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Under working loads (and untii inilial yielding) the distributions of flexural strains and
srresses over the cross section of a beam are linear. As shown in Figure F I, they vary
from maximum compression at the extreme fibers on one side (!he top) to zero at the
neurral, or centroidal, axis to maximum tension at the extreme fibers on the other side
(the boitont.
Therelationship between moment and maximum bending s(ess (lension or compres
sion) at a given cross section is

M=Sfi (2-9)

M= bending monrenl due to the applied loads, kip-in.

S = elasric seclion modulus, in the direction ofbending. in.3

,, = n1aximunl bending stress, ksi
/ - motnenr of inedia of the cross section about its centroidal axis, in.'
. = distance fiom the elastic neutral axis to the extreme fiber. in.
Sinxlarly. at jnitial yieldinc

ltl, = SE (2-10)

M. = bending lnonlem coincidins wirh first yielding. kip-in.

Iladdnionalload 1s applied, the strains continue io in.rease: the str.sses, however. are,
lirured lo{. Yielding proceeds from the outer fibers inward untjl a plastic hinge is
developed. as shosn inFigureF-l. At ful1 plastificarion ofthe cross sectiot

Mo = zF, (2-1r)

n4e= plastic nomen!, kip'in

Z = plastic section modulus. in the direction of bending, in.3
Due to the presence ofresidual stresses (pnor to loading, as a consequenie of the rolling
operation), yielding begins ai an applied stress of (4 - 4). Equation 2-10 shoutd be


Bta .
T \'\;%"
Lood Yielding
lniliol Ploslic

Fis. F-1. Flexural strains dh.lstrcses.

Awrr.AN lNsm F.F SrFFr CoNm|moN


M,= Sr4 - E) (2-t2)

4 = the rnaxirnum cornpressive residual siress in either flange. ksi

= l0 ksi for rolled shapes, 16.5 ksi for welded shapes
The definition of plastic noment in Equation 2- 1 I is still valid. because it is no. affected

Dsslgn lor Floxure

a. Assuming C, = I .0

Compact sections will not experience local buckling before the formation ofa plastic
hinge. The occuneoce of lateraltorsional buckling of the member depends on the
unbnced length l,,. As implied by the term la.eral-torsional buckling. overall instability
of a beam requires that twisting ofthe m€mber occur simultaneously wiih lateral buckling
of the compression flange. a6 is the distance between points braced to prevent twist of
the cross section. Many beams can be considered con inuously braced; e.9., beams
ruppodine a mctal deck. ifrhe deLk i\ inrernurllnrly $elded ro $e Lompresion flange.
Compact wide llange and channel members bending aboul their major (or x) axes can
develop their full plastic moment M, without buckling if t, < 1,. If a6 = l"
the nominal
flexural saenglh is M. the moment at flrst yielding adjusted for residual stresses. The
nominal moment capacity lM") fot Lp < Lb < L, ts M, < .14" < nlp. Compact shapes bent
about th€n minor (or y) axes wil not buckle b€fore developing Me. reeardless of r,.
Fl€xural design strength, govemed by the limit state of lateral-torsional buckling, is
q,rl4^. where O, = 0.90 and M" the nominal flexural strength is as follo$ s:

M"= Mp = z,F, fot bendtng about the major axis if 4 < l" (2-t3)
M,= M,= zi"fotbe d]ng about the minor axis regardless of L, (2-14)

' =4!
.,/4 = a2.a,. forsok$steel

M- M,= SlF, - 4) Q-t6)

= S,(4 - l0 ki) for roued shapes bending about ihe major axis ifLr= a.
M^ for bending about the najor axis, ifZ, < l,, < l. is d€termined by linear interpolation
between Equations 2- i 3 and 2- l6; i.e.,

(t.,- t.-'\
M"= M,- (M,- M) f I
\1.- L,
The definidon for ahe limiting laterally unbruced length I, is given in the LRFD
Specification (in Equations Fl-6, 8, and 9) and will not be repeated here. For bendins
abour .he major axis if l, > ,.

The case of I, > I. is beyond the scope of this section. The reader is refered io Section
Fl.2b of LRFD Specification (specificaly Equation Fl-13, where th€ critical moment

2- 30

Tabte F_1.
Values ol Cb tor Stmpty Supported Beahs Bral :ed al Ends of
Lrreral Blactng Atonq Span
Conc€nirared al center




M. i' conlrolied bv laterahonional bucktrngr. This case rs also colered in rhe beam
graphs rn Pan 4 ofthis LRm Manuat
b. All values of C,
G i\ the bendjng coefficienr. A neq erpression for C, is
srven jn $e LRFD SDecifi.
cdlron. (ll rs more accuraF gan the oneprevioust!
25M^", +3MA + 4MB + 3M. (F1-3)

where M is rhe absolure value of a momenr in rhe unbraced

beam segment as followsl
M-.,. the maximum
at the quarter point
Ms, ?l lhe centedine
M. ar rhe rbree-quaner point
The .pwpose of C, is lo account for the influence of
moment gradient on laleraltor_
sional buckling. The flexural strergth equations wittr
C, = f.O are Uasea on a unlforln
beam segmenr.uL,,,ng
or ]::"'!
tne member." Orner toadings
"ftupponed "ingre.u_atu,.
are tess severe. resuhing rn higher
flexural srrenerhi
C, > 10. Typ,cal vatuer orC, are F.;"b".;.";ii;;;;,
srven ,n Tabte F_t.
C, can conservarively be taken as I .O for alt cases.
;; l;;.
g-dlli]:*:tc:. *.
,LKru 5pecfrcarjon
nerural desisn srens$ O,&/,. where o, 0.e0. is
= siven in re
in rerms ofa nominatflerura] strengrh M. varying as f;bws:

M"= Mo= zf, (2-13)

for bending abour rhe major axis if
L s Z_
M"= CEV,= CbS,(\ - l0 ksi) <M, (2-19)
for bending about th€ major axis if ai, a,.
Fo. bending abour rh€ major axjs if 2,, < a, < Z^ tinear
inte.polalion is ured

' (,-t-\
"l '' ""-""r,-)l=''
M"=CblM,-tM"-M)llL tFt'2'
If Lb> L,,


The determination of M^ for a given ld can b€si b€ done graphically, as itlustrated in

Figure F-2. The required parameteN for €ach W shape are given in rhe beam design table
in Pan 4 of the LRFD Manual, an excerpt of which is shown herein as Table F-2. ff C, :
I -0, the coordinates for construcdng the graph are (ap , M ), and (L,, M,). Fot Ch > I .0, the

key coordinaaes are (4, C, M) and (L,, C6 M,). Nole thal M, cannor exce€d the plastic
mom€nt Mp. l,., lh€n, can be derived gmphically as the upper limit of Z, for which M" =
Mp.If Lb> L,, thebearlr. graphs in Pan 4 of the LRFD Manual can be used to determine


Given: Seleat the required W shape for a 3o-foot simple floor beam with full
lateral suppon carrying a dead load (including its own weigho of 1.5
kips per linear foot and a live load of 3-0 kips per liDear foot. Assume
50 ksi steel and:

a. There is no member deprh limitation

b. The deepest member is a Wl8

SolLIion: The goveming load conbinalion in Section Ais A4-2:

1.2r+ l 6a + 0.5(4.orSorR.)= 1.2 x 1.5klf+ 1.6x3.0klf+0

= 6.6 klf
6.6 klf x (30.0 fr)r

Flexural design strensrh 0,I1, > 743 kip-ft



lln lot Cb>|.0

Mcrlor Cb-1.0


Fig. F-2. Det mi&tion oJ nonnnl fexurcl stftngth M".



Table F 2.
Excerpt lrom Load Factor Deslgn Selection Tabl6
(LRFD Manual, Pan 4)
F.rF =sotsl
-- (klFlt)
rr (n) r,(fi)
zr 0n.3) Shap€ {klFft)
224 8/O 588 6.9 18.6
221 W21v93 829 576 6.5 19,4
212 79s 570 13.2 46.2
211 791 564 9.4 27.4

200 750 528 6.8 18.0

194 743 8.9 29.3
196 w21r83 735 513 6.5 18.5
192 720 519 13.2 43.2
146 698 498 26.1
186 698 rlag 11,1 50.0

17f 664 62 6.6 17,4

175 656 ,165 8.8 27.3
No(ei Fbxudl de.lgn slHglh oDMn = obMa s labulal€d is valid lor tb < lt ll co = 1 o r' = k; olheeis
L' ap oD 0.90

a.In Table F-2, the most economical beams are in boldfac€ print. Of
the boldfaced b€ams, the lightest one with O,rV" = O,,t4p > 743 kip-ft

is a W24x76

b. By inspectlon of Table F-2, th€ lightest Wl8 with 4&t,= i&1,>

743 kip"ft is aW18x97.


Given: DetermiDe the flexural design str€ngfi ofa 30-ft lolrg simply suPported
W24x76 gbder (of 50 ksi st€el) with a concentat€d load and lat€ral
suppo( both at midsPan
Soluion: FIom Table F-1, C, = 1.67

L, = 10.0 ft-i2 = 15.0 it

From Equation F1-2:

6,^4, = c,l 0,r4, * u, -' u.t(

L;])] -. ou,
L \!. .?/t
Frcm Table F-2 for a WZY76:

$aMP = ?50 kiP-ft

O'M, = 528 kip,ft
Iz =68ft
Ar'{ErIcN lrst'rc oF slB cnNsNrcrloN
2- 33

L = r8.0 fr
I '
(750- 528)kiPftx
ortt" = L6717s0 kiPft - t80 f- 63 ft]

= 981 kiP-ft > 750

Use O, M' = O' M' = ?50 kip'ft
ln this case, even though the unbraced lcngth
Is>"' thc desiSn

flexural strength is O,lt, bccaus€ C' > 1'0'

o.alon tor Shaar

section F2 of drc LRFD
f,l'tit-J.- "*"gltr is defin€i bv $e equations inis retisted bv the arca of the
;;:#;"u""":il.;;'i;a"-n"ne. "na "n"-tttimes rbe web rhickt€ss t- For wcls-:f
;ff;;. il;;"k;" * thc oierall rleprh d "ciions
fi.i#;;;";,;;;'erse stiffencrs thc design 6bear srcqlh 6' v whcre 0" = 0 e0'
and thc rcmiml shea' streng'lh l4 arc as foloq's:

psr ! < 59 (including all toled W and channel


V tsi x dt"
= 30.0 (2-2r)
l"U=21Sksix dt"

Fo( 5s <ls1a,

u =3o.ol<jx&"xh

O,U = 27.oksix dt"x *


u =ffi^o"

Fit. F-3. D.fuinoLt 4d Eandt lorw ad chr'''!l thaN'
ArG c N hsnnttsoF STEE @Nst

i5:'ffi:fJ;:;;:ff i3,ff ""l'fl il"'ff



Reouired shearsnengrh = U= l2D+ l6L
= 1.2 ' 100 UP" Iox r50lips
= 360 KPs

Desisn shear strength = Q, u

= 11.3 lil I Xl.*,". o rrot
kiPs > 360lops
o k'

giv€n in
and the rererences
,n" specirlcation and commentarv
$e Coiffnentary'

e'li"hape'' P'vemed
Tffi :;::ffi.f.::lli:'il:i'i:[il:;il
:{llri:ff Hl-1a Hl-lb' and as rorrows:
by Equaiions>oz.
e gi ,v- --a,. l<ro (H1-la)

6a*0lo,y- orvt "l

a -.( u- - u'-\3 v.s
zqr, ,tl- o, lz"'
l o, )

lhe lolalfaclored len'ile

lorce krp'
o ie
=,.ouu.a t"n'lf"
ar- = a.rtgn
*n"tt t*ngrh O'P"' kiPs
d' = U 9U
n ret tance iactor lor lensron
= D oi the LRFD specrrrcarion'
as detrned in chaprer
l" ='"#;;;; ';ingth
=l!'"n* o*".".:::'l:tl ;i'^llfrl"j-1ifili:;",$i,fi:[: i'f",:i'
"" in or kiDlt (SubscnPtr or) denolet
ot kipjt
."y"= i".,rn ri*tott""ngth kip-in
0 90
O, = ,.sotuntt fu"ot for flexure =
Al€Ricari |]isrmr! oF Sr*a Cot{smucnoN

M, determined in accordance witb the appropnat€ equa_

= nominal flexural sirength
tions in Chapter F of the LRFD Specifi€ation' kip-in or
general case oJ braxial bendrng
Inrerachon Equations HI-Ia and HI-lb cover the
unia-t'al bending (i e when M' = u
combioed with a.\ial force. They are also vahd fo'
reduce ro rlre form ploned inFigure H-l Pure biaxr al bending
= Or.r"ir,i.""",*.y
(wittrP" = 0) is covered by E4uation Hl-lb

ksi sleel ro
Given: Che(k $e adequacv of a Wl0\)2 lension memb€r of 50
carn loads resultrne rn the tollowrng factored load combinalion:
P, = SS tip"
M-= 20 kip-ft

Solulton: From Section D above for 50 ksi steel,

xA, 292 krps

OP, = O"P" = 45.0 ksi = 45.0 ksi x 6 49 in'': =

I = 5l!p: = rher€fore,

Equation HI- lb govem(
On 292 krps
For b€nding about the y axis only, Equation Hl-lb becomes:

z{.p, Q,M.

P, .8 Al'
0.20 P"
2lQPn/ 6bvn
0.9 A 5111 Q6lln

Itt?ta.tion tqaatioas Hl'lo and HI lb wdiledlot

uial laod co b .d with b.ndinE abofl one Btsoll!'

AEFlcN lNsrmJrloF sr!!L coNsmrcnoN


From Section F above for 50 ksi steel. M, = Mp = zf! = 50 kri x 4 for

minoralis bending (rcgardless of the unbrac€d length).

oru", = 0.90 x 50 ksi x Zr = 45.0 ksi x Z"

6.10 in )
= 4r.u k$ v l:;m
= 22.9 kip-ft for a Wl0r2 member

P - ,}1'. -0.188, -zo-kjp-n 0.094 + 0.87J

2qP" +'M,, 2 '22.9 kiq-ft= - "-
= 0.967 < 1.0 o.k


civen: Ch€ck rhe same tension member, a Wl0x22 in50 ki steel,4.0 ft long,
subjected ro the following combinarion of facrord loads:

P, - 140 kips
M".:55 kip-fi
C' =l0
Solution: Again. 04, = 292 kips

P" !!9!et 6.a79 6.20. Equanoo H r. la sovems.

dP-= /9? krps = '
For bending about the x axis only, Equation Hl-la becomes

bP" 6"M,
From Seclon F above for s!k'i stEel. M^= MF= 2,4 = 50 ksi x e for
major-axis bending ifh < 1" for (C, = 1.0).

Assume unbraced leng$, ,a = 4.0 ft.

By Equation F1-4a in S€ction F, I, = 42.4rr for 50 ksi steel.

For a W10x22, /, = 1.33 in., Z, = 26.O in.x

' !,' 1!
l.l rn /it =a:n
14= 1.0 fi < I+ = 4;l ft
Then M- = 50 ksi x Z
0.m x 50 kix 26.0 in.'
eo = 12 inlft
= 97.5 kip-ft for a Wl0x22 member

ArcirN lNslrr@@sfr comumoN


3, 8M- =647e*8^
" 9
q7 5 bP-tl
qn oq, U-
= 0.479 + 0.501 = 0 980 < 1.0 o.k'

Symmetrlc Members Subject to Bending and Axial Comprcssion

The interaclioi of compression and flexure in beam'columns with singiy and doubly
symmerric cross sections is govemed by Equalions Hl-14 and Hl-lb. repeated here for

po.3 > o.z.

4*!{ ,. *,. )=,.0 (H1-la)
0n \$
e 14," M", )
rn.4< o.z.
n ,(,!!,,
2On \4hM",
* q,M"
\.to (H1-l b)
The definilions of the terrns in the folmulas, rhich differ in some cases from those given
$ove, are as follows:

P, = required compressive strength; i.e.. lh€ tolal factored compressive force' kips
44 . design cornpressive srcng6. O" P,, kips
O = resistance factor for colnpression. O, = 0 85
P" = nominal compressive slrengfi as defined in Chapter E oflhe LRFD Specifi-
cation, kips
M, = required flexural saength including second'order effects, klp_in
or kiP'ft
0, M, = design flexural strength, kip-in or kip-ft
0, = resistance facaor for flexure = 0.90
M" = nominal flexumt strength from ChaPter F of the LRFD Specification,
or kip-ft

The second-order analysis required for M, involves the determination of the additional
momenl due to the actiot of the axial compressive forces on a deformed structuie. In li€u
of a second-order analysis, lhe simplified method given in Chapter C of the LRFD
Specific ion (and in Section C above) may b€ used. However, in applying the simplified
me$od. the addidonal moments obtained for bean"columns must also be distributed to
connecled members and connections (to satisfy equilibrium)

B6nding and Axial Compression-Preliminary Deslgn

The design of a beam-colurnn is a trial and enor process which can become tedious,
particuiarly wilh the repeated solution ofIderaction Fquation Hl_la or Hl_lb A rapid
method for the selection of a trial seclion is given in this LRFD Manual. Pan 3, under
th€ heading Combin€d Axial and Bending Loading (Interaction). As in €arlier editions
of rhe AISC Manual, the Inte.action Equations are approximated by an equation which
converis b€nding moments to equivalent axial loads:

P -= P+ M.n+ M.fiu

Al@N lxsnl1m oF S]E CoNsRUooN


n,, = equivalenl axial ioad to be checked against the column load table, krps
n,M^,M," arc deftned in the Interaction Equations for compression and bending
are racbr\ labulated in $i\ LRFD Manual Pan -l

As soon as a satisfactory lrial section has been found (i.e., one for which e a < tabulaied
Ct), a finat verification should be made with the appropriate lnteraction Equadon.
Hl la o' H l-lb


Aiven: Check the ndequacy of a Wl4xl76 beam'column. 14.0 fi in h€i8hr

floor-to-floor, in a braced syrnmetdcal frame in 50 ks' steel. The
. member is subjected to the following factored forces due !o symmet-

ricai gravity loadd: P, = 1,400 kips: M, = 200 kip-ft, M, = 70 kip-fr

(reverse curvature bending with equal end moments aboul both axetl
and no loads along lie mernbe'.
For a braced frame, K = 1.0 K, - KJ, = 14.0 fi
For a Wl4xl76:
A = 51.8 in.?
Z, = 320 ir.3
Z" = 163 in.r

r! =4 02in
Kl / r, = (r4.O ftx 12 in.ltt) I 6.43 in. = N.l
Kl / r, - (14.O ftx 12 in.m) /4.02 in. = 41.8

From Table E- 1, above, 0"4, = 37 .4 ksi fot Kl / r = 41.8 in 50 ksi steel

4!D, = (0.4)A = 37.a ksi x 51.8 in.? - 1,940 kips

since 4 = +g+9
O. P" l.Y4u kps
= 0.72 > 0.2. tnreracrion Equaron H r.ra

For a braced ftame, Mr = 0. From Equation Cl -1:

M- = Br M",.where M." = 200 kip'ft; atld

Me = Br, M^i , where M"tr = 70 kip'ft
From Equations Cl-2 and Cl-3:


where in this case (a braced frame with no transverse loading).

C-=0.6 - 0.4(M / Mz\

Amtucd INsffi oF scEL coNsnudroN


For revene curvature bending and

equal end momenis:

Mt/ M, = +1.0
c^ = 0.6
_0.4(1.0) 0.2
From Tabl€ C_li

4L = 420 ki x ts = 420 ksi x 51.8 in.r = 21,756 kips

F:rom Table C_ I:

C,, = 164 ksj x /, = 164 ksi x 51.8 in., 8,495 kips


- (r _p,4-/4,.) ==-
4,,= 0.2
- _-6EFZr-te;p, (r =0.2

Use Br, = t.0. per Equarion Ct_2.

-" c -_-
a*=tt_ p., 0.2
\ r-,r _l/oo=r"p, z 95 kipr=0.2
Use Ar. = 1.0, per E{uation C l -2

nt, = 1.0 x 200kip-ft

From Equation :,15 for 50 ksi sreel,

L-= 42.4,. =124>
12 -,
Since 4 = 14.0ft<Zr= l4.Zfr.M*= Mp,= 2,4
M- =Mp,=4F,
6,4 = 0.90y 50 ksi = 45.0 ksi

q, v-= q,4a = 1l4$!20.r'i= r,200 kiFft

0,M,,= s,.{ z =
119!!i.]!1{ = 6u kip-rt
By Interaction Equation Hl_ta

i#ffi .
3(ffi .
#H"l *
:,;::i:. ",
= 0.97 < 1.0
W14xl?6i! o.k.

A'cecd tNsrruc oF Sr!E! CoxsriscnoN

r . ii.l li

?i.J;lii* {}j jj._$"I


Given: Check the adequacy of a W14xl76 beam-cotumn (4 = 50 ksi) in an
unbrac€d synmeirical frame subiected to the following factored

P! = 1,400 kips (due to gravity plus wind)

M- = 300 kip-ft (due to wind only)

KL - Ky L, = 14.0 ft
m index,4,/, < 0.0025 (or te)
tP, = 24,000 kiPs
tt= 800 kips

As in Example H-3, for a W14xU6 with r, = 14.0 ft, 0"P, = 1,940


3 = 0.?2 > 0.2. tnreracuon Equdrion Hl-la

dl = l1*5"
1,94u xrps
gove $.
Be.Ause M^"= Mu= M" = 0 and only M," * 0, M- = BzMu alrd

Md = 300 kip-ft
According to Equation Cl-4.

' =---J- =
rP" lA* l r 444!E ro.oozs r
'- tt ITJ krps 6UU

M- = 1.08 x 3m kip-ft = 324 kip-ft

Beczrse Ia<Ia= l4.2fr, M-= Mp= Z"F't O6 M*= l'200 kiP-ft as in
Exanple H-1.
By Intenction Equalion Hl-la:
1,400 kips 8 324kjtrft
kips- 9 i.200 kjp-rr =0 io zr =6
72 r 96 to
r,940 '
Torclon and ComblnsdTorclon, Flexurg, and/or AxielForce
Criteria for menbers subjected to torsion and torsion combined with other forces are
given in Section H2 of the LRFD Specifrcaiion. They require the calculation of nomal
and sllesr stresses by elastic analysis of the member under the factored loads. The AISC
b@k Totsional Anabsis of Steel Members (Ameica\ Institute of Steel Construction,
1983) provides design aids and examples for lhe det€rmination of torsional stresses.
Ex.ensive coverage is given there to wide-flange shapes (W S, and HP), channels (C
and MC) and Z shapes. For these members, the charts and formulas simplry considerably

AMTT^N Iffi oF 51@ CoNSRUflON



General Notes

Column Load Tables

Column Inad Tables are presenled for W, WT, and HP shapes, pipe, structural tubins,
double angles. dno.rnpl€ angjeJ.'fabulaJ loads are compured in accord"nce urrn rhe
AISC LRFD Specification, Sec.ions E2 and E3 and Appendix E3, for axiatiy loaded
members having €ffective unsupponed lengrhs irdicated to the left of each rable. The
effective l€ngth ra is the actual unbraced length, in feer, multiptied by the factor (, which
depends on the rotational_restraint at th€ ends of rhe unbraced length an{t the means
a\arlable ro reqin lalerdl movemen(\
Table C-C2.1 in rhe Commentary on the LRFD Specification is a guide in setecting
the f-factor. Interpolarion between the idealized cases is a matter of engineering judg-
ment. Once sections have been selected for the several framing members, the alignmeni
charts in Figure 3-l lreproduced from the Stnrctural Stability Research Council cuide
(Galambos, 1988) here and in Fjgure C-C2.2 ofihe Commentary on the LRFD Specifi-
calionlaffo.d aneans loobtain moreprecise values for K, ifdesircd. Forcotutrrnbehavio.
in the inelastic range. the values of G as defined in Fjgure 3-1 may be reduced by rhe
values given in Table 3-1, as iltustnted in Example 3-3.
Tables for W. WT. and HP sbapes and for double aad single angtes are provided for
36 ksi and 50 ksi yield stress sreels- Tables for sreel pipe ar€ provided for 36 ksi. and for
structulal tubing for,16 ksi yield stress sreel. Alt design strengrhs are tabutated in kips.
Values are nor shown when KI / r ex.ceeds 200.
In all tables,ercepr doubleangleand WTtables. design srrengihs are given foreffective
iengths wiih respecr ro thc minor a\is calculated by LRFD Specification S€ctjon E2.
When the minor axis is braced at cioser intervals rhan the major axis, the strenglh of the
colunu must be invesdgated with referenc€ ro botb major (X-X) and rdnor (yy) axes.
The ratio r,/r. included in rhese tables provides a convenient method for investigaring
the stength of a column with resp€ct ro irs major axis. To obtain an effecrive lengrh wirh
respect to lhe minor axis equivalent in load carrying capacity to the actual effective lengrh
about the major axis, divide the major axis effective iength by r. / r, ratio. Compare rhis
length wilh the actual effective length about the minor axis. The longer of tbe two lengths
will control the design, and the design strengih may be tal€n from rhe tabte opposire the
longer of the two effective l€ngths with respect to the minor axis. The double aryle and
WT ables show values for effective lengths abour both axes.
Propedies useful to the designer are listed ar the bortom of the colunrn design Suength
tables. Additional nores relating specifically to rhe W and HP shaperables, the sreel pipe
and structural bbine rables, and lhe double and single angle tabies precede each of rhese
groups oftables.


Given: Design the light€st W shape of4 = 50 ksi steel ro supporr a facrored
concentric load of 1,400 kips. The effecrive length wirb respect !o
its minor axis is 16 feet. The effective lengrh wilh respect ro its
major axis is 3l feet.

AMEruN lxsrnrnE or S1@ CoNsriucnoN


Enter the appropriate Column l,oad

Table for W shapes at effective
lengLh of ,(t = loft. sinceWl4columr5are
generalt) mosrefrcient,
b€grn \Iith rhe Wta rable and work dosnwar;. werghrwise.
SeledWl4vt45. goodfor l.5J0krps > t,400
.r/ rr = 1.59. Equivatenl L 3l fr / 1.59:
= 19.5 fr > t6 ft
Equivalent effective length for X-X aJds conrrols.

Gr Gp 6a 66


#"!.!. !r*y":y^
tu sub'cnpts t ,urd.cnv.
A oid A aftt
tash orcotatus
at fi.
in.M,iauoulha,n s.
the loiaK tuo eads d th. .otuia !r.tio,
G is dafih.d at
^ r^t, / t )
2(t./ L"t
,:.:!,!1,*::^, ,*y,on.of hdb;r nsdtr.onn..kd arr
trrne 04 the pt4n? in Aht.h btuAhB rc rhol ud joint
o! th? .oluM k b.ihe conyd"red. I. is
^r.! thp t.n8th ot a col@^ y(lio . oad j,
honat oJ n. @ and Ls is rtu u^uppotkd tpa}lh
ofa gird., _ ,,rr, *ri"^,i
d?tnb.r t. tdnd IE ap nlpa about u.s pe,pendi
ulat to h. ptaae oJbu.thns bcnS

en.t, suryoned but not iSidtr.onwcted

to af@tiag o,lounnorbn,
u 6 th@rcrto ) inf4iD. but. utes a.tnl, d^ieaed a ,,*
ba bkn at loJor prc,.tica! .tesixa \ t I th. @tuh" i .; l,r";, i". ;.;;
* d i:
";;;.2;;: ;: ;:;ii.::';x":Hi": T",:,::g r:#:';;:,ffi.!,
d" 8.

AIcruc^N INsII-|r€ oF sTEr coNslRufroN


Table 3'1'
Stilfn*s Reduction FactoB (SRRlor Columns

26 0.38 0.82
42 o.a5
41 ., .o_16o09 25
0.52 o.8a
' :aa 23 0.58 0.90
22 0.65 0.93
38 0.95
o33 21 0-70
36 , . 0.38 2a 0.76
' :q44 19 0.81
u 0.49
'17 0.89 1,00
g.6s 16 0.92 J
0.63 15 0.95
30 .* o.67
0.14 o.71 13
0.75 12 1.00
28 .t
21 0,30 0.79 11

Re-enter table for efrective length of 19'5 ft to satisfy axiat load of

I ,400 kips, select W l4x 145 '

By inlerpotalion, $e column r\ Sood tor l 4l0 krps

Use W14xl45 colunm


Desien an ll mlerior bay colulrln lo suppon a faclored

fi long Wl2
6iven: at
-rTroi" "xr"f ,*fl."a.f
1.100 hps The colurnn is rigidlv fi-amed
each flange colurnn
J" bo tv 3oft tone W:ox I I 6 girders conn€cled to
-"-i"i *. a*.
lt tt" *sumption ofequal a
offserbng momenrs in
q eb at top and bas€ so $at
frr. *f"." i" t"*ea- normat ro its
'i. "J*. r. inrriU;rea;n *us plane Use d = 50 ksr s(eel
a. Ctrect Y-Y axis:
the top and bottom ivith
Assum€ the colunn is pin_conlected at
sidesway inhibiled.
I in the Commenhry for condition (d)'
( = I 0;
From Table C-C2.
Effective length = ll ft
Enter Colunm l,oad Tablei

Wt2xl06 good for I'160kips> l,l00kips Gk

AwRlcaN INsrruE oF stE4 CoNsraucf,oN


b. Cbeck X-X axis:

1 . Pr€lininary selectionl
Assume sidesway uninhibit€d and pin-coonected at base.

From Table C-C2. I ior condition (0:

Approximal€ effectiv€ lengh relarive to X-X axis:

From ftopenies sertion in tables, for Wl2 column:
r,/ \- 1.16

Equrvalenr effecr've lengh relative lo the Y-Y (is:

+- 12.5 fr > ll-0 fr

Thercfo.e, effective length for X-X axis is criticel.

Enter Colurnn Laad Table wi$ an effective lcngth of 12.5 ft:
W l2x 106 column, by int€rpolatiotr, good for I,I 15 kips > 1,100 kips
L Final scleclion

Try W12x106

Using Figure 3-l (sidesway uniDhibited)l

1, forWl2xl06 colunn = 933 h.a

/, for W3Oxl 16 girder = 4,930 b.a

C (ba!e) = l0 (assume $rpponed but not rigidly come.Ed)

c(top) =6ffiffi-oxe."vo.zs
Connect points Gl= l0 and 6, = 0.26, read,K = l.?5
For Wl2xl06, r./r,= l.?6
Actual effective l€ngtb relative to Y,Y axis:

Since the effeative lengrh for Y-Y axis is not critical,

Use Wl2x106 column



Given: Using the alignment chan, Figure 3- I (sidesway uninhibited) and Table
3, 1 (Stifhess Reducrion Facto$), design colunms for the bent shown,
by the in€lastic lf'facto. proced'ne. l-€t { = 50 ksi. Assume continuous
suppod in lhe transve.rse direction,
Solution: The alignmenl charts in Figur€ 3-l arc applicable to elastic colufirns.
By multiplying C-values tim€s the stiffness rednclion factor g, ,/ e the
chans may be used for inelastic columns.

Slnce E,/ E * 8,.*a"" / 4,..r-,b the relationsllp may be written as

Gh"k"",= @, ,,,k"," / n,.&tu')G"bb.

By utilizing rhe calculated sftss 4, /r4 a direcr solurion is possible,

using the follo$ing steps:

l. For . known value of factored axial load. P, = I,l40*jps; select a

Assume Wl2xl20
A = 35.3 in.1,1.: I,0?0 in I, r, = 5.51 in.
2.Ca1 \^e n /Al
P,/A= 1,100 kips / 35.3 in.': = 3L2 ksi

3. From Tabl€ 3- l. deiermine lhe stiffness Reduction Facror (SRF)i

SRF - 0.62. For lalues of e /,4 snaller than those wilh enaries in
Table 3-l, the column is elaslic, ard the redugr.ion factor is L0.

4. Determine C.h"d":

C,,," (bonom) = l0

t, t00 k

I Yll StJl

tt2, J-z

Ar@N lNsrmJEoF Sr@ ConerRUmoN


/ l5
c.e (roP) =
l -070
ii5;: = 3.80

5. Cdculatr Gh&d = sRF x C&d:

G* (toP) = 0,62 x 3,80 2.36
' 6. Dctcminc tr ftom Figurc 3-1 using Ctud
For C (top) = 2.36 and C (t'ottom) = 10,

Rcad ftom Figurc 3-1, f = 2.2

7. KL=2.2x tS ft= 33.O ft
8. Calculate cquivalent of trlr:

-& l.t6 ' " '' "

9. From thc column tablcs (for 50 k6i stcet)l

0.4 = 1,030 kip,s < I,lO0 kips .eq'd. n &

Try t 6Eoogcr colufih.
L Try aWl2xl36

A = 39.9 i.r.'1, L = 1,244 in ', r. = 5.58 in.

2.4 /A - 1,100 kip./39.9 in., = 27.6 ksi
3. Frcm T.blc 3-1 : SRF = 0.77

5. GLa"d, (tap) = 0.17 x 4.41 = 3.39

1, KL,=23 x t5 ft=34.5tt

8. Eoui", KL . 4. l1.s fi rY 5 il
9.0" 4 = I,l35kips> I,l00kjpsrcq'd o.k,
Us€ Wl2xl36
aoanh'd: Cofutu s
A "lcDitrg" column ia onc which is considered pin-cndcd rnd does not panicipate in
Foviditrg latdal sbbility to thc sEuctuIe. As a rclult, i! rElics on othcr prrts of tbc
stucturc for srability. Thc LRFD Sp.cification h Scction C2.2 t.quires lhat for unbraccd
fi'&ncs,'thc dastabiliring cficct ofgsvitylordcd columns who6e simplc conncclions

Arcrrc^x lNsnrsE oF Sra- ColcrrucnoN



Beams are proponioned so that no applicabte strengrh timit stare is €xceeded when
subj€cted to factored loadconbinarions and that no serliceabitir! limil state is exceed..t
$hen subtecred ro 5e jce loads. Srrength lrmit .rdte. for beam.'rnctude buLk|ns
Ialeral rorsional bucurng. and yieldrng. Scr!rcedbitir) hnur \rd'e, nra!,n\tude, bur a:e
not limited to. deflection and vibrariot
The flexuml design srrengrh for beams musr equai or €xceed lhe required srrengrh
based on th€ factored loads. The design strength
0,y'1, for eactj appticabl€ tinit stare sh;li
equal or exceed the maximum momenr M! as de(emrined from rhe appticabie factored
load combinations given in Section ,44 ofthe LRFD Specificarion. V;lues of
O/dt, are
tabulated in the pages ro follow. These vaiues are based on b€am behalror shown in
Figure 4-l and explained in the foltowjsg,llis€ussion.
It shosld b€ noted thar rbe LRFD Specificarion expresses values fb, moments and
lengths in kip-in. and inches. In this and other parls ofrhe LRFD Manuat. rhese vatues
are tabulared in kip-ft and feet.
The required strength can be determined by eirhei eta(ic or plastic anallsij.

D€ign Strength lf Elsstic Anetysis ts Used

The fl€xuml design stren$h ofrolled
IandC shape beanB designed usingetastic analysrs.
according to LRFD Specificarion Section Fl is:


O, = 0.90

(cak, -u,)

L:P Lfr I, L,


AEecd INsm oF SrEe Cor"sriucnoN


M,= nominal flexural strength as determined by the limit state of yielding. lateral-
brsional buckling. or local buckling
Flexural D$lgn Strengih for C, = 1 .0
Conpact Sections (Cb = .0) 1

When I,, < Z,

The fl€xural design strength of compact (flange and web local buckling l,s l,)
I-shap€d and C-shaped rolled beams (as defined iD Section 85 ofthe LRFD Spe€ification)
b€nt about the najor or minor axis is:

QA{"=O6r4P=4"z4 / 12

In minor axi!4drllelhisjs q!€ for all unbraced lengths. but for bending ibout lhe major
axis the distance 14 between points br-aed?Sainst tateral movement of lhe compression
flange or between poinls braced ao prevenr twist of the cross-section shall not exceed rhe
value ap (see Figure 4-l).

, 300r"

The flexural design strength of compacl l or C rolled shapes bent about the major axis,
ftom LRFD Sp€cification Section Fl .2, is:
/, ,)
qtJV^ = qtr.t, - q"(M, - M,lT Js OU,
where the limiting len$h r. and the corresponding buckling moment M, Gee Figure 4- I )
are determined as follows:

+x,\E-E), (Fl-6)

.'=t:'[ry (Fl-8)

.,-+G+l (Fr,9)

('/V, =Oss,(4 -E)/ 12 krp-ft

& = s€ction modulus about rnajor axis, in.l
E = modulus of€lasticity of ste€1, 29,000 ksi
c - shear modulus of steel, I 1,200 ksi
J = torsional constant. in.1
I = cross-sectional area of beam- in.:
c" = waeing constar( in.6



4 = compressive residual sa€ss

in flange: for rolled shapel 4 = l0 ksi: for w€tded
rhapes 4= 16.5 ksi

Values of J and C- are tabulated for some shapes in Part I of the LRFD Manual For
values not shown. s€e fo.s ional Analvsis of Sreel Mern,?r'r (AISC' 1983)'

Cowecl and Noncompacl Seclions (cb = 1 0)

According to LRFD SPecification Section F1 2b, the flexural design strength of

compact and noncompact I or C rolled shapes b€nt about the major axis is:

/n) rp*($
ra4,=q"M",= o,l') $"

Noncanpacr Sections (Cb = 1 .0)

wh€n L, s l"
All roll€d W shapes are compact except th€ W40x174, W14x99' W14>90' W12x65'
W10xl2, W8xl0, and W6x15 for 50 ksi and the W6xl5 for 36 ki The flexural design
saengttr Oriir,' Gee FiSure 4-l) for noncompact (flange or web locat buckling I, < l <
),) I and C rolled shapes benl about the major or minor axis is the smaller value for either
local flange buckling or local web buckling as d€t€rmined by:
/' r\
6,i1"' = qSW, - 4,1u - u,1
\-.- tr)
l |

For local flange bucklingr

L= ,// 2tfor I-shaped members

I = lrlrrfor C-shaPed members
1,P=65 t.lE
r.= 141/{E - r0
For local web bucklins:

1", =qa /,{E
t,'= t,*tr-- L)\i,- t+
Sections with a width-to{hickness raaio exceeding lhe sPecified values for L are
slender shapes and must be analyzed using LRFD SPecification APpendix 85 3

Nhen Io' < Ir< I.


The flexural design strengfi of noncompact I or C rolled shap€s bent about the major
aris is determined bY:

/- ,\
oh|" = Ld\rD- qb\M D - M't L!-],]]1< i,M"'
ln lhe lrad Factor Design Selection Table, in the case of the noncompact shapes, the
values of Orl4"' and rp' are tabulated as 014, and 1". The formlla above may be used with
the tabulated values.

Flexural Design Strength tor Cb> 1,0

G js a iacior whi.h varies wirh the moment gadient belween bracing points (1,)- For
C6 greaier rhan 1.0. the design flexural strength is equal to th€ tahrlaled value of the
design flexural strength (with C, = 1.0) m tiplied by the calcula&d C, value. The
maximum value is dstf, for compact shapes or 0rn4,' for noncompact shapes. The
maximum unbraced lengrhs associated with the maximum flexural design saengths
o"r_,r- md o-M.. d.A. dd ,
", s",e fieLrc 4_ I ).
Anew expression for Cr rs given in tbe LRFD Specifica.ion. (It is more accurate than
the one pr€viously shown.)

\2.5M* (Fr-l)
2.5M.^,+ 3Ma+ 4MB+3M"

where Mis the absohrte value ofa moment in ahe unbraced beam segment as followsi

,i1",,, . the maximum

Mi . al the quaner point
Ms . al the centerline
M, . a! the hree-quader point

Valu€s for C, for some typical loading conditions are given in Table 4-1.

Conpact Sectbns (Cb> 1.0)

When a, < L,,

The flexwal design strength for rolled I and C shapes is:

Ttr f e\u'-l r.

4b t,- cblo}'"(fot Cb= t.0\<OAaP

Fot L-< L,

, -, , tcb\|, M.')(L.- I-t

cbwt M,\

Tabl€ 4-1.
Value3 ot Cb tor Simpty Supported Beam3



I t.30 t.Ja I

Fot I^> L,

u=ff^,[ry' I'4G'j
Tbe value of C, for which Ih or lh' equds I, for arly rolled shape is:

' (4 - 10)s,

Nonconpact 9eclions (Cb > 1 .O)

Wh€n l, s Z.'
The flexural design strength for rolled I and C shapes is:

4n4"=O,rr^'<qb I,
When Lr > 4'
The flexural design strelgth is:

Q&t ^= C,l6lur, (fot ca = 1.0)l < O,,lt^'

Ai@cd lNsnnJTE oF tua CoNsucroN


Fot L.' < L,

., .. \c4. !;JL-!")
CbIM, M)
Fot L^' > L,

, G'r

Dosign Slronglh ll PlaBtlc Analysis ls U5ed

The design flexural strength for plastic analysis is:

AAI,= 4,1r,

O, = 0.90
Mp= zJat t2 ktp-fl
The yield stengih ofrnaterial that may be used wilh plastic analysis islimited to 65 ksi. Plastic
anatysis is limited to compacl shap€s as defined in Table 85. I of lbe LRFD Specification as:

4 = 6,1 21,3 ds I "[4 tor th€ flanses of I shapes in flexur€

1r= b/ ,< 65 / "[E fot the flanses of C shapes in flexure

),p = h / t" s 640 / ^[i for beam webs in flexural compression

l,= limiting dendemess parametet for compact element

,r= wi&h of flang€ for I and C shapes, in.
t = flange thickness, in
i = clear distance b€tw€€n flanges less
the fillet at each flange, in
l' = tream web thickness, in
ln addtion. LRFD Specificadon Seclion Fl.2d states:fora seclion benl about lhe major
axis. ihe laterally unbraced lenglh of the compression flange at plastic hinge locatioos
associaaed with the failure mechanism shall nol exce€d:

. 3.6rI t 2,220tM / M.)

L", (Fl-t?)

4 = specified yield strength of compression flange, ksi

M\ = smaller moment at end of unbrac€d length of beam, kip'in
M, = larger moment at end of unbraced lenglh of b€am, kip-in.
r, = radiu\ ofgyration abour minor axrs in
(MrlMr) is positiv€ when the moments caus€ reverse curvature

Ar€Rr^N lxsr]rmor Sr!!L CoNsRUnoN

4, I
This rable fac'trraies the \etec'iun of beam, de5rgned
accordrnce $rrh secr,on F or rhe r RFD Specrfrcaoon.""
rh. U^is,f n."J
srei"*, i"
ucsrgneo a( Deam\ A rdrerzjl) \uppone,r beam ";i;-W;;;ij;":
can be,etecled by enrenng the labte wrth
th€requiredptastic secrjon modulus orfactored
tabulared vrlues ofZ, or
O^.at respe(tlvely. ";;;;;;;;;;;
aeeircabte ro adequareiy b,dced beam, $ irh
unbraced jensths nor erceed_
rng r.. r.e..L, <L. For beam\ wirhunbraced tengrhs grert*
roxse the unbraaed beam charts. For most loading
tr,* r,. itlni*."",."i.",
conditions, it is conv€nient ro use this .
rele{rion rabte. Hosever. foradequaely braced.
load over rhe enrjre tengrh. or equjvatent
rimpt} .upporred be,m.;ii;;;-f;
symm"r-.a f."it"g, *.
Uniforrn Loads can atso be used "Ut...i-Fr.#;
In rhis rable. shdpc. are Lsr€d in groups by descending
_ order ptastic secrion modutus
2,. Included aiso tor \reer or A i61si ;nd 50
= ksr are t";,h. ,""*i,";;
";l*, il;;;i
des*n strensth O6,Vpj the timiting buckling momem
S,,rz; rr," riroiting tat".uill onU.ulJ
compression 0ange lengft ior tu plasrjc momr
o,i., r *,;"e ii
","iii,;;".;fiil il:il:H,,ji"::1il:,::JjlT,H[T?;
8I:- a faclor rhar can be u:ed lo catcutale rhe rerr.ung
momenr Q,y'4, tor beam\ nirh
unbrared lengrhs ber$een rhe lrmirrng bracrng
tengrhs lp aod L,.
r.or ooncompdct shape.. d. determined by Sectron
_ B5 otLne LRFD Specrficalion, the
marrmlm nexural desrpn srrength o,i.r'. * ar derermined
by LRFb apecfi;"d*
Formula A-Ft-l r\ rabutared as
O,nr,. The as\ociared .*i.;, *Ur*ji."eJ I
tabulared as Lp. rsee lhe preu,ous alscus,ion
Lrnder D.r,g" S,r."g,b A."., for. H;..
The symbots used in rhis rable are:

Z = plartic section modutus,

X-X axis. in.r
orrtp = design plasdc bending moment. kip,ft
= 0/d/ t2 if shape is compact

= r*,= r,^-r",,^ - r.,(tr:-I"\

.L t f shape rsnoncomprcr
l^, I
o,n , = limjring desrgn buckljng momeor. kipJt
= 0's14 - 4) / 12

4 = 10 ksi for rotted shapes

4 = limitinC laterally unhaced length for fu plasdc nomenr capacity, fi, uniform
monenr case (cr = t)
a,_ = limjting lareraUy unbraced tength for
inelastic taterat-torsional buckting, ft
,F = a factor ihai can be used to catculare &e design st.engtl
for uniracea
lengths rr, between a, and L" kip_fi

_qtM,_ M)
L,. LP

OA["= cnqblulp - BF(L.- L,)l < qLM,

AwRrcN tNs1nE oF Sr€s_ CoNsnuooN


use ot $e Table
Determine the required plastic secrion modulus Z. fiom the maximum factored moment
nr'. (kip-fr) using the desired steel yield strEngth.

_- rzM,
Enier the colutur headed a and find a value equal to or greater than the plastic section
modulus required. Alrematively, enter rhe
Q,:,l/, cotunm and find a value;f Olr, equal
to or greater than rhe required facrored load moment. The beam opposite these values
(.2. or O,i4) in the shapes colurnn, and aU b€ans above it,
hav€ sufiicie;r flexural strength
based only on these parameters. The firsr beam appearing in boldface type adjacenr
above the required Z or OrV! is the lightest section that will serve for tlriiteet
vield strcs
used in fie cdlcularions. If rhe beam must nol er.ceed a cerrain deprh. proceed
up $e
colurtur fieaded "Shape" untit a beam wirhin the required depttr is reiched.
After a shape has been selected, the following checks should be made. If the lareral
bracing of the compressrve flange exceeds le. bur is tess $an l- rhe design nexural
srfeneth may be calculated as follows:

qM"= cbti|Mp- BF(h- L))s{lbrdp

If the bracing lengrh ,b is substantialty greater than 2", i.e., Z, > Z" ir is reconmended
th€ unbraced b€am charts be us€d. A cherk should be mad€ of the beam web shear
by referring to the Faciorcd Uniform Load Tables or by use of .he formuta:

0"q =0,0.6&"4" (from LRFD Specification Section F2)

If a defle.tion linitation aho exisrs, the adequacy of the sel€cted beam shoukt be checked


Given: Select a beam of { = 50 ksi steel subjecred to a factored uniform

bending momenr of 256 kip-ft, having its comprcssion flange braced
al 5.0 ft intervals. Assume C, = 1.0.

(Zx method): - . ... M..(12t 256tl2l = 68.3 in.'

Enter the Load Factor Design Setection Table and find ihe nearest
higher tabulated value of a is 69.6 in., which corresponds to a
W14x43. This bear\ however, is not in boldface rype. pro;e€d up the
shape column and locare the flrst bea$ in boldface, Wt6xa0. No;tlle
values tabulaM for O,nt, and l" are 273 kip-ft and 5.6 ft, respecrivety.

Use W16x40

A]lRcN lNrmm or srEe CoNsrRUo'oN


Altematively, proceed up the shape cotum and select a W t 8y"40. The

tabulated values for O,Me and Le e{:e294}jq1-ft 6Jid4.5 tr, resp€ctively.
Sinc€ rhe bracing lengrh I,
is larger than I,e and smaller rhan t , the
maximum rcsisring moment may be calculat€d as follows:

4&t^= cot0tutp- sP(Lo- I-pJl

= 1.01294 - (11.7)(5.0 _
= 288 kip-fr > 56 kip-ft rEq'd o.k.
AW18x40 is satisfacrory

Altenate Enter the column of orri1e values and nore the tabulared value neerest
solution and higher than the iequind facrored mom€nr (Mr) is 261 kip-ft, which
(Me nethod): corresponds ro a Wl4x43. Scannidg the Qrrt values for shapes listed
higher in the column, a Wl6x40 is found to be the ligbtest suilable
shape with l,, < I".

Use Wl6x4o


Givan: Delemine the design flexurat strength of a Wl6x40 of E 36 ki and

[ = 50 ksi sleel wirh ihe comp.ession f]ange braced al intervais of
9.0 ft. Assume C, = 1.1.

Solulion: Eoter the lrad Facror Design Table and note thar for a Wl6x40, 4=
36 ksi:

4btt4,= t97 tjp-tt

I'' =65ft
L, = 19.3 fi
BF = 5.54 kips
Qtrvt"= ctthMp- nr6_ 4\l<Qa up
= 1.1n9? - 5.s4(9 - 6.5)l < 192 kip-ft
= l9Z kip_ft
Entff the Load Factor Design Selection Table and note that for a
w16x40,4 = 50 ksi:
q&|,= 273 krq'tt
4 = s.6 fr
L = 14.7 tt
= 8 67 kiPs
$&t"- cr{$Mp - BF(I+ - Ir))<QaMp
= | .tl2'73 - A.67 (9 - s.6)) s 2't3 kip-ft
= 268 hp_ft

arercN iNfrur? oF srB coNsrlcnoN


Aiven: Sel€ct a b€am of 4 = 50 ksi steel subjected to a factored uniform
bending moment of 30 kip-ft having its compr3ssion flang€ braced at
4.0-ft intervals and a depth of eight inches or less. Assume C, = I .0.
Soluion Assume shape is compact and Z, < ap-
lZ. nethod:
_ ,. t2M"
z,rcqo= _=_ t2(30) =80inl
0,4 0.e(50)
E$ter the l-oad Factor Design Selection Table and not€ that for a
W8xl0, = J0 ksi, tlr€ sh3pe is noncompact, however, tbe maximum
resisting moment S,1}r, listed in the 0,1yp column is adequate. Funher
' note:

0/' = 33.0 kiP-ft

LP =3'1ft
L, =7.8ft
,F = 2.03 kips
Since I+ < Ia s Ia

0M,= CiiJtr, - BF(.h _ I+)l

= 1.0t33.0 - 2.03(4.0 - 3.t)l
= 33.0_ 1.8
= 31.2 kip-ft > l0 kip-i req'd o.k.
Usei W8xl0
Altemele E[ter the Selecrion Table aod note that in the column of O/r, values
Solutioh for W8x10, 4 = 50 ksi, the value of O,lt, is 33.0 kip"ft. which is
(Me nehod): adequate: Also note, however, Z, = 3.1 {i is less than the bracing inrerval
4 = 4.0 ft. and that rF is €qual to 2.03 kips. Th€refore:

$arY"= 1.0133.0 - 2.03(4 - 3.1)l

= 31.2 kip-ft > 30 kip,ft req'd o.k.
Uss W8x10

AM€8rcN lnslrr@ oF stEt- coNsr*UcnN


For shaPes used as beams

io30o 1/Koo



419 84,4 4560

412 725 3360

86.8 3a00
113 3330 5540 2050
46.9 58.2
12,9 72!
3t0o 5270 1950
41,0 633 15.2 12.9
3060 5080 1840 8,2
19.3 119.4 14.0
16.5 3160 5022 1860 €.5
321 73,5
15.6 2980 4830 1790
23J 93.6
11.0 1710
15.0 2350 1670
16.s 2a30

1'r.6 2750 1620

2520 1550
14.2 653
2540 1530 .44,'
161 2570 1510
60" I
10J 2360 36611 1430 412 I
15.3 3860 1430

14.6 2420 3830
,1?,? 6Ls'l
'16,i 14.8 3a30 1420 61.s l
36.4 13.2.
2400 3a30 1420 543
8,4 15.6 '€:6.. I

16.0 2360 3726 13S0

.'t25 682 I
14.8 22AO 3590 1330
38.4 I

!760 32.l 632 L

4a.4 2180 12fO

4f60 413 €,g I
15.5 2160 1270
28.S 4730
31.6 160 2160
4690 I zz.o I
13.9 2A70 1250
I 6o-s I
2150 1250
19.0 14.5 2070
I us
10.5 1990 I rr.r
15.0 2010
23.4 4390 'iir.s 151.3
31.0 15.9 2010
4310 I 4aO
1970 w33.291 I 733
1a90 l
I s6.9

d"w:l-+.1goi **"-;aur!f!4a



ceneral Notes
Spacing of lateral bracing at distances greater lhan a, creates a probl€m in which the
designer is confton ed with a given laterally unbraced length (usualv less than the tolal
span) along the compression flange, and a calculat€d r€quired bending momenl. The
benm cannot be selected from its pl.stic section modulus alone, since deplh, flange
proportions, and other prcperties have an influence on i& bending strenglh
The following chans show the design moment 0'n{" for W and N4 shapes of 4 = 36 ksi
and = 50 ksi steels, used as beams, with resp€ct to lhe maximum unbmced length for
whicil this moment is permissible. In bending. O' of 0 9 is given in Section Fl .2 of the
LRFD Specification. The chans extend over varying unbraced lenglhs, depending upon
the flexural str€ngths of the beams represented. [n general. they extend beyond most
unbraced lengths frequently encountered in design Practice The d€sign motnent Sdlt^,
kip-fl. is plotted with respect lo the unbraced lenglh with no considemtion of the moment
due to weight of the beam. Design moments are shown for unbraced lengths in feet,
sianing at spans less than lp, for spans between rp and t. and for spans beyond ,.
The unbraced length r,. in feet, with the limir indicateC by a solid svmbol. a, is rhe
nuximum unbraced length of the compression flange, with C, = 1.0, for which the desiSn
monent is given by 0,t1p,

L, = 3$r" /'{F, (F1-4)

MP= Z'\
For those noncompact rolled sh4es. which mcer $e requiremenls ofcompacl secnons
excepr rhar bf / 2to\ceeds 65 / i4. but is l€ss ft an 14 l /!l. 4
- lhe design motnent is
obtained ftom Equation A-Fl-3 in Appendix F 1 ofthe LRFD Specitcation. This critenon
applies to one W shape when 4 is equal to 36 ksi and to seven W shapes when 4 is equal
to 50 ksi. (Nonconpact W shapes are given on p 4-7.)
For the case C' = L0 and noncompact shapes:

M"'.= 1t4,- (M,-

M,)l- (A-Fr-3)
\^'- ^o '/

(r- L")li_
4. =
L - br/2tr
;"/ =65/i{
L, = l4t /.lF, 4,
z, =;=tr1 +il +x1r4 - 4 r' (F1-6)

x, = \.,[E_L (F1-8)

ar@ca{ Ixsnm oF sr€€L coNsRUooN

x.' -4c./r
r, I (Fl-9)
u, = (4 - E)5, (Fr-7)
lt = l0 ksi for rolled shapes
The unbraced lengrh in the chans may be eiher the rohl span or any part of
span berween braced points. The plots shown in these charts were computed for
for_which C, = I .0. When a moment gmdient exisrs between poinrs of Lracing,
C6 may
be larger than unity. (See Table 4-1.) Using rhis larger vatue of C, may proviie
a rnor!
liberal ne^ural s'rengt for rbe .ecuon chocen rt rhe unbraced tenerh r:
srearer rhan t_
In $eie .rses. Lle deegn momenr .r be <tcremrned u"ing the fro!i.Ln, of Seoio;
Fl.2a of the LRFD Specification.

I (t I
=a,ch)M" _tM, M.. "- ' ]). a"+r,
| LP)l
The unbraced length 1,, ft. with the limit indicated by an oper symbojo, is
maximurn unbraced lengrh ofthe compression ftange beyond whi;h
rhe desjgn rnonent
is govemed by Specification Secrion Fl.2b. For unbraced lengths greater
rh; r,:

Q,).t" = 4,M ,= 4,C,; El ct +(+\t,c. < QbC F\a, and Q6Ia,

In,cornputing the points for tbe curves, C, in rhe above formulas was taken
_ a.s unitt
E= 29,000 ksi and 6 = I I ,200 ksi. The properties of the beams are taken from the
of Dimensions ,nd Properties in pan I of rhis LRFD Manual. The beam strengrhs
been reduced by mukiptying the nominat flexumi srrength
M, by 0.9, the resish;c€ fac0or
0, for flexu.e.
Over a limited range of tength, a given beam is the lighrest available
for various
combinarionsof unbraced lengrh and design moment. The chans are Cesigned to assist
in selection of the lightesr available beam for rhe given combination_
The solid ponion of each curve indicares the most €conomical se.rion
by weighr. The
dash€d portion of each curve indicates ranses in which a lighter
weight bearn wiii satisif
lhe loading conditions.

. The curves are plorted without regail to shear strenglh and deflection crileria, rherefore
du€ care must be exercised in their use. The curles ao not exrena
*yona an arlirrarf
spar/depth ljmit of 30.
The following examples ilustrate the use offte chans.


Using 4 = 50 ksi steel. derermine the size ofa..simple,, framed girder

w'th a span oi J5 feer. which .uppon\ rwo equdt concenrrared
The faclored loads produce a requted momenr of 44O klp_fr in the

A!mc$ trsrnlrt or SIIIL CoNsnuooN

center 15-ft section between the loadt. The load points are laterally

For this loading condition, C, = 1.0 due to nearly uniform momenr

across the ceniral ponion of ahe span.

Center seclion of 15 feet is long€st unbraced length.

With total span equal to 35 and M"= 44t) klp-ftj assume approxi-
male weight of beam at 70 lbvft (e4ual to 0.07 kipsfft).

r'urv- = r+o , f9!Zt!l- , ,.rl-,,r, uo-n

Entering chart, with unbriced length equal to 15 feel on rhe bortom
scale (abscissa), proceed upward to meer the horizontal line corre-
sponding to a design mome equal to 453 kip-ft on the left hand scale
(ordinare). Any bean listed above and to the righl of the point so
located satisfies tie design moment requirement. In ihis case, the
lightest section satisfying this crirerion is a W21x68, for which the tohl
design moment with an unbraced length oi 15 feet is 457 kip ft.

Note: If depth is limited. a W14x82 could be selected, provided
deflection conditions arc not crilical.


Given: A "fixed end" girder with a span of 60 feet suppons a concentrated

load at the center. The compression flange is laterally suppoied at the
concentrated load poinr and al lhe inflection points. The factored load
produces a maximum caiculated moment of 440 kip-ft at the load point
and th€ suppons. Determine the size ofthe beam using 4 = 50 ksi steel.

For this loading condition, C, = 1.67 (by cornparison with Table 4-1).
with an unbraced leng& of 15 feet. Wilh the total span equal to 60 feet
and M, = 440 kip-ft, assume approximaie weight of beam at 60 lbsfft
(0.06 kipsffl).
fo 06 \ 160l
Total M =440+1:-,/1.2I
1,'4 I

= 451 kip-fl at the cen(e.line and 462 at rhe supporrs

Compute M.q,,,, by dividing the required design momenr by C,

- 462 I | .6'7 = 217 klp-k
Enter chads wi& unbraced length equal to 15 feet and proceed upward
to 277 kip-fi. Any beam listed above and |o the right of the poinr
satisfies lhe design moment.


4- 2

]]j,l!rpl "*"9" satisfyiDe the criteria ot a desistr moln€ll of

#,Si#*ffi iTft :';'"lTtiX'yi,T*itFi*
illT,9#. tr,fnil :,;l:ffi;,::?n', *d (Q,Lrp
= s4o

trtr:ffif#^ffi::Jggo*rd be checked ror


BEAM DESIGN MOMENTS (O = 0.9, Cb = 1, Fy = 36 ksi)










o 7600








'\0 16 22 2A 34 40 46 s2 58 64 70 76 82
UNBRACED LENGTH (1.5tr inc€menrs)

A@d lNsrrurE oF sl@ coNsRUmoN



Coneral Notes
The Composite Beam Tables .an be used for the design and amlysis of simple composite
steel beams. Values for the design flexural strengrh QM, for rolled l-shaped beams with
yi€ld strengths of 36 ksi and 50 ksi are tabulated, as well as lower bound moments of
inerria. The values tabulat€d are independent of the concrete flang€ PloPenies. The
strength evaluation of the concrete flange portion of the composite section is left to the
design engineer The preparation of these tables is based upon the fact that the location
of.he plastic neutral axis (PNA) is uniquely determined by dle horizontal shear force
t0. at the interface between the steel seciion and the concret€ slab. With the knowledge
of the location of the PNA and the dislance to the cenaoid of the concrete flange force
!0,, the design flexural strenglhs QM, for ihe rolled section can be computed.
DellEn Flerurul Slrongth (Poslilve)
The design flexural strength of simple steel beams with composite concrete flanges is
computed from the €quilibdum of intemal foices using the plastic stress distribution as
shown in Figure 5- I :

4M"= 6Ttuy = OCtud


0 = 0.85
4, = sum of tensile forces = 4 x (tensile force beam area)
Cd= sum ofcomprcssive forces = concrete flange force + fi x (compressive force

, = momen! arm between centroid of tensile force and the resultant compressive

The model used in the calculation of the d€sign strenghs rabulated herein is given in
Figue 5-2. A sunnury of the model propenies follows:

d, = area of steel cross section, in.'1

dr = flange atea = ,/x tn in

,{* = web area = (d - 2&)r", in.'?

, o .l

-T --1

Fig.5-L Pldtic stEss distiburid.

Ar,cMN INmoF Sle CoNsnlcnoN


K*.= \A, - 2Ar - A") / 2, kt.1

Limitations for the tabulated values include lhe following:


the limitation of toi (nin.) is not rcquired by the Specification, but is d€€med to be
a gactical midmum value. Design shenglh mom€nt values are tabulared for plastic
n€utrai axis (PNA) locations at the top and intemediate quancr poinrs Orcugh the
rhickness of the steel beam top flange. In addiiion, PNA locations are compuled at th€
point where tC, equals 0.2544, and the point where :O, is th€ average of the minimum
value of (0.2544) and th€ value of:4, when the PNA is at rhe bottom of the lop flarge
Ge! Fieure s-3).
To use the tables, select a valid value of tO,, determine the appropriare value of n
and read the design flexuml strengrh moment SM, dircctly. Values for yl are also
labulated for convenience. The parameten yl and ).2 are defined as foltows:

yl = di(rance Fom PNA !o beam rop flange

f2 = disrance from concr€re flange force to b€am iop flange

Valid values for :O" are the smaller of the fouowing three expressions (LRFD
Specifi cation Section I5):


Fig. 5-2. Cottposite bea nodel.

ArlAn{ INsrmtr€oF Sr!E- CoNcnudoN


l"'= specified compressive sFengrh ofconcrete, ksi

A" = area of condet€ slab within effective width, in.'?
A, = arca of steel qoss section, in,z
4 = sp€cified minimum yield stress, ksi
r = number of shear connectom between th€ point of maximum positive moment
and the point of ze{o moment to either side
O" = shear capacity of single shear connector, kips

Concrcte FlenEe
According to LRm Specification Section 13.1 the €ffective widlh of the concrete slab
on each side of the beam centerline shall noa exceed:

a. one-eighth of the beam span, center to center, of supports;

b. one-half the distance to the centerline of the adjacent beams; or
c. the distance to the edge of the slab.

The maximum concrete flang€ force is equal to 0.85 /" A" where A" is based on the
actual slab thickness, t . However, often the maximum concrete flange force exce€ds rhe
maximum capacity of the sp€rified steel beam. In ahat cale, rhe effecaire concrete flange
force is det€rmined ftom a value of tO,, which will be the smaller of Ad or rO,. The
effective concrete flange force is:

Yl=Dislonce frcn lop ol sleel llonge lo ony

of lhe teven ldbuloled Pl,lA locolions
, o,(@ Pokt @)= !&19C9?9'19-UJ)
tQn(@ poinl@)..25AsFl

y_ _________
6E L)CA )t'lS
5 )an
Fi8.5-3. Cohpotne tua table paruneters.

AMUN INsl]E oF SBEL Co\,snumoN

.,:i-l .


C".," - eff€ctive concrete flange force, kips

, = effective concrete flange width. in.
a = effecrive concrete flange thickness, in.

The bais ofthe des'gn ol most compotrre bearns wrltbe $e rela0olstup:

'= 0.85t-'b

From this relationship. the value of 12 can be computed as:


1- = distance from top of steel bea$ lo iop of concrer€, in.

Shear Conn€ctors
Shear connectors musr be headed sreel shrds, not less than four stud diameters in length
afier insiallation, or hoi-rolled sreel channels. Shear connecrors must be embedded in
concrete slabs made wirh AS IM C33 aggregate or wirh rorary kitn produced aggregares
conforming to ASTM C330. wirh concrete unil weight nor less than 90 pcf.
The nominal strength ofone srudshearconnectorembedded in a solid concrete stab isi

e,-a.sA",.,lJ!4 < t"J:" G5_1)

A,.= cross-sectional area of a stud shear connector in.1

il = specified concrete compressive strengrh, ksi
4 = minimum specified tensile strength ofstud, ksi
E = modulus ofelasticity ofconcrete. ksi
= unit weight of concrete, lb/€u ft
The nominal shear strengths of 7a-in. headed studs embedded in concrere slabs are
tisted in Table 5,1.
Note the effecaive shear saengrhs of sruds used in conjuncdon with composire or
non-composite metal forms may be aff€cted by the shape of the deck and spacing of the
studs. See LRFD Specificarion Sections 13.5 and15.6.

Strength Dudng Constructton

When temporary shores are not used during construction, lhe st€el section must have
sufficient strengih to support the applied toads prior to the concrete at[aining 75 percenr
of the specified concrete strengrhr' (LRFD Spe.ification Section I3.4). The effect of
deflection on unshored sreel beams during construcrion should be considered.

ArcflcN tNsrTrm oF Sr€€r_ CoNsRlooN


Teble 5-1.
NominalSlud Shear Shength Or (kips) for %-ln Headed Studs
(ksi) (kips)

115 '17,7
3.0 145 2t.o
3.5 115 19.8
3.5 145. 23.6
4.0 115 21.9

Lateral Support
Adequate lateral support for the compression flange of the steel section will be provided
by th€ concrere slab after hardening. Dunng construction, howeYer. lateral suPport must
be provided, or the design strength musi be reduced in accordance with Section Fl ofthe
LRFD Specification. Steel deck with adequate attachment to the compression flange will
usuauy provide lhe necessary lateral suppol Forconsttuctlon using fully encas€dbear$,

panicular attention should b€ given to lateral supPort dudng construction

Design Shear Strength

The design shear strengih of composit€ beams is de@rmined by the strength of L\e steel
web, in accordance with lhe requirements of Sectton F2 of the LRFD SPecificatio!

Lower Eound Mom€nt ot lneftia

With regard to seraiceability, a table of lower bound moments of inertla of composite'
sections is incloded to assist in the evaluation ofdeflection. If calculated deflections using
the lower bound moment of inertia are acceptable, a complete elastic analysis of the
compo5ile secrion can be avoided.
The lower bound moment of inertia is based on the area of the beam and an equivalent
concrete area of tO, / 4. The analysis includes only the horizontal shear force transfen€d
by the shear connectors supplied; and, thus, neglects the contribution of the concrcte
flange not considered in the plastic dis.ribution of forces Gee Figwe 5-4). The low€r
bound nomenr of inertia, therefore, is the nroment of inertia of the section at the factored
(ultimate) load. This is smaller than the moment of inenia at service loads where
deflection is calculaled. The value for the lower bound moment of inenia can be
calculated as follows:

,- -, * - t).(+)ra n n - r^^r
^,1^ ^

= alistance frorn bottom of beam to elastic neutrai
axis (ENA)

ar@N INsrmroF SrE CoNmtooN


' \''/ I

l"''l r ll
L \
Compo3lte Beam Reactlons
Design r€actions for syrrunetrically loaded composite beams may be cornputed using the
Composite Beam Tables. Ttvo sit'Jarions will be considered. Flstl an upper bound value
for a beam reaction may be computed neglecting the composite concrete flange properties
other than concrete strenglh. Second, a more refined value for a bean reaction can b€
computed if the properties of the composite concrete flange arc determined initiatly.
When the properties of the composite concrete flange have not been computed, a
conservalive value for the maximum horizontal .shear between the composite concrere
slab and the steel section (to,i may be taken as the srnaller ofA.4 or nC,. Here, n is the
number of headed studs between the reaction poinl and point of ma{mum moment. The
value of O. inay be laken from Table 5- 1 or determined ftom LRFD Specification Section
15. A value for 0M, of the composite section may b€ obtained ftom the Composite Beam
Tables using lhe snm ofhorizontal shear:O" as described above. In this case, f2 is defmed
as the distance from the lop of the sleel beam to the top of lhe concrete slab. Th€ design
reaction may be determined from the value'of OM" as discussed in the following
Wten the Foperties of ih€ concrete flange have be€n computed (effectiv€ width and
depth), a slightly different method is used to find OM". The stud etriciency can be
determined in accordance with Section 15 of the LRFD Specification, or Table 5-l can
be used for 7a-in. diameter stud shear connectors. The value for the sum of the horizontal
shear force :C^ can be taken as the smaller of nC,, A,4, or 0.85t'A., where, is the
concrete cylinder stength (ksi) and A" is the maximum permitted concrete flange area
(LRFD Specification Section I5.2). The distance n is the distance from rhe rop of the
steel beam to the top of the concrete slab less [:O, / (0.85r?)] / 2. Using these values
fo.:8, and f2, the value for 0M, can be selected fion the Composite Beam Tables.

concrara oreo=



=i- ll

Fii.5-4. Mohe t ofirenia.


5' II

The design beam reaction for a symnetically loaded

comp6ite bea$ may be
and the span length as:
computed ftom known values of OM'

R= CAM"/ L

R = design beam reaction,

C" coefiicient from Figure 5-5
beam flexural design strength' kip-ft
OM,= composite
, = span length, 11

Pralimlnarv S€clion Selocllon

*"" rt.*1" Beam Tables fie aPproximate beam weighr Per unir lenglh
lGa "ltitoi t '"."r air.,"nt beam dePrhs mav be calcularedas tollows:
' I M"(21
Be3,n weishr r rb/ft =
' I ;72 _* _ttGl lt..

M, = required flexural stength, kip-ft

d = nominal bean depth' in
y.- top of steel beam to top of concrete slab' in
= distance ftom
a = effective conctete slab
thickness, iII.
R stess, ksi
= ste€l Yield
0 = 0.85 :
3.4 = ratio of the weight of a beam to its area. lb/in
rna) be u\ed A
Forconvenience n lh€ Prelinunary selection phase the nominaldepth
value foran musl alsobe selected For I e:adve
l) Lghl secl ions and loads thrs value(an
be assumed to b€ one irch With the PNA
at $€ top of lhe sleel beam r€ )-g'=AJ
de flexural desrg! strenglh is:

OM,= OA4@ /2+ Y"-- a /2)/ t2

OM, = flexural design stengd'. kip-ft

A, = sleel b€am cross-sectionai
area m'

l,c I

c"a ll
Fig.5-5. Beam rcaction coefcists'

AE rcN lNsrE'rloF Srls CdmrMoN


Floor Ootl€ctlom and Vlbretlons

Refer to lhe discussion of Floor Deflections and Vibmtions at lhe end of Part 4 of this
LRFD Manual.


Giwn: Deiermine thebeam, with6= 50 ksi, rcquiredto supponaservicelive

load of 1.3 kipyit and a service dead load of 0.9 kipvft. The beam span
is 30 ft and the beam spaciry t0 ft. The slab is 3rrin. lighr weight
concrete f./ = 3.5 ksi, 115 Pco supported by a 3-in. de€p composit€
metal deck with an average rib width of six inches. The ribs are orie ed
perpendicular to the beam. Shored construction is specified. Also.
det€rmine the Dumber of trin. diamerer headed studs required and the
s€rvice live load deflecrion.

Solution: A.lnadtabulation:
Service Facto.ed load
(kipYft) (L.F.) (kipvft)
LL r.3 (1.6) 2.t
DL 0.9 (1.2) 1.1
Total 2.2 3.2

B. Fl€xural d€sign strenglh:

Beam moments

Mu= 1.3(30)'18 = l46ktp-ft
C. Select section and d€t€rmine properties:

At this point, go directly to tbe Composite Beam Tables and sel€ct

a section or compute a prcliminary trial section size using ahe

-Beamwerphl=l Mt2t
- l
- -.'-- lratz+v"--olzn|)

d / 2= 1 in. (estimate)
0 = 0.85
4 = s0 ksi

d --;j
dl2 (Y--a/2\ Beam Wergbr
18 346 9 5.25 U
AreN INsmuE oF Sl@ anNmudoN

From ahe results above, a W16x26 woufd be the nost appropriate

Let tC, - A4 = 7.68(50) = 384 rips.

The effective width of lhe concrctc flange

lufi/E=?.5 fi=90in.
", .lzrttt=2. rgovems)
-l t0 t spacing
o,-,=_L= 384
''" o.85L'b 0.85(r.5190) - L4t in.

Y2 = 6.25 - 1.43 /2= 5.53 in.

By intcrpolatioo ftogt lhe Composite Bcam Tables for a Wl6x26

and a value of f2 cquai ro 5.53 in.,

OM, = 363 + (0.03 /o50X377 - 363)

= 364 kip-ft > 360 kip-ft req'd o.k
The sel€ctcd section is ad€quate for n = 5.5 in. and fl = 0.0 in.,
for which 0M, = 363 kiPft

D. Compuie numbcr of studs r€quired:

The stud reduction is calculated to be:

Reducrion factor = tw, / h,)\H,/ h.- 1.0\a l 0

o15,ol lus.s r, ,.0,= (u-lJ
v2 '.0
N. - number of stud comectors in one rib; not to exceed ihree
in computations, although more than three may be insialled
lr. = average width of rib, in.
,r, = nominal rib height, in.
Il, = length of stud connector after welding, in.; not to exce€d
the value (i. + 3) in computaiions, although actual length
may be greater. Also must not be less than four stud

The value for 11, = 5.5 was selected to ensur€ the stud capacity
rcduction faclor is 1.0.

The number of studs required is:

with O, = 19.8 kips Clable 5-l)

28A", / Q. = 2(384\ I 19.8 = 38.8, say 40 studs

Ai€lrcrN lNsrllw oF sre! CoNsnumd


The d$ign bcam reaclion for a slmmetrica.lly loaded compcite bcan rnay be
computed ftom known values of 0M, and rhe span lengd as:

R=cAM"/ L

i = design beam racdon, kips

C. co€fficicnt ftom Figue 5-5
OM, = composite beam fl€xural design strengrh, kip-ft
L = span length, ff
P'rllmln!ry Sactloh S.lectlon
Wtcn using the Conpditc Beam Tables, rhc approximate beam wcigbr per unit length
r€qoir€d for s€veral diffcrcnt b€am dcpths ftay be calculated as follows:

[ M'(12)
Bcam weichi
- {tt/fir =
/2 + y_- a/z\oF,)]r.4

M, = .E4uircd flexual sEength, kip-ft

d = nomhal beam d.prh, in.
= distahcc from iop of steel beam to top of concret€ slab, in.
d = cffective concElc slab thickness, in.
4 = steel yicld sa€ss, ksi
0 =085
3.4 = rario of the weight of a beam ro iis area, Ib/in.l

For convenience in the preliminary setection phase the nominal dcprh may b€ used. A
value for a/2 must also be s€lected. For relarively light s€ctions ard loads, this value can
b€ assumed lo bc on€ inch. Wirh lhe PNA at lhe rop of lhe sted b€am. i.c., tC, = A"F.
the flc\ural dcsign strenSth is:

OM,=M"\ld /2+ Y^- a/2)/ t2

4M, = flexural de,sign sFenerh, kip-ft

,4, = st€el beam cross-sectional arca. in,'?

l,e I

Cc=1 Cc.2 C,.J

R= ':7"!
Fie. 5-5. B.M nactin.o.ficiats.

A@!c^N INsrro.E oF Sr@ Co!.nirx-rflot{


Floor Dellectiona and Vlbratlons

Refer to lhe discussion of Floor Deflections and Vibrations at the end of Part 4 of rhis
LRFD Manual.


Given: Determine the belm, wirh 4 = 50 ksi, required 0o suppon a s€rvice live
load of 1.3 kipsfft and a service dead load of 0.9 kpvfr. The beam span
is 30 ft and the beam spacing 10 ft. The slab is 3t4-in. light weight
concrete (n'= 3.5 ksi, 115 pcf) support€d by a 3-in. deep composite
metal deck with an average rib widrh ofsix inches. The ribs are oriented
perp€ndicular to the beam. Shored construction is specfied. Also,
determin€ th€ number of %in. diameter head€d studs requir€d and the
service live load deflection-

Solulion: A.lradtabularion:
Service Factorcd load
(kipsfl) (L.F.) (kipvft)
LL 1.3 (1.6) 2.1 .
DL 0.9 (\.2) l.t
Total 2.2 3.2

B. Flexural design strength:

B€am moments

M = 3.2(30)'
18 = 360 krp-ft
Mz= 1.3(30),/8 = 146 kjP-ft

C. Selert section and determine pmperties:

At this poinr, go direcdy to the Composite Beam Tables and selecr

a secrion or compute a preliminary trial section sizc using the

-leam w€rPht = I Mtl2\

'' I


YM =3+3.25=6.25in.
a/2= 1 in. (estimate)
Q = 0.85
4 = 50 ksi

d + dt2 ty.^- a/2) Beam weighr

l8 346 9 5.25 24

Ar@rN lNsrmm oF SrE C.NsnucnoN


From the resuhs above, a Wl6x26 would be the most apFoPriate


Let I4, =A4= 7.68(50) = 384 kiPs.

Tbe effecrive width of the conctEt flange is

o tta =z' lo ftl8 = 7.5 ft = 90 in. Govems)

" .jzx
,-4".. =-L?-= 3s4 = r.+r in.
0.85f,'b 0.85ri.5rt90)
YZ = 6.25 - 1.43 /2= 5.53 in

By intcrpolation ftos lhe Composite Beam Tables ior a Wl6r6

and a value of n.qurl to 5.53 in..

OM, = 363 + (0.03 /o-5o)(377 - 363)

= 3& kip-ft > 360 kip-ft req'd o.k
The selected sectioo is ad.quate for l"2 = 5 5 in. and n = 0.0 in ,
for which OM, = 363 kip-fr

D. Compute llumbcr of studs tequired:

Th€ stud rcduction is calculated to be:

Reducrion facror = E
tw , / h,)\H / h,- 1.u)< l.O

=Stor:xs.s r: - r.ol = r.o (B-r)

N, = number of stud connectors in one rib; not to exceed three

in computations, allhough more than tbr€e may be installed
r, = average width of rib, in.
it = nominal rib height, in.
H, = length of stud connector after weldrng, in.; not to exceed
the value (4 + 3) in computations, although actual lenglh
may bc grcater Also must not be less than four stud

The value for F/, = 5.5 was selected to enswe the stud capacity
reductior factor is 1.0.

The number of studs requircd is:

with O. = 19.8 kips Clable 5-l)

2(\Q) / Q,= 2(384) I 19.8 = 38.8, say 40 studs

Awu.N lNslrlmc sEE- CoNmudoN


E. Check deflection:

For the selected section, a Wl6x26. li = 50 ksi, I2 = 5.5 in. and

yl = 0.0 in.: from the Elastic Moment of lnertia Tables one can find
the lower bound moment of inertia is 985 in.a Thus, the service live
load deflection can be calculated as follows (s€e LRFD Manual
Part 4):

. MJ1 t46\J0), ^ ^^
o"= L L
4i4:<360 o'k'
roi.= rortsssr=081in
n Shear check:

{ = 3.2(15) = 48 kips
0v = 00.64""4"
= (0.9X0.6X50)(15.69 x 0.250)
= 106 kps > 48 kips req'd o.k.


Given: D€termine th€ beam, with 4 = 50 ksi, re4uired ro suppo( a servic€ live
load of 250 psf and a rervice dead load of 90 psl Tbe beam span is
40 fr and the beam spacing js t0 ft. Assume 3 in. metal deck is used
with a 4.5 in. slab of4 ksi normal weight concrete (145 pcf). Th€ stud
reduction factor is l 0_ Unshored construction is sp€cified. Determine
the beam size and service dead and live load deflecrions. Also select a
non-ccmposite section (no shear connectors).

Solution: A.liadtabDlation:
Service Factored load
(Lip5/fr) (L.F.) (kips/ft)
LL 2.s (1.6) 4.0
DL 0.9 (r.2\ 1.1
Total 3.4 5.1

B. Beam moments:

M, = 5.1{40)1 I I = t,020 klp-ft

Ml! = 2.5(40)r / 8 = 500kip-ft
MD. = 0.9(40), / 8 = 180 kp-ft
C. Selecr section and determine properties:

Assume a = 2 in.; thercfore, t3.l(e y2 = 7.5 - 2 / 2 = 6.5 in. From the

Composite Beam Tables, for 19 = 50 ki and I2 6.5 in., W2lx62,
W24x55, and W24x62 are possible sizes.

Try a W24x55:

r =50ks'
?2 = 6.5 in.

A'wclN Illsfilm oF Srftr" CoNsmuooN

5- 15


n = 0.0 in.
C" = 810kips
OM,= 1,050 kip-ft
compute !2 for tO" = 8 lo kips:

., [z* t tt =2" to nta = tofr

= 120 in.
8lo =
," - -!L =0 85(4x120)
Y)='7.5 - r.9912= 65 ir,'

D. Compute the numb€r of studs required:

o = 26 t kiDs 0able 5-l)
iu",*, or r.* = rZf rp" z O' =
2{810) / 26 1 = 02 l sav 64 snds

E. Constructlon phase strength
a.nnsmrclion liv€ toadof20 pstwill be a'sumed Flom the LRFD
retevanr load combinationr are
i'oJi*ru.i is*,i* eo 1)' rhe

l.4D = | .4 x0.9 = I .25 Wfi

l6L= l2xOg + l'6 x 0 2 = 1 40 k/ft
l.2D +
M, = 1.40 x (40f / 8 = 280 ldp-ft

Fmm $e Composi(e B€am Tables for

a W24>55 silh I = 50lsr'
iii*'"-*JG*" r""ral suPportis Provrdei bv rhe anachment
of the steel deck to the compression flange'
> 280 kiP-ft
0M, = oMr = 503 kiP-ft
n Senic€ load deflections:
ls equal lo the service
Assume that the wel concrcte load moment
a".a-iJJ."t*t. w;rr' r" = I '350 in ' for w'4)'ss'

,"' = 161r1.350) = r..l: in.

the lowerbound
For$e W2ax55 wirh f2 = 6 5 in andvl=00rn
."-."i"irt*i..- rtLrnd in thelnwerBound Ltasdc Momenl
,tu = 4'060 in "
n.. =-!!q(1ql= 1.22io.
-* 16l(4,060)
L .f,
-- 393 - 360 ".t.
of lyrin to overoome the dead load
Specify a beam camber

Al€lrqN INsttlft oF srlEl coNsnucroN


G. Cbeck shearl

l{ =5.1(40)/2= 102 kips

0y= Q(0.6)F_,4"
= (0.9X0.6X50)(23.57 x 0.395)
= 251 kips > 102 kips o.k
H. Final section selection:

Usq W24x55, 4 = 50 ksi, camb€r I yrin., 64 studs. 74-in. diameter

(3? each side of nidspan)

l. Noncomposite section:

Considering the given problem witbout sheai conneclors (i.e., oon-

composite), a steel secrion can be selected fron the OM, values
tabulated under e3ch section in either tbe Composire Beam Tabtes
or th€ Inad Factor Design Selecuon Thbles.

For M" = 1,020 kip-ft, select a W2?x94, 15 = 50 ksi, with a OM,

fle,(ura.l design strengrh equal to 1,M0 kip-ft-

-- l6l(3,270)

a,,- "--*' = 152h >/./t6a)

- r6j0,270)
For A =, / 360 = 1.33 in.

. 161(1.33)
Use: W30x9, 4 = 50 ksi. OM" = QrW, = 1,170 kip"ft


Qiven: A W2lx44, Ft = 50 ksi, steel girder spans 30 feet and supports

int€m€diate beams ar the third points. A total of fifty 7a-in. dismeter
headed studs are applied to th€ b€am as fotlows: Z berween each
suppon and the beams at the one-third poinrs, and rwo between the
intermediate beams. The slab consists of 3rrin. ligh!-weighr concrere
(115 pco with a specified design strength of 3.5 ksi over a 3-in. deep
composite metal deck wirh an average rib width of six inches. The ribs
are ori€nted parallel to rhe beam centerlirc. Determine rhe design beam

For studs in a single row the spacing between rhe support and first
intermediate beam would be t 0( 12) / 24 = 5.0 in. which is grearer than
the spe.ified minimum of six stud diameters (LRm Specificarion
Section 15.6). Since },./it, = 6 / 3 = 2 is grearer than 1.5. rhe stud

ar@c N lNsrrlw oF sE coNsRuc:.:o{


reduction factor is not necessary (LRFD Specificatioo I3.5c). Thcr€-

fore, ftom Trble 5.1, the stud shear strengrh is:

,Q" = nQ"= 24(t9.8\ = 475 kips

For t9! = 475 kips, the roquircd cffective concrete flange thickness
can b€ calculated to he:

a =6;;-;F5xr2)= r'l/u
Y2 = 3 + 3,25 - 1.17 t 2 = s.36 ij.
Beam rcaction:

From thc Conlosite B€am Selecdon tbblc for a W2lx44, 4 = 50 ksi,

I4, = 4?5 kips placss ttle PNA st yt = 0.2? in.

For t2 = 5.36 in. add yl = 0.27 irl.,0,tt, = 655 kip-ft

R = C,OM"/ L
= 3(65s) / 30
= 65.5 kips

R = design reactior\ lips

C. = cocf&cient from Fi$ne 5-5
{M, = flexural dcsig. strcng& of berm, kiF.ft
a = span length, ft
Noic: The be3m wcight was rFgl€ctQd in this exaslplc.

A}{IlrcN lNsrnrr€oF srrE co}mthoN

-. r. r' , ti! I Jlr-i.i li,;ii: ,,r1i.,..i.{ll. i: :rj.i;tj jt