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Tiffany Hilton

Math 1040

December 5, 2018

The purpose of this project was to use different statistical concepts that we learned

through semester and use these concepts together in a different types of application. The students

in the math 1040 class were instructed to buy 2.17oz regular skittle. From there we applied the

aspects of statistics we learned in classes. From there we collected the data, created graphs to

visually illustrate the dataset, we examined the distribution and determining if it is normal or

not, we also worked with confidence intervals, and used hypothesis tests to determine whether or

In this project I haven’t learned much from statistics class because I think statistics isn’t a

concept I apply in my life right now b b . Throughout the semester it may seem like I was doing

good but when it came to concluding real life situations it was very hard to apply the concept in

math. Especially when it came to the linear regression equation, I had a hard time concluding the

intercept and slope. But it wasn’t only the conclusion for linear regression equation that I had

difficult with, when it came to the hypothesis conclusion it was very hard to conclude type I and

type II error. Solving for equation was very simple and I knew how to apply the formulas which

I learned in my previous math classes. This class however helped apply my concepts to solve

story problems, in my previous math classes it is very hard to apply story problems because I

wasn’t reading them carefully. In this course probability means likelihood something to occur.

In the future but I may not realize it now but I may apply it in my future courses and the

development of my career.

Qualitative Data

Every Student in the Tiffany Hilton Math 1040 class has purchased a bag of 2.17 oz original skittles and counted

the color in their bag. The graphs above demonstrates qualitative data because they are categorical data. The color of

the candies is also characteristic, it not appropriate for numerical value, which we can conclude that it not

appropriate to discuss the shape of distribution

Quantitative Data

Quantitative data is used when you are calculating weight, height and number people in the class.Quantitative data

in this sample would be number of candies in the bag. The appropriate graphs would be histogram, pareto charts and

stem plots. Below, is a box plot and dot-plot that measure the sample which is the 2.17oz skittles. The boxplot and

dot-plot makes sense for numerical data because they show the distribution from data.

Summary statistics:

Column n Mean Variance Std. dev. Std. err. Median Range Min Max Q1 Q3

Mode: 60

Upper fence:64

Lower fence: 56

The IQR= (Q3-Q1) which is (61-59) which equals 2. In order to find The upper fence (Q3+1.5 (IQR)) gives us 64

and the lower fence is (Q1-1.5(IQR) gives us 56. Which mean the outliers 54, 55, and 65.

this data of the distribution is skewed to the left. my bag of Skittles had 60 candies, it was along the mean so my

bag definitely wasn’t an outlier. The minimum number bag had 54 and 55 and lower fence was 56 which makes it an

outlier. And the max was 65 but the upper fence was 64 which that would be considered an outlier. I thought my

bag would be an outlier but I wasn’t surprised when it was along the mean

1. Can height be used to predict the number of candies that will be in a bag of

Skittles you purchase?”

Height can not used to determine the number of skittles in a bag. Skittle bags at the store are

randomly picked up by anyone. Someone that is shorter than me could have grabbed the same

bag I had. So height can't predict the number of skittles in the bag.

Explanatory Variable:height of the person

Is there a significant relationship between the two variables?

R (correlation coefficient) = -0.1209

Critical value=0.361

ŷ=--0.0670x+64.3

Because the R= 0.1209 and critical value there is no significant relationship. The

absolute value is 0.1209, which is less than the critical value so there is no linear

relationship

My hypothesis was correct the number of skittles in the bag cannot determine the

height.

ŷ=--0.0670(63.5)+64.3=60

If some whom is 63.5 inches tall the expected amount of candies in his purchased bag should be

around 60 skittles. Since there is no relationship between neither height nor amount of skittles in

the bag it in not appropriate to use the regression equation to make predictions

1.46% of the variation in the number of skittles that is explained by the regression line

relationship with the height

R-sq = 0.0146

It inappropriate If a relationship existed and we panted to predict the number of candies inside a

bag purchased by Yao Ming who measures at 90 inches that would not be appropriate since 90

inches is outside our scope.

TOTAL HEIGHT

56 69

59 64

60 63

60 74

61 67

62 60

62 70

Correlation Coefficient (r) = -0.2191

Regression equation: ŷ= -0.0960x+66.4

Critical Value: 0.754

there is no linear relationship between X and Y since Absolute value of correlation coefficient

value is smaller than the critical value.

Part 4: Probability

416 457 406 412 407 2097

Problem 1

a). P(green skittle)=412/2098=0.196

b). P(Not green skittle)=1-(412/2098)=0.804

c). P(red or yellow)= P(red)+P(yellow)-P(red and yellow)

=(416/2098)+(406/2098)

=(0.198)+(0.194)=.392

d).P(orange given that it’s a secondary color)= 457/1276=0.358 Secondary

colors(green, orange and purple)= 412+457+407=1276

Problem 2

Skittles from purchase bag.

Red Orange Yellow Green Purple Total

10 8 16 14 12 60

b). P(both skittles are purple without replacement)=(12/60)*(11/59)=0.0379

c).P( first one purple and second not purple)=(12/60)*(1-12/60)=1

d).P(at least one skittle is purple)=(1-48/60)^2= .36

Problem 3:

a). P constant—>406/2098 = .1935

Independent trials—> Randomly selected

N fixed—> n=10

Two out comes —>yellow or not yellow

b). 2^nd> vars> Binompdf (10,0.2,4)=.081

c).2^nd > Vars > Binomcdf(10,0.2,2)=.6973

d). Mean=10(0.2)=1.935

(1-.1935)=.8065 =sqrt.

10(.1935)*1-.1935)=1.5606

Assume p = the proportion of yellow candies for all Skittles = 0.2. Describe the sampling

distribution for the proportion of yellow candies for samples of 85 candies, including center,

spread, and shape

Mean=0.2

Std = sqrt(0.2)(1-0.2)/(85)=.043

shape:(85)(0.2)(1-0.2)=13.6>10

Approximately normal

n=85 is less than 5% of all the candies

An interval of numbers based of a point estimate that gives a range of likely values for an

unknown parameter. It is what measures the probability that a population parameter falls

between two sets values.

1-prop Z-Int

x= 406

n=2098

C-level: .99

(.1713,.2157)

With 99% confidence level the proportion of all skittles being yellow is between .171 and .216

My bag

Total yellow: 16

Total number of skittles in bag purchased: 60

16/60=0.27

The bag I purchased is not likely in the population proportions since 0.27 is higher than .171

and .216

Sampling distribution

μ = 60

σ = 2.5

the mean number of candies per bag for samples of 32 bags

2.5/sqrt(32)=.442

Shape: approximately normal since 32>30

what is the probability that a sample of 32 bags will have a mean of less than 59

candies per bag

Less than 59

Normalcdf :(1E99,59,60,2.5/sqrt(32)) = .0118

construct a 95% confidence

Stat > Test> T-Inteval(8)

T-interval

x=59.94

S=2.300

n: 35

C-Level: .95

(59.15,60.73)

Interpretation:

- The number of candies in my bag is 60. This value is included in the range for

the confidence interval of 95% since it is between 59.15 and 60.73. My bag is

likely in the population mean.

- We are 95% confident that the true mean number of candies per bag for ALL

bags of skittles is between 59.13 and 60.73

Project Part 6-Hypothesis Test

A hypothesis test is a procedure for testing a claim about a property of a population.

It starts with a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis. Then you choose the

sampling distribution that is relevant and either find a p-value or identify the critical

values and make a conclusion about the claim.

Test the claim that 20% of all Skittles candies are red.

Total red: 416

Total skittle: 2098

416/2098=.1983

a. hypotheses with correct notation

Null hypotheses HO: P=.20

Test Hypotheses H1:p ≠ .20

1. The observations of this sample is convenience sample

2. The conditions for doing a binomial distribution are satisfied.

3. npo(1-po)>= 10: -2098(0.20)(1-0.20)=335.68>=10

4. n<= 0.05: 2908 is less than 5% of all skittles candies.

C. the test statistic and supporting work

1-PropZTest:

Po: 0.20

x: 416

n: 2098

Prop: ≠Po

P-value =0.844

Z= -.196

D. the appropriate decision about the null hypothesis and an appropriate conclusion Significance

level: 0.05

● p-value of .844 is greater than 0.05, we do not reject the null hypothesis. There is

insufficient evidence to conclude that the proportion of red skittles is not 20%.

P-value= 1-0.1431= 0.8569 Right tailed

p-value interpretation

If the proportion of red skittles is .2, there is a probability of .84 that we would obtain a

sample proportion of 416/2098=.1983 or more extreme.

E. Using values for the class data that you computed in Part 2 of the project and a 0.01

significance level, test the claim that the mean number of candies in a bag of Skittles is

more than 58.5.

1.Hypothesis test for the mean of candies in a skittle bag

Ho: mean=58.5

H1: mean >= 58.5

1.Simple Random Sample - not met, this is a convenience sample

2. n ≤ .05N - Yes, n=35 is less than 5% of all the bags of skittles in the world

3. n ≥ 30: 35≥ 30- so this is met =

Test Statistics

T-Tests:

Mu= 58.5

Xbar= 59.94

Sx=2.300

n= 35

t=3.7

P value = .0004

p-value is less than alpha, so reject Ho. There is sufficient evidence to conclude that the mean

number of candies per bag is above 58.5.

● Type I: Reject Ho when it's true = Conclude that the mean is greater than 58.5 when it

actually equals 58.5

● Type II: Fail to reject Ho when it's false = Fail to conclude that the mean is greater than

58.5 when it actually is greater than 58.5

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