a fixed voltage between A and K in the conduction (Vd), and implying a power loss (rd) that may be represented electrically:
V D
Figure 5.2 Equivalent circuit.

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Causing losses in conduction: 

P =V 
i 
+ r 
i 
2 

· 
· 

D D D D effective ( ) Finally we should add, as the thyristor is a semicontrolled device, we may control its set up operation, but not its switching off, which should be produced by the external circuit. This switching off may be natural (e.g. when the current passes by zero within the circuit), or forced, by voltage inverse source, or by intensity inverse source. 

7.2.4.2 Theoretical introduction to controlled rectifiers 

With this practice we will start a study section focused on the controlled halfwave rectifiers. The main difference between these sort of rectifiers and the former ones (Uncontrolled rectifiers) may be based on the fact that thyristor conduction and nonconduction states should be controlled externally, not within the circuit. 

In this section of the study we will always deal with rectifiers in which we are capable to decide the moment when we may trigger the thyristors by using the PC. 

The controlled singlephase halfwave rectifier may be seen in figure 5.3, where it may be easily seen that it is equivalent to the Uncontrolled singlephase half wave rectifier, if the diode is replaced by a thyristor. 
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Figure 5.3 Controlled singlephase halfwave rectifier
Controlled rectifiers are formed by power poles with direct and inverse blocking capacity, usually thyristors, therefore as they are controlled elements, they provide a rectified output voltage of adjustable magnitude.
The behavior of the rectifier will depend, to a great extent, on the load type used. So we may distinguish:
 Pure Resistive Load (R), where the voltage is annulled when the voltage changes its direction.
 Inductive Load (RL), where the conduction lasts until the current in the
coil is annulled, although the output voltage may invert its polarity.
In order to make the output voltage independent of the load type, we may use the free wheeling diode (FWD), which avoids the polarization inversion of the output voltage.
7.2.4.3 Influence of the load type in the rectifier operation
7.2.4.3.1 Pure Resistive Load
The substitution of the diode by a thyristor allows delaying the beginning of the conduction of the power switch. Whereas the diode required only a forward bias condition, a thyristor requires a gate impulse as well, so by controlling the
400V
0V
400V
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sending angle of the gate pulse, we can control the rectifier output. This is reflected
in the following graphs, where we may observe the triggering a angle clearly:
Time
Figure 5.4 (a = 60º)
We may observe that, whereas the beginning of the thyristor output conduction requires two conditions, the step to the thyristor cut only required inverse polarization. Therefore, the thyristor interval of conduction may be:
a < wt < p
For a > p, the thyristor may never enter in conduction, since the voltage applied to its ends causes inverse bias.
For the rectifier of this practice, the output voltage will depend on the
interval:
For 0 < wt < a
i 
= 0 
i 

i 
= 0 
rectifier.
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The effective value will be:
Current values may be:
= (V/R) sen (w t)
Their average value will be:
The current effective value will be:
Following, we can see the wave forms of the most important signals in the
=
(1
+
cos
a )
^{I} media
=
2 p
·
Ú sen
(
a
R
w
t
)·
d
w
0s
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10ms
R
T1
Vinput
N
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L
R
30ms
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40ms
PRACTICES MANUAL
20ms
Time
Figure 5.5.
7.2.4.3.2 RL Combined load
The circuit for this practice is the following one:
Figure 5.6. Controlled singlephase RL load rectifier
The equation of meshes that represents the behavior of the circuit when the
V effective
V=0 

V 

V 
= 0 
V 

1 

= 

2 p 
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a 
 
cos( 
p 
+ 
j 
)] 

R 

a 
 
1 [ sin 2 
j 
+ 
DLC
sen 2
a]
L
R
PRACTICES MANUAL
conduction of the thyristor.
The output voltage will have a value:
= V. sin (wt)
Therefore, the Average Output Voltage Value will be:
Then, the Average Voltage Value will be:
average
The effective value will be:
7.2.4.3.3 RL load with free wheeling diode
The circuit we may use in this practice is the following one:
Figure 5.7. Controlled halfwave rectifier with FWD
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average
=
Ú
V sin
·
(
w
t
)·
d
w
t
=
2 p
a
2 p

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The average output voltage may be: 

p 

V average 
= 
1 2 p 
· 
Ú a 
V max 
· 
sin 
( w 
t 
)· 
d 
w 
t 
= 
V maz 2 p 
(1 
+ 
cos 
a 
) 

This expression is exactly the same as the rectifier with pure R. 

7.2.5 Fullcontrol singlephase rectifier 

Bridge rectifiers use 2q semiconductor devices when the rectification of q alternating voltages is required, being these semiconductors divided in two groups: 

one with common cathodes and the other with common anodes. Depending on the nature of the semiconductor devices, we may obtain different configurations: 

 Fullcontrolled bridges, when both groups are formed by thyristors. 

 Halfcontrolled bridges, when one group is formed by diodes and the 

other one by thyristors. 

In this practice we will focus on the study of fullcontrolled bridges. The diagram of this type of rectifiers is represented in the following figure: 
V i

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Figure 6.1. Fullcontrolled singlephase halfwave rectifier
As we may see, this rectifier type may be divided in two controlled single phase halfwave rectifiers (one with common cathodes and the other one with common anodes) located in such a way that each one rectifies a semiperiod, appearing in the load a rectified direct voltage.
Figure 6.2. Equivalent circuit
Then:
T1 and T4 conduct when the input voltage is positive, the devices are

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triggered.
thyristors are triggered.


T1 
T3 




R 


N 


T2 
T4 





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T2 and T3 conduct when the input voltage is negative and these
Therefore, we will be able to regulate the direct output voltage by using the thyristors angle of conduction.
It is necessary to emphasize the fact that we may connect two phases or phase and neuter as input,. This will imply having a different rectified voltage in the output depending on which one is connected, and, consequently, it will be necessary to estimate the rheostat minimum value, in order to avoid exceeding the maximum intensity allowed.
7.2.5.1 Influence of the load type in the rectifier operation
7.2.5.1.1 Resistive load
We may consider the singlephase rectifier shown in the following figure, where we have the phaseneuter voltage as input. Otherwise, we will have to multiply
all the results obtained by the ÷3 factor.
Figure 6.3. Rect. Fullcontrol singlephase (R load)
V effective
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