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Media (magazines, newspapers, billboards, advertising, tv, radio, videos, film, promotions, etc)

Television is becoming more like movies, many of which contain scenes of drug and alcohol use, says Dr. James Sargent, associate

professor of pediatrics at Dartmouth College in Hanover, N.H. "TV shows are becoming more edgy, and increasingly depicting more smoking and drugs." (Pozniak)



recent survey conducted by the Partnership for a Drug-Free

America, for instance, shows that a shrinking number of teens say rap or rock music makes drugs seem OK, just 42 percent in 2000, down from 51 percent in 1997. As for television, 40 percent of teens in 2000 said programs make drugs seem OK, down from 44 percent in 1997. (Posniak)

This shows the desensitization of drugs in media.

Technological/Medical Advances (computer, research studies, new medicines or procedures, etc)

Naloxone is a medication designed to rapidly reverse opioid overdose. It is an opioid antagonist—meaning that it binds to opioid receptors and can reverse and block the effects of other opioids. It can very quickly restore normal respiration to a person whose breathing has slowed or stopped as a result of overdosing with heroin or prescription opioid pain medications. (CDC) EVZIO® is a prefilled auto-injection device that makes it easy for

families or emergency personnel to inject naloxone quickly into the outer thigh. Once activated, the device provides verbal instruction


the user describing how to deliver the medication, similar to

automated defibrillators. (CDC)

This shows that since technology and medication is evolving so much, people will use that as an excuse to take more drugs, and they will think it’s okay to overdose because they can be “cured”

Interpersonal Communications (family, friends, peers, co-workers, teachers, etc)

Someone that begins using alcohol or other drugs excessively may not be outwardly open about their use due to strong feelings of shame, guilt, and fear of judgment. They may think others will not understand or accept the situation, which breeds the tendency to be secretive with their loved one. They may lie about:

Where they are. Who they are with. The events of the day. Why they are behaving differently. Why money is missing. (American Addiction Center)

Anger and violence can become concerns as a relationship


deteriorates. Frustrations will be high, but if someone is using a substance that is known to cause aggression, the situation may be even more dangerous. Drugs known to increase anger, irritability, and violence include:

Alcohol. Cocaine. MDMA. Methamphetamine (crystal meth). Ritalin and other prescription stimulants. Steroids. (AAC)

This shows the mind altering chemicals of drugs can affect even those who you love.

Immediate Risks

General symptoms of a drug overdose may include:

nausea vomiting abdominal cramps diarrhoea dizziness loss of balance seizures (fitting) drowsiness confusion breathing difficulties/not breathing internal bleeding hallucination visual disturbances snoring deeply turning blue Coma. (Betterhealth) Opioid overdose is life-threatening and requires immediate emergency attention. Recognizing the signs of opioid overdose is essential to saving lives. (CDC)

This shows that opioids are fatal in large quantities and when misused.

Long-Term Risks

Depression. There is a clear association between substance abuse and depression, as well as other mood disorders.2 This relationship could be attributed to preexisting depression that led to drug abuse or it could be that substance use caused changes in the brain that increased depressive symptoms.2 Some people use drugs to self-medicate symptoms of depression, but this only alleviates the

symptoms while the user is high. It may even make depression symptoms worse when the
symptoms while the user is high. It may even make depression symptoms worse when the

symptoms while the user is high. It may even make depression symptoms worse when the user is working through withdrawal. Many drugs have a withdrawal syndrome that includes depression or other mood disturbances, which can complicate recovery. (Brande) Anxiety. Addiction is also associated with anxiety and panic disorders.1 Again, the cause is difficult to discern and can be different among individuals. For one person, they could develop a pattern of abuse after using drugs (e.g., benzodiazepines like Xanax) to cope with their symptoms. Another person could have a long-standing pattern of drug abuse and consequently develop anxiety problems. Many substances, particularly stimulants like cocaine, can cause anxiety as a dose-dependent side effects.3 Other drugs, like benzodiazepines, can bring about increased anxiety as part of their withdrawal syndromes.4 (Brande)

This shows the long term mental effects on drugs and misuse of drugs.