Under working loads (and untii inilial yielding) the distributions of flexural strains and
srresses over the cross section of a beam are linear. As shown in Figure F I, they vary
from maximum compression at the extreme fibers on one side (!he top) to zero at the
neurral, or centroidal, axis to maximum tension at the extreme fibers on the other side
(the boitont.
Therelationship between moment and maximum bending s(ess (lension or compres
sion) at a given cross section is
M=Sfi (29)
=!,
,, = n1aximunl bending stress, ksi
/  motnenr of inedia of the cross section about its centroidal axis, in.'
. = distance fiom the elastic neutral axis to the extreme fiber. in.
Sinxlarly. at jnitial yieldinc
ltl, = SE (210)
Iladdnionalload 1s applied, the strains continue io in.rease: the str.sses, however. are,
lirured lo{. Yielding proceeds from the outer fibers inward untjl a plastic hinge is
developed. as shosn inFigureFl. At ful1 plastificarion ofthe cross sectiot
Mo = zF, (21r)
\
STRAINS srPfSSrs
Bta .
T \'\;%"
tlotuing
Lood Yielding
lniliol Ploslic
Hinge
Compact sections will not experience local buckling before the formation ofa plastic
hinge. The occuneoce of lateraltorsional buckling of the member depends on the
unbnced length l,,. As implied by the term la.eraltorsional buckling. overall instability
of a beam requires that twisting ofthe m€mber occur simultaneously wiih lateral buckling
of the compression flange. a6 is the distance between points braced to prevent twist of
the cross section. Many beams can be considered con inuously braced; e.9., beams
ruppodine a mctal deck. ifrhe deLk i\ inrernurllnrly $elded ro $e Lompresion flange.
Compact wide llange and channel members bending aboul their major (or x) axes can
develop their full plastic moment M, without buckling if t, < 1,. If a6 = l"
the nominal
flexural saenglh is M. the moment at flrst yielding adjusted for residual stresses. The
nominal moment capacity lM") fot Lp < Lb < L, ts M, < .14" < nlp. Compact shapes bent
about th€n minor (or y) axes wil not buckle b€fore developing Me. reeardless of r,.
Fl€xural design strength, govemed by the limit state of lateraltorsional buckling, is
q,rl4^. where O, = 0.90 and M" the nominal flexural strength is as follo$ s:
M"= Mp = z,F, fot bendtng about the major axis if 4 < l" (2t3)
M,= M,= zi"fotbe d]ng about the minor axis regardless of L, (214)
(2ts)
L^
' =4!
.,/4 = a2.a,. forsok$steel
(t., t.'\
M"= M, (M, M) f I
(2t't)
\1. L,
)
The definidon for ahe limiting laterally unbruced length I, is given in the LRFD
Specification (in Equations Fl6, 8, and 9) and will not be repeated here. For bendins
abour .he major axis if l, > ,.
(218)
The case of I, > I. is beyond the scope of this section. The reader is refered io Section
Fl.2b of LRFD Specification (specificaly Equation Fl13, where th€ critical moment
AIIEMNlxs11]1rGSlECdffiudoN
2 30
ESSENTIALS OF LRFD
Tabte F_1.
Values ol Cb tor Stmpty Supported Beahs Bral :ed al Ends of
Span
Lrreral Blactng Atonq Span
Conc€nirared al center
1.32
1_67
1,14
1.30
M. i' conlrolied bv laterahonional bucktrngr. This case rs also colered in rhe beam
graphs rn Pan 4 ofthis LRm Manuat
b. All values of C,
G i\ the bendjng coefficienr. A neq erpression for C, is
srven jn $e LRFD SDecifi.
cdlron. (ll rs more accuraF gan the oneprevioust!
shown.r
t2.sM^,,
25M^", +3MA + 4MB + 3M. (F13)
' (,t\
"l '' """"r,)l=''
M"=CblM,tM"M)llL tFt'2'
If Lb> L,,
M,=M.,<CN,arldMp
Qm)
AI,IIC1N INSTM OF SEIL CONSTRKION
F BEAMS AND OIIIER FLEXTJRAI MEMAERS
key coordinaaes are (4, C, M) and (L,, C6 M,). Nole thal M, cannor exce€d the plastic
mom€nt Mp. l,., lh€n, can be derived gmphically as the upper limit of Z, for which M" =
Mp.If Lb> L,, thebearlr. graphs in Pan 4 of the LRFD Manual can be used to determine
EXAI'PLE Fl
Given: Seleat the required W shape for a 3ofoot simple floor beam with full
lateral suppon carrying a dead load (including its own weigho of 1.5
kips per linear foot and a live load of 30 kips per liDear foot. Assume
50 ksi steel and:
4Np
cb=t.o
un
CI,
Mcrlor Cb1.0
Lp LI
Lb
Table F 2.
Excerpt lrom Load Factor Deslgn Selection Tabl6
(LRFD Manual, Pan 4)
F.rF =sotsl
 (klFlt)
rr (n) r,(fi)
zr 0n.3) Shap€ {klFft)
224 8/O 588 6.9 18.6
221 W21v93 829 576 6.5 19,4
212 79s 570 13.2 46.2
211 791 564 9.4 27.4
a.In Table F2, the most economical beams are in boldfac€ print. Of
the boldfaced b€ams, the lightest one with O,rV" = O,,t4p > 743 kipft
is a W24x76
EXAMPLE F.2
Given: DetermiDe the flexural design str€ngfi ofa 30ft lolrg simply suPported
W24x76 gbder (of 50 ksi st€el) with a concentat€d load and lat€ral
suppo( both at midsPan
Soluion: FIom Table F1, C, = 1.67
L = r8.0 fr
I '
(750 528)kiPftx
150ft68!l
ortt" = L6717s0 kiPft  t80 f 63 ft]
L
V tsi x dt"
= 30.0 (22r)
l"U=21Sksix dt"
Fo( 5s <ls1a,
u =3o.ol<jx&"xh
ro,l,u,
u =ffi^o"
(223)
o,u=ffia'ni
tEITr
Fit. F3. D.fuinoLt 4d Eandt lorw ad chr'''!l thaN'
ArG c N hsnnttsoF STEE @Nst
jcrs
€ssENTrNS OF LRFD
234
EXAMPLE F3
Given:
fxl
:::',I,l::il""x1il#T*:$?,n"il::::.T:'1'""'":;:ffi
Reouired shearsnengrh = U= l2D+ l6L
solutbn:
= 1.2 ' 100 UP" Iox r50lips
= 360 KPs
giv€n in
and the rererences
,n" specirlcation and commentarv
Yi1?ffJ,1?1".r
$e Coiffnentary'
'*
ANDTORSION
H. MEMBERS UNDER
COMSINED FORCES
e'li"hape'' P'vemed
Tffi :;::ffi.f.::lli:'il:i'i:[il:;il
:{llri:ff Hl1a Hllb' and as rorrows:
by Equaiions
ro.fi>oz.
e gi ,v a,. l<ro (H1la)
r*f*.0.2,
a .( u  u'\3 v.s
(Hllb)
zqr, ,tl o, lz"'
l o, )
EXAMPLE H.l
ksi sleel ro
Given: Che(k $e adequacv of a Wl0\)2 lension memb€r of 50
carn loads resultrne rn the tollowrng factored load combinalion:
P, = SS tip"
M= 20 kipft
.!'*!.10
z{.p, Q,M.
P, .8 Al'
7Errfr
0.20 P"
!/!!.\,J!='
2lQPn/ 6bvn
0.9 A 5111 Q6lln
Ilu
EXA'i.IPLE H2
civen: Ch€ck rhe same tension member, a Wl0x22 in50 ki steel,4.0 ft long,
subjected ro the following combinarion of facrord loads:
P,  140 kips
M".:55 kipfi
M^=0
C' =l0
Solution: Again. 04, = 292 kips
a*g_L<
e
r.o
bP" 6"M,
From Seclon F above for s!k'i stEel. M^= MF= 2,4 = 50 ksi x e for
majoraxis bending ifh < 1" for (C, = 1.0).
in
t=tl4,
' !,' 1!
l.l rn /it =a:n
14= 1.0 fi < I+ = 4;l ft
Then M = 50 ksi x Z
ttt4
0.m x 50 kix 26.0 in.'
eo = 12 inlft
= 97.5 kipft for a Wl0x22 member
3, 8M =647e*8^
" 9
55!.P{
q7 5 bPtl
qn oq, U
= 0.479 + 0.501 = 0 980 < 1.0 o.k'
P, = required compressive strength; i.e.. lh€ tolal factored compressive force' kips
44 . design cornpressive srcng6. O" P,, kips
O = resistance factor for colnpression. O, = 0 85
P" = nominal compressive slrengfi as defined in Chapter E oflhe LRFD Specifi
cation, kips
M, = required flexural saength including second'order effects, klp_in
or kiP'ft
0, M, = design flexural strength, kipin or kipft
0, = resistance facaor for flexure = 0.90
M" = nominal flexumt strength from ChaPter F of the LRFD Specification,
kipin
or kipft
The secondorder analysis required for M, involves the determination of the additional
momenl due to the actiot of the axial compressive forces on a deformed structuie. In li€u
of a secondorder analysis, lhe simplified method given in Chapter C of the LRFD
Specific ion (and in Section C above) may b€ used. However, in applying the simplified
me$od. the addidonal moments obtained for bean"columns must also be distributed to
connecled members and connections (to satisfy equilibrium)
P = P+ M.n+ M.fiu
n,, = equivalenl axial ioad to be checked against the column load table, krps
n,M^,M," arc deftned in the Interaction Equations for compression and bending
are racbr\ labulated in $i\ LRFD Manual Pan l
As soon as a satisfactory lrial section has been found (i.e., one for which e a < tabulaied
Ct), a finat verification should be made with the appropriate lnteraction Equadon.
Hl la o' H llb
EXAMPLE H.3
r! =4 02in
Kl / r, = (r4.O ftx 12 in.ltt) I 6.43 in. = N.l
Kl / r,  (14.O ftx 12 in.m) /4.02 in. = 41.8
since 4 = +g+9
O. P" l.Y4u kps
= 0.72 > 0.2. tnreracrion Equaron H r.ra
govenrs.
'
3,=4
on/e,)
t1.6
Mt/ M, = +1.0
c^ = 0.6
_0.4(1.0) 0.2
=
From Tabl€ C_li
 (r _p,4/4,.) ==
4,,= 0.2
 _6EFZrte;p, (r =0.2
" c _
a*=tt_ p., 0.2
\ r,r _l/oo=r"p, z 95 kipr=0.2
Use Ar. = 1.0, per E{uation C l 2
402n
L= 42.4,. =124>
12 ,
^.th_=t4.2ft
Since 4 = 14.0ft<Zr= l4.Zfr.M*= Mp,= 2,4
M =Mp,=4F,
6,4 = 0.90y 50 ksi = 45.0 ksi
0,M,,= s,.{ z =
119!!i.]!1{ = 6u kiprt
By Interaction Equation Hl_ta
i#ffi .
3(ffi .
#H"l *
:,;::i:. ",
= 0.97 < 1.0
W14xl?6i! o.k.
EXAIiIPLE H{
Given: Check the adequacy of a W14xl76 beamcotumn (4 = 50 ksi) in an
unbrac€d synmeirical frame subiected to the following factored
KL  Ky L, = 14.0 ft
m index,4,/, < 0.0025 (or te)
tP, = 24,000 kiPs
tt= 800 kips
Md = 300 kipft
According to Equation Cl4.
R,
' =J =
rP" lA* l r 444!E ro.oozs r

' tt ITJ krps 6UU
General Notes
EXAMPLE 3.'I
Given: Design the light€st W shape of4 = 50 ksi steel ro supporr a facrored
concentric load of 1,400 kips. The effecrive length wirb respect !o
its minor axis is 16 feet. The effective lengrh wilh respect ro its
major axis is 3l feet.
Gr Gp 6a 66
SIDESWAY INHIBIIED
SIDESWAY UNINHIBITED
#"!.!. !r*y":y^
tu sub'cnpts t ,urd.cnv.
A oid A aftt
tash orcotatus
at fi.
in.M,iauoulha,n s.
,
bens.ohridead
the loiaK tuo eads d th. .otuia !r.tio,
G is dafih.d at
^ r^t, / t )
2(t./ L"t
,:.:!,!1,*::^, ,*y,on.of hdb;r nsdtr.onn..kd arr
trrne 04 the pt4n? in Aht.h btuAhB rc rhol ud joint
o! th? .oluM k b.ihe conyd"red. I. is
,h?
^r.! thp t.n8th ot a col@^ y(lio . oad j,
:.:":,.::..1*".
honat oJ n. @ and Ls is rtu u^uppotkd tpa}lh
.uhsuppotpd
^
h?
ofa gird., _ ,,rr, *ri"^,i
d?tnb.r t. tdnd IE ap nlpa about u.s pe,pendi
ulat to h. ptaae oJbu.thns bcnS
Table 3'1'
Stilfn*s Reduction FactoB (SRRlor Columns
26 0.38 0.82
42 o.a5
41 ., .o_16o09 25
24
0.45
0.52 o.8a
40
39
' :aa 23 0.58 0.90
22 0.65 0.93
38 0.95
o33 21 070
o.g7
36 , . 0.38 2a 0.76
0.98
' :q44 19 0.81
0.99
0.85
u 0.49
'0.54
18
'17 0.89 1,00
g.6s 16 0.92 J
32
0.63 15 0.95
31
0,97
30 .* o.67
0.99
0.14 o.71 13
29
0.75 12 1.00
28 .t
21 0,30 0.79 11
EXAMPLE 3.2
1 . Pr€lininary selectionl
Assume sidesway uninhibit€d and pincoonected at base.
x=2.0
Approximal€ effectiv€ lengh relarive to XX axis:
2.0xll=22.0ft
From ftopenies sertion in tables, for Wl2 column:
r,/ \ 1.16
Try W12x106
c(top) =6ffiffioxe."vo.zs
Connect points Gl= l0 and 6, = 0.26, read,K = l.?5
For Wl2xl06, r./r,= l.?6
Actual effective l€ngtb relative to Y,Y axis:
x11.0=10.9ft<11.0ft
Since the effeative lengrh for YY axis is not critical,
EXAIi.IPLE 3€
Given: Using the alignment chan, Figure 3 I (sidesway uninhibited) and Table
3, 1 (Stifhess Reducrion Facto$), design colunms for the bent shown,
by the in€lastic lf'facto. proced'ne. l€t { = 50 ksi. Assume continuous
suppod in lhe transve.rse direction,
Solution: The alignmenl charts in Figur€ 3l arc applicable to elastic colufirns.
By multiplying Cvalues tim€s the stiffness rednclion factor g, ,/ e the
chans may be used for inelastic columns.
Assume Wl2xl20
A = 35.3 in.1,1.: I,0?0 in I, r, = 5.51 in.
2.Ca1 \^e n /Al
P,/A= 1,100 kips / 35.3 in.': = 3L2 ksi
4. Determine C.h"d":
C,,," (bonom) = l0
t, t00 k
I Yll StJl
tt2, Jz
/ l5
c.e (roP) =
l 070
ii5;: = 3.80
t.a*<r,o>=ffff=t.+t
5. GLa"d, (tap) = 0.17 x 4.41 = 3.39
6.K2.3
1, KL,=23 x t5 ft=34.5tt
8. Eoui",r.nr KL . 4. l1.s fi rY 5 il
=
lt7=
9.0" 4 = I,l35kips> I,l00kjpsrcq'd o.k,
Us€ Wl2xl36
aoanh'd: Cofutu s
A "lcDitrg" column ia onc which is considered pincndcd rnd does not panicipate in
Foviditrg latdal sbbility to thc sEuctuIe. As a rclult, i! rElics on othcr prrts of tbc
stucturc for srability. Thc LRFD Sp.cification h Scction C2.2 t.quires lhat for unbraccd
fi'&ncs,'thc dastabiliring cficct ofgsvitylordcd columns who6e simplc conncclions
General
Beams are proponioned so that no applicabte strengrh timit stare is €xceeded when
subj€cted to factored loadconbinarions and that no serliceabitir! limil state is exceed..t
$hen subtecred ro 5e jce loads. Srrength lrmit .rdte. for beam.'rnctude to.at buLkns
Ialeral rorsional bucurng. and yieldrng. Scr!rcedbitir) hnur \rd'e, nra!,n\tude, bur a:e
not limited to. deflection and vibrariot
The flexuml design srrengrh for beams musr equai or €xceed lhe required srrengrh
based on th€ factored loads. The design strength
0,y'1, for eactj appticabl€ tinit stare sh;li
equal or exceed the maximum momenr M! as de(emrined from rhe appticabie factored
load combinations given in Section ,44 ofthe LRFD Specificarion. V;lues of
O/dt, are
tabulated in the pages ro follow. These vaiues are based on b€am behalror shown in
Figure 4l and explained in the foltowjsg,llis€ussion.
It shosld b€ noted thar rbe LRFD Specificarion expresses values fb, moments and
lengths in kipin. and inches. In this and other parls ofrhe LRFD Manuat. rhese vatues
are tabulared in kipft and feet.
The required strength can be determined by eirhei eta(ic or plastic anallsij.
6n4,
O, = 0.90
(cak, u,)
L:P Lfr I, L,
Lb
Fig.41
M,= nominal flexural strength as determined by the limit state of yielding. lateral
brsional buckling. or local buckling
Flexural D$lgn Strengih for C, = 1 .0
Conpact Sections (Cb = .0) 1
The fl€xural design strength of compact (flange and web local buckling l,s l,)
Ishap€d and Cshaped rolled beams (as defined iD Section 85 ofthe LRFD Spe€ification)
b€nt about the najor or minor axis is:
QA{"=O6r4P=4"z4 / 12
In minor axi!4drllelhisjs q!€ for all unbraced lengths. but for bending ibout lhe major
axis the distance 14 between points braed?Sainst tateral movement of lhe compression
flange or between poinls braced ao prevenr twist of the crosssection shall not exceed rhe
value ap (see Figure 4l).
, 300r"
(Fl4)
When,!<L,Sa,
The flexural design strength of compacl l or C rolled shapes bent about the major axis,
ftom LRFD Sp€cification Section Fl .2, is:
/, ,)
qtJV^ = qtr.t,  q"(M,  M,lT Js OU,
\1.1,)
where the limiting len$h r. and the corresponding buckling moment M, Gee Figure 4 I )
are determined as follows:
,.=*{r+./r
\t"t.)
+x,\EE), (Fl6)
.'=t:'[ry (Fl8)
.,+G+l (Fr,9)
Values of J and C are tabulated for some shapes in Part I of the LRFD Manual For
values not shown. s€e fo.s ional Analvsis of Sreel Mern,?r'r (AISC' 1983)'
/n) rp*($
ra4,=q"M",= o,l') $"
7,P=640t.[E
1", =qa /,{E
(uu\
t,'= t,*tr L)\i, t+
)
Sections with a widthto{hickness raaio exceeding lhe sPecified values for L are
slender shapes and must be analyzed using LRFD SPecification APpendix 85 3
The flexural design strengfi of noncompact I or C rolled shap€s bent about the major
aris is determined bY:
/ ,\
oh" = Ld\rD qb\M D  M't L!],]]1< i,M"'
\L4t
ln lhe lrad Factor Design Selection Table, in the case of the noncompact shapes, the
values of Orl4"' and rp' are tabulated as 014, and 1". The formlla above may be used with
the tabulated values.
\2.5M* (Frl)
cr=
2.5M.^,+ 3Ma+ 4MB+3M"
where Mis the absohrte value ofa moment in ahe unbraced beam segment as followsi
Valu€s for C, for some typical loading conditions are given in Table 41.
Tabl€ 41.
Value3 ot Cb tor Simpty Supported Beam3
Cb
f"irJ:r/1
d#td
IEEIED
I t.30 t.Ja I
Fot I^> L,
u=ff^,[ry' I'4G'j
Tbe value of C, for which Ih or lh' equds I, for arly rolled shape is:
' (4  10)s,
4n4"=O,rr^'<qb I,
When Lr > 4'
The flexural design strelgth is:
., .. \c4. !;JL!")
CbIM, M)
Fot L^' > L,
, G'r
AAI,= 4,1r,
O, = 0.90
Mp= zJat t2 ktpfl
The yield stengih ofrnaterial that may be used wilh plastic analysis islimited to 65 ksi. Plastic
anatysis is limited to compacl shap€s as defined in Table 85. I of lbe LRFD Specification as:
_qtM,_ M)
L,. LP
use ot $e Table
Determine the required plastic secrion modulus Z. fiom the maximum factored moment
nr'. (kipfr) using the desired steel yield strEngth.
_ rzM,
O'rf
Enier the colutur headed a and find a value equal to or greater than the plastic section
modulus required. Alrematively, enter rhe
Q,:,l/, cotunm and find a value;f Olr, equal
to or greater than rhe required facrored load moment. The beam opposite these values
(.2. or O,i4) in the shapes colurnn, and aU b€ans above it,
hav€ sufiicie;r flexural strength
based only on these parameters. The firsr beam appearing in boldface type adjacenr
t;
above the required Z or OrV! is the lightest section that will serve for tlriiteet
vield strcs
used in fie cdlcularions. If rhe beam must nol er.ceed a cerrain deprh. proceed
up $e
colurtur fieaded "Shape" untit a beam wirhin the required depttr is reiched.
After a shape has been selected, the following checks should be made. If the lareral
bracing of the compressrve flange exceeds le. bur is tess $an l rhe design nexural
srfeneth may be calculated as follows:
0"=0.m
If a defle.tion linitation aho exisrs, the adequacy of the sel€cted beam shoukt be checked
accordinsly.
EXAMPLE 4.1
Use W16x40
= 1.01294  (11.7)(5.0 _
4.j)l
= 288 kipfr > 56 kipft rEq'd o.k.
AW18x40 is satisfacrory
Altenate Enter the column of orri1e values and nore the tabulared value neerest
solution and higher than the iequind facrored mom€nr (Mr) is 261 kipft, which
(Me nethod): corresponds ro a Wl4x43. Scannidg the Qrrt values for shapes listed
,
higher in the column, a Wl6x40 is found to be the ligbtest suilable
shape with l,, < I".
Use Wl6x4o
EXAMPLE 4.2
Solulion: Eoter the lrad Facror Design Table and note thar for a Wl6x40, 4=
36 ksi:
EXAIIPLE +3
Aiven: Sel€ct a b€am of 4 = 50 ksi steel subjected to a factored uniform
bending moment of 30 kipft having its compr3ssion flang€ braced at
4.0ft intervals and a depth of eight inches or less. Assume C, = I .0.
Soluion Assume shape is compact and Z, < ap
lZ. nethod:
_ ,. t2M"
z,rcqo= _=_ t2(30) =80inl
0,4 0.e(50)
E$ter the load Factor Design Selection Table and not€ that for a
W8xl0, = J0 ksi, tlr€ sh3pe is noncompact, however, tbe maximum
19
resisting moment S,1}r, listed in the 0,1yp column is adequate. Funher
' note:
TABLE
FACTOR DESIGN SELECTION
For shaPes used as beams
io30o 1/Koo
9639
134!0
7663
t0?ll0
10'!00
419 84,4 4560
't420
'17!
14.6 2420 3830
,1?,? 6Ls'l
'16,i 14.8 3a30 1420 61.s l
36.4 13.2.
2400 3a30 1420 543
8,4 15.6 '€:6.. I
d"w:l+.1goi **";aur!f!4a
35.6
ceneral Notes
Spacing of lateral bracing at distances greater lhan a, creates a probl€m in which the
designer is confton ed with a given laterally unbraced length (usualv less than the tolal
span) along the compression flange, and a calculat€d r€quired bending momenl. The
benm cannot be selected from its pl.stic section modulus alone, since deplh, flange
proportions, and other prcperties have an influence on i& bending strenglh
The following chans show the design moment 0'n{" for W and N4 shapes of 4 = 36 ksi
[
and = 50 ksi steels, used as beams, with resp€ct to lhe maximum unbmced length for
whicil this moment is permissible. In bending. O' of 0 9 is given in Section Fl .2 of the
LRFD Specification. The chans extend over varying unbraced lenglhs, depending upon
the flexural str€ngths of the beams represented. [n general. they extend beyond most
unbraced lengths frequently encountered in design Practice The d€sign motnent Sdlt^,
kipfl. is plotted with respect lo the unbraced lenglh with no considemtion of the moment
due to weight of the beam. Design moments are shown for unbraced lengths in feet,
sianing at spans less than lp, for spans between rp and t. and for spans beyond ,.
The unbraced length r,. in feet, with the limir indicateC by a solid svmbol. a, is rhe
nuximum unbraced length of the compression flange, with C, = 1.0, for which the desiSn
monent is given by 0,t1p,
r_+
luu'\
(r L")li_
4. =
M.)
L  br/2tr
;"/ =65/i{
L, = l4t /.lF, 4,
z, =;=tr1 +il +x1r4  4 r' (F16)
x, = \.,[E_L (F18)
I (t I
=a,ch)M" _tM, M.. " ' ]). a"+r,
6,t'1,
 LP)l
'
The unbraced length 1,, ft. with the limit indicated by an oper symbojo, is
lhe
maximurn unbraced lengrh ofthe compression ftange beyond whi;h
rhe desjgn rnonent
is govemed by Specification Secrion Fl.2b. For unbraced lengths greater
rh; r,:
In,cornputing the points for tbe curves, C, in rhe above formulas was taken
_ a.s unitt
E= 29,000 ksi and 6 = I I ,200 ksi. The properties of the beams are taken from the
Tabl;s
of Dimensions ,nd Properties in pan I of rhis LRFD Manual. The beam strengrhs
hav;
been reduced by mukiptying the nominat flexumi srrength
M, by 0.9, the resish;c€ fac0or
0, for flexu.e.
Over a limited range of tength, a given beam is the lighrest available
for various
combinarionsof unbraced lengrh and design moment. The chans are Cesigned to assist
in selection of the lightesr available beam for rhe given combination_
The solid ponion of each curve indicares the most €conomical se.rion
by weighr. The
dash€d portion of each curve indicates ranses in which a lighter
weight bearn wiii satisif
lhe loading conditions.
. The curves are plorted without regail to shear strenglh and deflection crileria, rherefore
du€ care must be exercised in their use. The curles ao not exrena
*yona an arlirrarf
spar/depth ljmit of 30.
The following examples ilustrate the use offte chans.
EXAMPLE 4.8
With total span equal to 35 f.tt and M"= 44t) klpftj assume approxi
male weight of beam at 70 lbvft (e4ual to 0.07 kipsfft).
Use:W2lx68
Note: If depth is limited. a W14x82 could be selected, provided
deflection conditions arc not crilical.
EXAMPLE 4.9
For this loading condition, C, = 1.67 (by cornparison with Table 41).
with an unbraced leng& of 15 feet. Wilh the total span equal to 60 feet
and M, = 440 kipft, assume approximaie weight of beam at 60 lbsfft
(0.06 kipsffl).
l
fo 06 \ 160l
Total M =440+1:,/1.2I
1,'4 I
M
",*,
 462 I  .6'7 = 217 klpk
Enter chads wi& unbraced length equal to 15 feet and proceed upward
to 277 kipfi. Any beam listed above and o the right of the poinr
satisfies lhe design moment.
12,000
11,600
11,200
10,800
10,400
10,000
9600
E
9200
a
8800
84oO
8000
:
o 7600
6
7200
6800
6400
6000
5600
5200
4800
4400
'\0 16 22 2A 34 40 46 s2 58 64 70 76 82
UNBRACED LENGTH (1.5tr inc€menrs)
COMPOSITE BEAMS
Coneral Notes
The Composite Beam Tables .an be used for the design and amlysis of simple composite
steel beams. Values for the design flexural strengrh QM, for rolled lshaped beams with
yi€ld strengths of 36 ksi and 50 ksi are tabulated, as well as lower bound moments of
inerria. The values tabulat€d are independent of the concrete flang€ PloPenies. The
strength evaluation of the concrete flange portion of the composite section is left to the
design engineer The preparation of these tables is based upon the fact that the location
of.he plastic neutral axis (PNA) is uniquely determined by dle horizontal shear force
t0. at the interface between the steel seciion and the concret€ slab. With the knowledge
of the location of the PNA and the dislance to the cenaoid of the concrete flange force
!0,, the design flexural strenglhs QM, for ihe rolled section can be computed.
DellEn Flerurul Slrongth (Poslilve)
The design flexural strength of simple steel beams with composite concrete flanges is
computed from the €quilibdum of intemal foices using the plastic stress distribution as
shown in Figure 5 I :
0 = 0.85
4, = sum of tensile forces = 4 x (tensile force beam area)
Cd= sum ofcomprcssive forces = concrete flange force + fi x (compressive force
, = momen! arm between centroid of tensile force and the resultant compressive
The model used in the calculation of the d€sign strenghs rabulated herein is given in
Figue 52. A sunnury of the model propenies follows:
, o .l
_l
T 1
(d2k)it"<644/8
:0,(min.)=025AJc
the limitation of toi (nin.) is not rcquired by the Specification, but is d€€med to be
a gactical midmum value. Design shenglh mom€nt values are tabulared for plastic
n€utrai axis (PNA) locations at the top and intemediate quancr poinrs Orcugh the
rhickness of the steel beam top flange. In addiiion, PNA locations are compuled at th€
point where tC, equals 0.2544, and the point where :O, is th€ average of the minimum
value of (0.2544) and th€ value of:4, when the PNA is at rhe bottom of the lop flarge
Ge! Fieure s3).
To use the tables, select a valid value of tO,, determine the appropriare value of n
and read the design flexuml strengrh moment SM, dircctly. Values for yl are also
labulated for convenience. The parameten yl and ).2 are defined as foltows:
Valid values for :O" are the smaller of the fouowing three expressions (LRFD
Specifi cation Section I5):
0.85iA.
A"{
no,
Concrcte FlenEe
According to LRm Specification Section 13.1 the €ffective widlh of the concrete slab
on each side of the beam centerline shall noa exceed:
The maximum concrete flang€ force is equal to 0.85 /" A" where A" is based on the
actual slab thickness, t . However, often the maximum concrete flange force exce€ds rhe
maximum capacity of the sp€rified steel beam. In ahat cale, rhe effecaire concrete flange
force is det€rmined ftom a value of tO,, which will be the smaller of Ad or rO,. The
effective concrete flange force is:
l';nAffifi
y_ _________
PNA FU
____s_:,
6E L)CA )t'lS
5 )an
Fi8.53. Cohpotne tua table paruneters.
2Q,=c.*=085f;ba
2Q"
'= 0.85t'b
Y2=Y"^a/2
Shear Conn€ctors
Shear connectors musr be headed sreel shrds, not less than four stud diameters in length
afier insiallation, or hoirolled sreel channels. Shear connecrors must be embedded in
concrete slabs made wirh AS IM C33 aggregate or wirh rorary kitn produced aggregares
conforming to ASTM C330. wirh concrete unil weight nor less than 90 pcf.
The nominal strength ofone srudshearconnectorembedded in a solid concrete stab isi
Teble 51.
NominalSlud Shear Shength Or (kips) for %ln Headed Studs
an
(ksi) (kips)
115 '17,7
3.0
3.0 145 2t.o
3.5 115 19.8
3.5 145. 23.6
4.0 115 21.9
24.1
Lateral Support
Adequate lateral support for the compression flange of the steel section will be provided
by th€ concrere slab after hardening. Dunng construction, howeYer. lateral suPport must
be provided, or the design strength musi be reduced in accordance with Section Fl ofthe
LRFD Specification. Steel deck with adequate attachment to the compression flange will
usuauy provide lhe necessary lateral suppol Forconsttuctlon using fully encas€dbear$,
'
, , *  t).(+)ra n n  r^^r
^,1^ ^
y"N"
= alistance frorn bottom of beam to elastic neutrai
axis (ENA)
f+(+)"..,1
' \''/ I
l,,Eo.I
l"''l r ll
L \
"/r
Compo3lte Beam Reactlons
Design r€actions for syrrunetrically loaded composite beams may be cornputed using the
Composite Beam Tables. Ttvo sit'Jarions will be considered. Flstl an upper bound value
for a beam reaction may be computed neglecting the composite concrete flange properties
other than concrete strenglh. Second, a more refined value for a bean reaction can b€
computed if the properties of the composite concrete flange arc determined initiatly.
When the properties of the composite concrete flange have not been computed, a
conservalive value for the maximum horizontal .shear between the composite concrere
slab and the steel section (to,i may be taken as the srnaller ofA.4 or nC,. Here, n is the
number of headed studs between the reaction poinl and point of ma{mum moment. The
value of O. inay be laken from Table 5 1 or determined ftom LRFD Specification Section
15. A value for 0M, of the composite section may b€ obtained ftom the Composite Beam
Tables using lhe snm ofhorizontal shear:O" as described above. In this case, f2 is defmed
as the distance from the lop of the sleel beam to the top of lhe concrete slab. Th€ design
reaction may be determined from the value'of OM" as discussed in the following
paragraph.
Wten the Foperties of ih€ concrete flange have be€n computed (effectiv€ width and
depth), a slightly different method is used to find OM". The stud etriciency can be
determined in accordance with Section 15 of the LRFD Specification, or Table 5l can
be used for 7ain. diameter stud shear connectors. The value for the sum of the horizontal
shear force :C^ can be taken as the smaller of nC,, A,4, or 0.85t'A., where, is the
concrete cylinder stength (ksi) and A" is the maximum permitted concrete flange area
(LRFD Specification Section I5.2). The distance n is the distance from rhe rop of the
steel beam to the top of the concrete slab less [:O, / (0.85r?)] / 2. Using these values
fo.:8, and f2, the value for 0M, can be selected fion the Composite Beam Tables.
concrara oreo=
x*
dtY2Y0u
ta
=i ll
JL
Fii.54. Mohe t ofirenia.
R= CAM"/ L
ffi
l,c I
Lc=c
c"a ll
R=__
Fig.55. Beam rcaction coefcists'
EXAMPLE S1
Solution: A.lnadtabulation:
load
Service Facto.ed load
(kipYft) (L.F.) (kipvft)
LL r.3 (1.6) 2.t
DL 0.9 (1.2) 1.1
Total 2.2 3.2
Beam moments
&=3.2cQ),n=360k1pft
Mu= 1.3(30)'18 = l46ktpft
C. Select section and d€t€rmine properties:
I
Beamwerphl=l Mt2t
 l
lr4
 .' lratz+v"olzn)
where
Y"=3+3.25=6.25in.
d / 2= 1 in. (estimate)
0 = 0.85
4 = s0 ksi
d ;j
M.i12\(3.4\
dl2 (Ya/2\ Beam Wergbr
9/',
ffi
18 346 9 5.25 U
AreN INsmuE oF Sl@ anNmudoN
COMPOSIIE BEAMS 5, l1
nR5
Reducrion factor = tw, / h,)\H,/ h. 1.0\a l 0
ffi
=
o15,ol lus.s r, ,.0,= (ulJ
v2 '.0
N.  number of stud comectors in one rib; not to exceed ihree
in computations, although more than three may be insialled
lr. = average width of rib, in.
,r, = nominal rib height, in.
Il, = length of stud connector after welding, in.; not to exce€d
the value (i. + 3) in computaiions, although actual length
may be greater. Also must not be less than four stud
diam€t€rs
The value for 11, = 5.5 was selected to ensur€ the stud capacity
rcduction faclor is 1.0.
The d$ign bcam reaclion for a slmmetrica.lly loaded compcite bcan rnay be
computed ftom known values of 0M, and rhe span lengd as:
R=cAM"/ L
[ M'(12)
Bcam weichi
 {tt/fir =
/2 + y_ a/z\oF,)]r.4
LU
For convenience in the preliminary setection phase the nominal dcprh may b€ used. A
value for a/2 must also be s€lected. For relarively light s€ctions ard loads, this value can
b€ assumed lo bc on€ inch. Wirh lhe PNA at lhe rop of lhe sted b€am. i.c., tC, = A"F.
the flc\ural dcsign strenSth is:
llfr.rrrr
l,e I
EXAMPLE 5"1
Given: Determine the belm, wirh 4 = 50 ksi, required 0o suppon a s€rvice live
load of 1.3 kipsfft and a service dead load of 0.9 kpvfr. The beam span
is 30 ft and the beam spacing 10 ft. The slab is 3t4in. light weight
concrete (n'= 3.5 ksi, 115 pcf) support€d by a 3in. deep composite
metal deck with an average rib widrh ofsix inches. The ribs are oriented
perp€ndicular to the beam. Shored construction is specfied. Also,
determin€ th€ number of %in. diameter head€d studs requir€d and the
service live load deflection
Solulion: A.lradtabularion:
load
Service Factorcd load
(kipsfl) (L.F.) (kipvft)
LL 1.3 (1.6) 2.1 .
DL 0.9 (\.2) l.t
Total 2.2 3.2
B€am moments
M = 3.2(30)'
"
18 = 360 krpft
Mz= 1.3(30),/8 = 146 kjPft
L@/2+y*an,aE)'
wherc
YM =3+3.25=6.25in.
a/2= 1 in. (estimate)
Q = 0.85
4 = 50 ksi
ffi
l8 346 9 5.25 24
Reducrion facror = E
1N'
tw , / h,)\H / h, 1.u)< l.O
The value for F/, = 5.5 was selected to enswe the stud capacity
reductior factor is 1.0.
E. Check deflection:
. MJ1 t46\J0), ^ ^^
o"= L L
4i4:<360 o'k'

roi.= rortsssr=081in
n Shear check:
{ = 3.2(15) = 48 kips
0v = 00.64""4"
= (0.9X0.6X50)(15.69 x 0.250)
= 106 kps > 48 kips req'd o.k.
EXAMPLE 5.2
Given: D€termine th€ beam, with 4 = 50 ksi, re4uired ro suppo( a servic€ live
load of 250 psf and a rervice dead load of 90 psl Tbe beam span is
40 fr and the beam spacing js t0 ft. Assume 3 in. metal deck is used
with a 4.5 in. slab of4 ksi normal weight concrete (145 pcf). Th€ stud
reduction factor is l 0_ Unshored construction is sp€cified. Determine
the beam size and service dead and live load deflecrions. Also select a
nonccmposite section (no shear connectors).
Solution: A.liadtabDlation:
load
Service Factored load
(Lip5/fr) (L.F.) (kips/ft)
LL 2.s (1.6) 4.0
DL 0.9 (r.2\ 1.1
Total 3.4 5.1
B. Beam moments:
Try a W24x55:
r =50ks'
?2 = 6.5 in.
COM?OSITE BEAMS
n = 0.0 in.
C" = 810kips
OM,= 1,050 kipft
compute !2 for tO" = 8 lo kips:
check:
E. Constructlon phase strength
a.nnsmrclion liv€ toadof20 pstwill be a'sumed Flom the LRFD
retevanr load combinationr are
i'oJi*ru.i is*,i* eo 1)' rhe
l8o{sf
,"' = 161r1.350) = r..l: in.
n,
the lowerbound
For$e W2ax55 wirh f2 = 6 5 in andvl=00rn
."."i"irt*i.. rtLrnd in thelnwerBound Ltasdc Momenl
"
,tu = 4'060 in "
'fIneniaTablesi
n.. =!!q(1ql= 1.22io.
* 16l(4,060)
L .f,
 393  360 ".t.
of lyrin to overoome the dead load
Specify a beam camber
deflection.
G. Cbeck shearl
0y= Q(0.6)F_,4"
= (0.9X0.6X50)(23.57 x 0.395)
= 251 kips > 102 kips o.k
H. Final section selection:
l. Noncomposite section:
I80(40t)
4",==o55in
 l6l(3,270)
50or40):
1.,==t7t6inc
. 161(1.33)
Use: W30x9, 4 = 50 ksi. OM" = QrW, = 1,170 kip"ft
EXAMPLE 53
For studs in a single row the spacing between rhe support and first
intermediate beam would be t 0( 12) / 24 = 5.0 in. which is grearer than
the spe.ified minimum of six stud diameters (LRm Specificarion
Section 15.6). Since },./it, = 6 / 3 = 2 is grearer than 1.5. rhe stud
4.t5
a =6;;;F5xr2)= r'l/u
Y2 = 3 + 3,25  1.17 t 2 = s.36 ij.
Beam rcaction:
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