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12/9/2018 Chapter 09 HW

Chapter 09 HW
Due: 11:59pm on Monday, December 10, 2018
You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy

Mitosis (2 of 3): Mechanism of Mitosis (BioFlix tutorial)

During mitosis, duplicated chromosomes (each consisting Prophase.


of a pair of sister chromatids) that formed during interphase
separate within the parent cell and are distributed to two
identical daughter nuclei. The mechanism of mitosis
involves coordinated changes in chromosome structure, the
mitotic spindle, and the nuclear envelope.

In this tutorial, you will identify the stages of mitosis shown


in micrographs of dividing animal cells and review the
interactions between chromosomes and the mitotic spindle
that lead to the separation of each pair of sister chromatids.

Before beginning this tutorial, you may want to review the


stages of mitosis depicted in the Mitosis animation
(Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase and
Cytokinesis).

Metaphase.

Anaphase.

Telophase and Cytokinesis.

Part A - Identifying the stages of mitosis

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The stages of mitosis were originally defined by cellular features observable through a light microscope. The six micrographs below show animal cells (lung cells from a
newt) during the five stages of mitosis, plus cytokinesis. (Note that interphase is not represented in these micrographs.) In these images, the chromosomes have been
stained blue, microtubules green, and microfilaments red.
Drag each micrograph to the target that indicates the stage of mitosis or cytokinesis it shows.

Hint 1. How can you distinguish between prophase and prometaphase?


Prophase and prometaphase are sequential stages in mitosis that set up the cell for nuclear division.
Sort the following events according to whether they occur in prophase, in prometaphase, or in neither of these stages.

ANSWER:

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prophase prometaphase neither stage

Spindle fibers penetrate nuclear


Centrosomes begin to move apart. region.
Chromosomes align midway between
poles of cell.
Spindle begins to form. Centrosomes are on opposite sides of
nucleus.

Hint 2. Chromosome position in metaphase

Metaphase is characterized by the alignment of the chromosomes along the metaphase plate, a plane equidistant from the poles of the spindle.
Although metaphase is often illustrated with all the chromosomes neatly aligned along the metaphase plate, this is not always the case. In real cells, the arms of
each chromosome may extend some distance away from the metaphase plate, and only the centromere of each chromosome may be aligned on the metaphase
plate.

Hint 3. What are the key characteristics of anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis?
In anaphase and telophase, the chromosomes separate and two daughter nuclei are formed. In cytokinesis, the cytoplasm of the cell divides.
Sort the following processes into the appropriate bin to indicate the earliest stage in which the process can be observed in an animal cell.
ANSWER:

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anaphase telophase cytokinesis

Sister chromatids separate. Nuclear envelopes begin to form.


Two separate daughter cells form.
Cell elongates between poles. Chromosomes begin de-condensing.

ANSWER:

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Correct
As these six micrographs demonstrate, cellular events observable by light microscopy can be used to define the six stages of mitosis and cytokinesis.
However, deciphering which stage is which in real cells can be much more challenging than in the drawings of idealized cells you see in your textbook. Thus, it
is important to carefully observe the completeness of the mitotic spindle and the location of the chromosomes, as well as how condensed the chromosomes
are.

Part B - Mechanisms underlying the events of mitosis


Mitosis unfolds through a sequence of stages marked by specific events in the cell. The structural changes in the cell are brought about by a series of tightly coordinated
underlying mechanisms.

Sort each process into the appropriate bin to indicate the stage of mitosis in which it occurs. If a process occurs in more than one stage, sort it to the stage
when it first occurs.

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Hint 1. Metaphase: dividing mitosis into two groups of cellular events

In metaphase, the centromeres of the duplicated chromosomes align along the metaphase plate, midway between the poles of the cell.

To help you sort the processes in this question, consider that many of the cellular events that precede metaphase are reversed after metaphase. For example,
prior to metaphase, the DNA condenses in preparation for chromosome separation. After metaphase, the DNA de-condenses once chromosome separation is
complete.

Hint 2. Which proteins are involved in changes to cellular structures during mitosis?
Many of the changes in structure that occur in stages of mitosis prior to metaphase prepare the cell for the separation of the chromosomes. These changes are
reversed in the stages following metaphase, after the chromosomes have separated. Several proteins are involved in these changes.
Drag the terms on the left to the appropriate blanks on the right to complete the sentences. Not all terms will be used.

ANSWER:

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actin(s) 1. In a stage prior to metaphase, cohesin(s) are involved in holding sister chromatids together. In a

motor protein(s) stage after metaphase, cleavage of these proteins permits the sister chromatids to separate.

2. In a stage prior to metaphase, the mitotic spindle is assembled from individual tubulin(s)

molecules. At a stage after metaphase, the mitotic spindle disassembles.

Hint 3. During mitosis, what is the sequence of events involving kinetochores?


Kinetochores are assemblies of proteins that function in attaching the chromosomes to the mitotic spindle. By the end of prometaphase, each sister chromatid of
a duplicated chromosome has a kinetochore located at its centromere.

In some types of cells, the kinetochore contains motor proteins that are responsible for moving chromosomes along the spindle microtubules (see
diagram below).
In other types of cells, the chromosomes are pulled toward the poles by motor proteins associated with the centrosomes. In these cells, the
kinetochore only attaches the chromosome to the mitotic spindle.

Consider a cell in which chromosome movement along the mitotic spindle is accomplished by motor proteins in the kinetochores.

Drag the labels onto the flowchart to show the correct sequence of events in kinetochore function during mitosis.
ANSWER:

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Kinetochores remain Motor proteins in


Motor proteins in
motionless while kinetochores move
kinetochores move
sister chromatids individual
sister chromatids to
detach from each chromosomes to
metaphase plate.
other. poles of cell.

ANSWER:

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prophase prometaphase metaphase anaphase telophase

Cohesins join sister


Kinetochores
chromatids of
Kinetochores move toward
duplicated chromosome. Microtubules Spindle
are motionless poles of cell.
attach to microtubules
in relation
Tubulins assemble kinetochores. disassemble.
to poles of cell. Cohesins
into spindle
break down.
microtubules.

Correct
The micrographs in Part A show some of the cellular processes that occur during the stages of mitosis.

In prophase, the microtubules of the spindle apparatus begin to assemble from individual tubulin subunits. As the identical chromatids of each
pair of sister chromatids condense during this stage, they are held together by cohesin proteins.
Prometaphase is marked by fragmentation of the nuclear envelope, expansion of the spindle into the nuclear region, and attachment of some
spindle fibers to the chromosomes via the kinetochores.
Metaphase, marked by the alignment of chromsomes along the metaphase plate, is brought about by kinetochores aligning and then remaining
motionless relative to the poles of the cell.
In anaphase, the cohesin proteins are cleaved, and the kinetochores move toward the poles of the cell, separating the sister chromatids.
As telophase proceeds, the kinetochore microtubules of the spindle disassemble. As the chromosomes reach the poles of the cell, the nuclear
envelopes of the two new daughter nuclei form.

Part C - The mitotic spindle

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The mitotic spindle consists of two types of microtubules: kinetochore microtubules and nonkinetochore microtubules. In animal cells, these two types of microtubules
function differently in the stages of mitosis.
Complete the sentences by dragging the terms to the appropriate locations. Terms may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

Hint 1. Construction of the mitotic spindle in the early stages of mitosis


The centrosomes are the organizing centers for the mitotic spindle. The centrosomes replicate during G2 of interphase; at the beginning of mitosis, the
centrosomes are adjacent to one another.

As prophase progresses, the centrosomes move apart and toward the poles of the cell as the microtubules extending from each centrosome lengthen. This
lengthening occurs in the region of overlap between the microtubules and forces the centrosomes further apart.

Hint 2. How do kinetochore and nonkinetochore microtubules differ?


Both kinetochore and nonkinetochore microtubules are components of the mitotic spindle, but they serve different functions during mitosis. Can you identify the
roles of these two types of microtubules in animal cells?
Drag the terms on the left to the appropriate blanks on the right to complete the sentences. Terms can be used once, more than once, or not at all.
ANSWER:

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Kinetochore

Kinetochore
Nonkinetochore
Nonkinetochore

Nonkinetochore

Hint 3. How do nonkinetochore microtubules function during anaphase?

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In animal cells, while the chromosomes move toward the poles of the cell during anaphase, the nonkinetochore microtubules cause the cell to elongate. The
nonkinetochore microtubules form pairs (one from each centrosome), which overlap and are in contact with each other near the metaphase plate.

Which two statements correctly describe how the nonkinetochore microtubules cause an animal cell to elongate during anaphase?
Select the two statements that apply.
ANSWER:

The nonkinetochore microtubules move past each other in the region where they overlap.

Each pair of nonkinetochore microtubules lengthens at the centrosome.

Each pair of nonkinetochore microtubules lengthens at the overlapping ends near the metaphase plate.

ANSWER:

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shorten 1. During prophase, the microtubules of the mitotic spindle lengthen .

disassemble
2. During anaphase, the nonkinetochore microtubules lengthen and move past
lengthen
each other, and the kinetochore microtubules shorten .

3. During telophase, the nonkinetochore microtubules disassemble .

Correct

The mitotic spindle is the machinery that guides the separation of chromosomes in anaphase.

Prior to metaphase, the mitotic spindle is constructed by lengthening microtubules that extend from each centrosome.
In metaphase, the kinetochore microtubules have attached each pair of sister chromatids, and the nonkinetochore microtubules overlap
extensively at the metaphase plate.
During anaphase, the kinetochore microtubules shorten as the chromosomes move toward the poles of the cell. At the same time, the
nonkinetochore microtubules lengthen and push past each other, elongating the cell.
By the end of telophase, all the microtubules associated with the mitotic spindle have disassembled.

Part D - Roles of the mitotic spindle

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Consider an animal cell in which motor proteins in the kinetochores normally pull the chromosomes along the kinetochore microtubules during mitosis.
Suppose, however, that during metaphase, this cell was treated with an inhibitor that blocks the function of the motor proteins in the kinetochore, but allows the
kinetochore to remain attached to the spindle. The inhibitor has no effect on any other mitotic process, including the function of the nonkinetochore microtubules.

Consider three questions concerning the animal cell that has been treated with the inhibitor. Drag the terms to answer the questions. Terms may be used
once, more than once, or not at all.

Hint 1. How to approach question 1 -- Will the cell elongate?


Part C of this tutorial reviewed the processes that lead to cell elongation during mitosis in animal cells. The cellular structures most closely associated with cell
elongation during mitosis are the nonkinetochore microtubules. Does the inhibitor affect the function of the nonkinetochore microtubules?

Hint 2. How to approach question 2 -- Will the sister chromatids separate?

The cellular structures that are most important in separation of the sister chromatids (after they have become disconnected from each other) are the kinetochore
microtubules. Read carefully about the effect of the inhibitor and think through the following questions:

Does the inhibitor block the function of the kinetochores in chromosome movement?
Does the inhibitor cause the chromosomes to disconnect from the kinetochore microtubules?
Are the chromosomes connected to the centrosomes by the kinetochore microtubules?
Are there other processes going on in the cell that are causing the centrosomes to move farther apart?
Will these processes also affect the position of the chromosomes?

Hint 3. How to approach question 3 -- Will the chromosomes move to the poles of the cell?
In this type of cell, motor proteins in the kinetochore are responsible for moving the chromosomes along the kinetochore microtubules. Is any component of this
machinery affected by the inhibitor treatment? If so, will the chromosomes be able to move to the poles of the cell?

ANSWER:

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yes 1. Will this cell elongate during mitosis? yes

no
2. Will the sister chromatids separate from each

other? yes

3. Will the chromosomes move to the poles of the

cell? no

Correct
The inhibitor does not affect the cleavage of cohesins (the proteins that hold the sister chromatids together), the attachment of the chromosomes to the
kinetochore microtubules, or the elongation of the cell due to the nonkinetochore microtubules. The inhibitor only affects the motor protein that pulls the
chromosome along the kinetochore microtubule in anaphase.
Thus, in the treated cell, the sister chromatids can still separate at the beginning of anaphase due to the fact that the cell is elongating (the centrosomes at the
poles of the cell are moving farther apart) and the kinetochore microtubules still connect the chromosomes to the centrosomes. However, because the
chromosomes cannot move along the kinetochore microtubules, they will never reach the poles of the cell.

Mitosis (3 of 3): Comparing Cell Division in Animals, Plants, and Bacteria (BioFlix tutorial)

The division of any cell, prokaryotic or eukaryotic, requires that the genetic information in each of the parent cell’s chromosomes be faithfully copied and distributed into each
daughter cell. Only then does the cell physically divide. Because of their divergent evolutionary paths, bacteria, plants, and animals have somewhat different mechanisms of
chromosome separation and cell division.

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Part A - Comparing chromosome separation in bacteria and eukaryotes


In all cells, separation of replicated chromosomes is a prerequisite for cell division. However, the mechanism of chromosome separation in bacteria is distinct from that
in eukaryotes in several ways.
Sort the following statements into the appropriate bin.

Hint 1. Review of changes to chromosomes during cell division in eukaryotes

In eukaryotic cells, replication of each chromosome is accompanied by complex changes in the structure of the chromosomes. These changes begin during S
phase of interphase and result in the formation of a pair of fully condensed sister chromatids in prometaphase of mitosis.
Watch this segment of the Mitosis animation to see these structural changes that occur in a eukaryotic cell.

Hint 2. What structures in bacterial cells are likely involved in chromosome separation?
A bacterial cell contains a single, circular chromosome. As in a eukaryotic cell, after replication of the DNA, the chromosomes move to opposite ends of the
bacterial cell prior to cell division by a mechanism that is not fully understood. In order for the chromosomes to separate, they must attach to something in the
cell.
Based on what is known about how bacterial chromosomes separate, which of the following structural features of a bacterial cell likely play a role in
chromosome separation? Select the two that apply.

ANSWER:

origin of replication (where DNA replication starts on the chromosome)

nuclear envelope

plasma membrane

spindle microtubules

Hint 3. How do structural properties of bacterial chromosomes influence what happens to them during cell division?
Although all chromosomes consist of DNA, bacterial chromosomes are structurally distinct from their eukaryotic cousins. How do these differences affect what
happens to bacterial chromosomes during cell division?

Which of the following statements are correct? Select the two that apply.

ANSWER:

A bacterial chromosome consists of double-stranded DNA, and thus replication of the DNA before cell division is not necessary.

A bacterial chromosome is highly folded and coiled, but lacks the fully condensed structure of a eukaryotic chromosome during cell division.

Following replication of the DNA, bacterial chromosomes remain physically associated with each other until just before cell division occurs.

ANSWER:

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Bacteria only Eukaryotes only Both bacteria and eukaryotes


Nuclear envelope fragments,
permitting chromosome separation.
Chromosomes replicate before cell
division.
Before separation, duplicated
Chromosome separation begins at the
chromosomes condense.
origin of replication on DNA. Replicated chromosomes separate by
attaching to some other structural
Two copies of the duplicated feature of the cell.
chromosome are attached at their
centromeres before separating.

Correct
Although the processes of chromosome separation in bacteria and eukaryotes have a common evolutionary origin, the actual mechanisms are different.
Structurally, bacterial cells contain a single chromosome that is much shorter than those in eukaryotic cells, and bacterial cells lack a mitotic spindle. The
bacterial chromosome does not fully condense before separation. However, the physical separation of the replicated bacterial chromosomes still involves
attachment to some structure in the cell: possibly the plasma membrane at the origins of replication.

Part B - Cytokinesis in plant cells


Cytokinesis in animal cells is accomplished by constriction of the cell along the plane of cell division (formation of a cleavage furrow). In plant cells, which have cell
walls, a completely different mechanism of cytokinesis has evolved.
Which of the following statements are true of cytokinesis in plant cells? Select the two that apply.

Hint 1. Formation of the cell plate

During cytokinesis in a plant cell, the cell plate forms as vesicles derived from the Golgi apparatus fuse along the plane of cell division. As more vesicles fuse
with the cell plate, it grows outward until it fuses with the plasma membrane of the parent cell.

Hint 2. What role, if any, do either microtubules or microfilaments play in cytokinesis in plant cells?
Both microtubules and microfilaments are parts of the cytoskeleton and are important in many cellular processes, including motion and determination of cell
shape.

Which of the following statements correctly describes the role of these cytoskeletal elements in plant cytokinesis?

ANSWER:

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Microfilaments cause constriction (cleavage) of the plasma membrane.

Both microtubules and microfilaments move the cell plate to the center of the cell, where it fuses with the plasma membrane.

Neither microtubules nor microfilaments play a role in plant cell cytokinesis.

Microtubules guide Golgi-derived vesicles to the middle of the cell where they form the cell plate.

ANSWER:

Vesicles from the Golgi apparatus move along microtubules, coalesce at the plane of cell division, and form a cell plate.

The plasma membrane of the parent cell grows inward, eventually joining with the cell plate.

The cell plate consists of the plasma membrane and cell wall that will eventually separate the two daughter cells.

After chromosome separation is complete, a network of microfilaments forms near the plane of cell division that will separate the two new cells.

Correct
In plant cell division, after chromosome separation, the microtubules of the mitotic spindle reorganize into a network that guides vesicles derived from the Golgi
apparatus to the plane of cell division. These vesicles begin to fuse, forming the cell plate. As more vesicles are added to the cell plate, it grows outward,
eventually fusing with the parent cell plasma membrane. Membrane from the vesicles forms the new plasma membrane for each daughter cell. At the same
time, materials that were enclosed in the vesicles form the new cell wall between the new plasma membranes of the daughter cells.

Part C - The roles of proteins in bacterial cell division and eukaryotic cytokinesis
The division of a bacterial cell into two daughter cells (called binary fission) is accomplished by a protein called FtsZ. FtsZ is very similar to the tubulin subunits that form
microtubules in eukaryotes. After the replicated bacterial chromosomes have moved to opposite ends of the cell, a ring of FtsZ proteins forms inside the plasma
membrane in the region where the cell will divide. As the FtsZ ring constricts, the plasma membrane and bacterial cell wall fold in and eventually separate into two cells.

Plant and animal cells also require cytoskeletal proteins for cytokinesis, although the roles these proteins play differ among bacteria, plants, and animals.
For each space in the table, drag the appropriate label to indicate if the statement is true or false for each group of organisms.

Hint 1. Comparison of cell walls in plants and bacteria

Nearly all plant cells and many bacteria are surrounded by a cell wall. However, the roles these walls play in cell division differ dramatically. In plants, the wall is
sufficiently rigid so that in most cells, constriction of a ring of proteins could not cause the wall to fold in and eventually pinch off. Rather, a new plant cell wall is
produced between the daughter cells by the formation of a cell plate, which eventually joins with the existing cell wall. In contrast, in bacteria, the cell wall is
sufficiently flexible to fold in during constriction of the FtsZ protein ring.

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Hint 2. What roles do microfilaments and microtubules or related proteins play in cell division in bacteria, plants, and animals?

Bacteria lack the distinct microfilaments and microtubules that dominate the cytoskeletons of plant and animal cells. However, bacteria contain proteins that are
similar to actin (the building block of microfilaments) and tubulin (the building block of microtubules). The tubulin-like proteins in bacteria function in the formation
of two daughter cells through binary fission.
Drag the terms on the left to the appropriate blanks on the right to complete the sentences.

ANSWER:

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1. In prokaryotes, constriction of a ring of tubulin-like proteins causes infolding of the plasma

membrane and cell wall during cell division (binary fission).

2. In plant cells, a network of microtubules functions in the formation of the cell plate.

3. In animal cells, a ring of microfilaments constricts, creating a cleavage furrow.

Hint 3. Comparison of cytokinesis in plant and animal cells and bacterial cell division

Proteins associated with the cytoskeleton are essential to cytokinesis in plants and animals. Similarly, cytoskeleton-like proteins are essential to cell division in
bacteria. The bacterial origin of plants and animals might suggest that these proteins and mechanisms of division are all related; however, evolution is not always
that straightforward. Bacterial and animal cells divide in a very similar manner but accomplish division using different proteins. In contrast, plants and bacteria
divide in a very different manner but accomplish division using very similar proteins.
Animals Bacteria Plants
Mechanism of cytokinesis or cell division similar different
Proteins involved in cytokinesis or cell division different similar

ANSWER:

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true true false


true

false
false false true

true false true

Correct
The physical division of one cell into two during cell division is common to all types of cells. In all cases, proteins related to the cytoskeleton play some critical
role. However, the mechanism by which division occurs depends on whether a rigid cell wall is present. In bacteria and animal cells, which do not have a rigid
cell wall, division occurs by constriction of a ring of proteins (microtubule-like proteins in bacteria and microfilaments in animal cells) that pinches the cell in
two. In plants, which do have a rigid cell wall, microtubules guide the aggregation of Golgi-derived vesicles to form the cell plate, which eventually forms the
new cell wall and plasma membrane between the daughter cells.

Mitosis (1 of 3): Mitosis and the Cell Cycle (BioFlix tutorial)

Mitosis is the part of eukaryotic cell division in which the nucleus divides and distributes the chromosomes to the two daughter nuclei, ensuring that each daughter cell
receives chromosomes identical to those of the parent cell. Mitosis is just one part of the cell cycle, the overall sequence of events from the formation of a cell by cell division
to the cell’s own division into two new daughter cells.

In this tutorial, you will review key terms associated with mitosis and the cell cycle, cellular processes that occur during the main phases of the cell cycle, and changes in
DNA structure during the cell cycle.

Before beginning this tutorial, watch the Mitosis animation. Pay particular attention to the structural changes that occur in the DNA before and during cell division.

Part A - Mitosis and cell cycle terminology


As in most areas of biology, the study of mitosis and the cell cycle involves a lot of new terminology. Knowing what the different terms mean is essential to
understanding and describing the processes occurring in the cell.
Drag the terms on the left to correctly complete these sentences. Not all the terms will be used.

Hint 1. What is a sister chromatid?

During interphase, the cell’s DNA replicates, producing an identical copy of each DNA molecule. By the end of mitosis, one copy of each DNA molecule has been
moved to each daughter cell.
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Drag each label to the appropriate target. Not all labels will be used.

ANSWER:

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replicated
chromosome

pair of
chromosomes

sister chromatid

unreplicated
chromosome

Hint 2. The main stages of the cell cycle

The cell cycle can be divided into two principle stages: interphase and the mitotic (M) phase.

Interphase consists of three subphases: G1, S, and G2. During interphase, the cell grows and copies its chromosomes in preparation for cell
division.
The mitotic phase includes mitosis (division of the nucleus, which itself is divided into further subphases) and cytokinesis (division of the cytoplasm).

Hint 3. What cellular structures are involved in the separation of chromosomes during mitosis?
A number of cellular structures are involved in physically separating the duplicated chromosomes into two daughter nuclei during mitosis.

Which of the following statements does not correctly describe the role of a cellular structure in mitosis?

ANSWER:

The kinetochore is the structure that holds the sister chromatids together.

Every chromosome is attached to the mitotic spindle by two sets of microtubules, one extending from each pole of the cell.

During mitosis, the attachment of the sister chromatids to each other at the centromere is broken, permitting the chromatids to separate.

The centrosomes are the organizing centers for the formation of the mitotic spindle in animal cells.

ANSWER:

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1. DNA replication produces two identical DNA molecules, called sister chromatid(s) , which

separate during mitosis.

2. After chromosomes condense, the centromere(s) is the region where the identical DNA

molecules are most tightly attached to each other.

chromosome(s)
3. During mitosis, microtubules attach to chromosomes at the kinetochore(s) .

4. In dividing cells, most of the cell's growth occurs during interphase .

5. The mitotic spindle(s) is a cell structure consisting of microtubules, which forms during early

mitosis and plays a role in cell division.

6. During interphase, most of the nucleus is filled with a complex of DNA and protein in a dispersed

form called chromatin .

7. In most eukaryotes, division of the nucleus is followed by cytokinesis , when the rest of the cell

divides.

8. The centrosome(s) are the organizing centers for microtubules involved in separating

chromosomes during mitosis.

Correct
The key structures involved in mitosis are labeled in this diagram of an animal cell that shows the two sister chromatids of each duplicated chromosome
beginning to attach to the mitotic spindle by means of their kinetochores. The centrosomes anchor the mitotic spindle at opposite ends of the cell.

Part B - Phases of the cell cycle


The cell cycle represents the coordinated sequence of events in the life of a cell from its formation to its division into two daughter cells. Most of the key events of the
cell cycle are restricted to a specific time within the cycle.
In this exercise, you will identify when various events occur during the cell cycle. Recall that interphase consists of the G1, S, and G2 subphases, and that the M phase
consists of mitosis and cytokinesis.
Drag each label to the appropriate target.

Hint 1. Role of checkpoints in the cell cycle

Checkpoints are control points in the cell cycle where “stop and go” signals regulate whether or not a cell continues to the next part of the cycle. For example,
cells that pass through the G1 checkpoint usually complete the cell cycle and divide. If a cell does not pass through the G1 checkpoint, it exits the cell cycle and
enters a nondividing state called the G0 phase.

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Hint 2. What distinguishes the G2 phase from the S phase?

Once the cell passes through the G1 checkpoint, it enters the S phase, followed by the G2 phase.

Which two statements correctly describe the processes that occur in the S and G2 phases?

ANSWER:

DNA replication occurs in the G2 phase.

DNA replication occurs in the S phase.

Centrosome replication occurs in the G2 phase.

Centrosome replication occurs in the S phase.

Hint 3. What processes occur during the M phase of the cell cycle?

The M (mitotic) phase begins when the cell passes through the G2 checkpoint. It is typically the shortest, but most complex, phase of the cell cycle.

Which three of the following processes occur during the M phase of the cell cycle?

ANSWER:

separation of sister chromatids

formation of the mitotic spindle

centrosome replication

cytokinesis

DNA replication

ANSWER:

Reset Help

At this point, cell commits


to go through the cycle.

Non-dividing cells exit cell


cycle.

DNA replicates.

Cell divides, forming two


daughter cells.

Two centrosomes have


formed.
Mitotic spindle begins to
form.

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Correct
Many organisms contain cells that do not normally divide. These cells exit the cell cycle before the G1 checkpoint.

Once a cell passes the G1 checkpoint, it usually completes the cell cycle--that is, it divides.

The first step in preparing for division is to replicate the cell’s DNA in the S phase.
In the G2 phase, the centrosome replicates.
In early M phase, the centrosomes move away from each other toward the poles of the cell, in the process organizing the formation of the mitotic
spindle.
At the end of the M phase when mitosis is complete, the cell divides (cytokinesis), forming two genetically identical daughter cells.

Part C - Changes in DNA structure during the cell cycle


As the chromosomes of a parent cell are duplicated and distributed to the two daughter cells during cell division, the structure of the chromosomes changes.

Answer the three questions for each phase of the cell cycle by dragging the yes and no labels to the appropriate locations in the table.
Note: Assume that by the end of the M phase, the parent cell has not yet divided to form two daughter cells.

Hint 1. When are sister chromatids present?

Sister chromatids play an essential role in ensuring that each daughter cell receives genetic material that is identical to that which was present in the original
parent cell.

Which statement about sister chromatids is correct?


ANSWER:

Sister chromatids first form in the S phase, and are present until they separate in early anaphase.

Sister chromatids first form in the G1 phase, and are present until they separate in early anaphase.

Sister chromatids first form during prophase, and are present until they separate in telophase.

Hint 2. The condensation state of DNA throughout the cell cycle


As you can observe in micrographs of cells undergoing mitosis, the chromosomes condense at the beginning of the M phase. Because the chromosomes are at
least a thousand times longer than the cell, condensation greatly facilitates separation of the sister chromatids into the daughter cells during mitosis. The
chromosomes remain condensed until telophase, when they begin to de-condense.
But why doesn’t the DNA remain condensed throughout interphase too? One important event that occurs during the S phase of interphase is the replication of
the DNA. Replication requires that the DNA be in its uncondensed form. In addition, transcription of genes for protein synthesis also requires that the DNA be in
an uncondensed form.

Hint 3. Changes in DNA content during the cell cycle


Once a cell passes the G1 checkpoint, its DNA is replicated during the S phase of interphase. Replication means that an exact copy of the DNA in each
chromosome is made, thus doubling the cell’s DNA content.

Only once cytokinesis is completed at the end of telophase does the cell’s DNA content return to the level found in G1 cells.

ANSWER:

Reset Help

yes yes yes no


yes

no
no no yes yes

yes yes yes yes

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12/9/2018 Chapter 09 HW

Correct
Sister chromatids form when DNA replicates in the S phase. The sister chromatids become individual chromosomes once they separate in early anaphase.
Similarly, the cellular DNA content doubles in the S phase when the DNA replicates. However, the cell’s DNA content does not return to its normal (undoubled)
levels until after cytokinesis is complete and two daughter cells have formed.

The condensation state of the DNA is not related to the presence or absence of sister chromatids. The DNA condenses in prophase and remains condensed
until after the sister chromatids separate and the new daughter cells begin to form. In late telophase/cytokinesis, the emphasis shifts to cell growth and DNA
replication for the next cell cycle. For these processes to occur, the DNA needs to be de-condensed so it is accessible to the cellular machinery involved in
transcription.

Scientific Skills Exercise: Interpreting Histograms

At what phase is the cell cycle arrested by an inhibitor?

One potential medical treatment to stop cancer cell proliferation employs an inhibitor derived from human umbilical cord stem cells. In this exercise, you will compare two
histograms to determine where in the cell cycle the inhibitor blocks the division of cancer cells.

In the treated sample, human glioblastoma (brain cancer) cells were grown in tissue culture in the presence of inhibitor-producing umbilical cord stem cells. In contrast,
control sample glioblastoma cells were grown in the absence of stem cells. To get a “snapshot” of the phase of the cell cycle each cell was in at the end of 72 hours, the cell
samples were treated with a fluorescent chemical that binds to DNA. Next the samples were run through a flow cytometer, an instrument that records the fluorescence level
of each cell. Computer software then graphed the number of cells in each sample with a particular fluorescence level.

Part A - Identifying the control and the treatment


What treatment is being compared to the control in the experiment?

ANSWER:

The control glioblastoma cells were run through the flow cytometer and then treated by being cultured in the presence of an inhibitor.

The treated umbilical cord stem cells were cultured in the presence of an inhibitor from glioblastoma cells, but the control cells were cultured without the
inhibitor.

The treated glioblastoma cells were stained with a fluorescent dye, but the control cells were not stained.

The treated glioblastoma cells were cultured in the presence of an inhibitor from umbilical cord stem cells, but the control cells were cultured without the
inhibitor.

Correct

Part B - Reading the histograms


The data are plotted in a type of graph called a histogram, which groups values for a numeric variable on the x-axis into intervals. A histogram allows you to see how an
entire group of experimental subjects (cells, in this case) are distributed along a continuous variable (amount of fluorescence). In these histograms, the bars are so
narrow that the data appear to follow a curve for which you can detect peaks and dips. Each bar represents the number of cells observed to have a fluorescence level in
that interval. This in turn indicates the relative amount of DNA in those cells.

Which axis indirectly shows the relative amount of DNA per cell? By what relationship?

ANSWER:

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12/9/2018 Chapter 09 HW

The x-axis; the DNA was stained, so there is a positive correlation between fluorescence and DNA content.

The y-axis; the DNA was stained, so there is a positive correlation between fluorescence and DNA content.

The x-axis; the DNA is naturally fluorescent so there is a positive correlation between fluorescence and DNA content.

The y-axis; DNA content was the dependent variable.

Correct

Part C
In the control sample, compare the peaks in the histogram in regions A, B and C.

Which region shows the population of cells with the highest amount of DNA per cell?

ANSWER:

region A

region B

region C

Both regions A and C have cells with more DNA than in region B.

Correct

Part D - Interpreting the histograms


Identify which phase of the cell cycle is represented by each region. The regions represent the same cell cycle phases in both histograms.

ANSWER:

region A: G2
region B: G1
region C: S

region A: G1
region B: S
region C: G2

region A: S
region B: G1
region C: G2

region A: G1
region B: G2
region C: S

Correct

Part E
In the control sample histogram, does the population of cells in the S phase show a distinct peak? Why or why not?

ANSWER:

No; the S phase is inhibited in the control sample.

Yes; the DNA content per cell is increasing during S phase.

Yes; all of the cells have to pass through the S phase to get from G1 to G2.

No; the DNA content per cell changes as the S phase progresses, so the cells in S phase have a range of fluorescence levels.

Correct

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12/9/2018 Chapter 09 HW

Part F
Now look at the histogram representing the treated sample, which shows the effect of growing the cancer cells alongside human umbilical cord stem cells.

In the treated sample histogram, which phase of the cell cycle has the greatest number of cells?
ANSWER:

the G1 phase

the S phase

the G2 phase

Correct
The high peak in region A indicates that most of the cells in the treated sample are in the G1 phase.

Part G
Compare the distribution of cells among G1, S, and G2 phases in the control and treated samples.

Which statement best describes the difference(s) in the distribution of cells in the treated sample compared to the control sample?
ANSWER:

The treated cells are mostly in the S phase (region B), but in the control sample, the cells are mostly in the G1 phase (region A).

The treated cells have peaks in both G1 (region A) and G2 (region C), but in the control sample, the cells are mostly in the G2 phase (region C).

The treated cells are mostly in the G2 phase (region C), but in the control sample, there are peaks of cells in both G1 (region A) and G2.

The treated cells are mostly in the G1 phase (region A), but in the control sample, there are peaks of cells in both G1 and G2 (region C).

Correct

Part H
What does the difference in distribution tell you about the cells in the treated sample?
ANSWER:

The treated cancer cells are arrested at the G2 phase.

The treated cancer cells are arrested at the G1 phase.

The treated cancer cells are arrested at the S phase.

Correct

Part I - Evaluating hypotheses


Which mechanism is the best explanation for how the stem cell-derived inhibitor might arrest the cancer cell cycle at the G1 stage?

ANSWER:

The inhibitor might block the activity of a cyclin or signaling molecule of the G2 checkpoint.

The inhibitor might block release of a stimulatory growth factor from a cyclin of the G1 checkpoint.

The inhibitor might block the activity of a cyclin or signaling molecule of the G1 checkpoint.

The inhibitor might block assembly of the mitotic spindle.

Correct

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12/9/2018 Chapter 09 HW

Chapter 9 Pre-Test Question 2

Part A
Why is it difficult to observe individual chromosomes with a light microscope during interphase?

Hint 1.

Consider the events of prophase.

ANSWER:

Sister chromatids do not pair up until division starts.

They leave the nucleus and are dispersed to other parts of the cell.

The spindle must move them to the metaphase plate before they become visible.

They have uncoiled to form long, thin strands.

The DNA has not been replicated yet.

Correct
Except during the M phase, the DNA is extended, allowing its genes to be transcribed for protein synthesis.

Chapter 9 Pre-Test Question 5

Part A
In some organisms, such as certain fungi and algae, cells undergo the cell cycle repeatedly without subsequently undergoing cytokinesis. What would result from this?

Hint 1.
Consider what happens when a cell undergoes cytokinesis.

ANSWER:

a rapid rate of gamete production

large cells containing many nuclei

a decrease in chromosome number

division of the organism into many cells, most lacking nuclei

inability to duplicate DNA

Correct
Cell division without cytokinesis results in large, multinucleated cells.

Activity: The Cell Cycle

Click here to complete this activity.

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12/9/2018 Chapter 09 HW
Then answer the questions.

Part A
Which of these phases encompasses all of the stages of mitosis but no other events?

ANSWER:

Correct
This is mitosis.

Part B
During _____ both the contents of the nucleus and the cytoplasm are divided.

ANSWER:

the mitotic phase

mitosis

G1

G2

Correct
The mitotic phase encompasses both mitosis and cytokinesis.

Part C
During _____ the cell grows and replicates both its organelles and its chromosomes.
ANSWER:

mitosis

cytokinesis

G1

interphase

Correct
These are the events of interphase.

Activity: Causes of Cancer


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12/9/2018 Chapter 09 HW

Click here to complete this activity.

Then answer the questions.

Part A
Which of these is NOT a carcinogen?

ANSWER:

cigarette smoke

fat

testosterone

UV light

all of the above are carcinogens

Correct
All of these substances can cause cancer.

Part B
_____ is a carcinogen that promotes colon cancer.
ANSWER:

fat

UV light

estrogen

a virus

testosterone

Correct
A diet high in fat increases the risk of both colon and breast cancer.

Chapter 9 Pre-Test Question 8

Part A
Which of the following is true of benign tumors but not malignant tumors?

Hint 1.

Malignant tumors tend to be much more dangerous than benign tumors.

ANSWER:

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12/9/2018 Chapter 09 HW

They migrate from the initial site of transformation to other organs or tissues.

They can divide indefinitely if an adequate supply of nutrients is available.

They have an unusual number of chromosomes.

They remain confined to their original site.

They are the result of the transformation of normal cells.

Correct
Benign tumors can often be surgically removed because their boundaries are well defined, whereas some malignant tumors go on to metastasize.

Chapter 9 Pre-Test Question 10

Part A
Which of the following is found in binary fission but not in mitosis?

Hint 1.
Consider each of these processes.

ANSWER:

Duplicated chromosomes attach to the plasma membrane.

Replication of DNA begins at an origin.

Replicated strands of DNA separate.

The result produces 2 nuclei.

Following the process, a membrane separates the 2 copies.

Correct
Duplicated chromosomes attach to the plasma membrane only in binary fission.

Score Summary:
Your score on this assignment is 97.3%.
You received 9.73 out of a possible total of 10 points.

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