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CHIMIA

OnclNrcA
fusctrrutwn
STTABEI.,E

lurie
Subotin
Anna
Tlohimciuc
UNIVERSTTATIATT}INICA A MOLDOV€I
FaorltateaTetmologiaAlimentelor
D€partamentulChimie

h.rrieSr.rbotin,
AnnaTrohimciuc

thi$neu 2017
Materialuldidacticinclusin lucrareadati €re drept scoprecapitular€ac€lormai importanteteme din cu6ul
de chimieorganicSla treaptapreuni\r€rsitari.

Autori:luri,eSubotln,conf.univ.,dr.
Ar la Trohlnaluc

Recenzent
AnSelaGurev,conf.univ.,dr.

Copertagiconceptiagrafid: AnnaTrohimduc

Subotin,lufi€
Chimiaorganici in schemegi tabele/ lurie Subotin,AnnaTrohimciuc;Univ.Tehn.a Moldovei,
FacultateaTehnologia
Alimentelor,
CatedraChimie.
- Chiginiu:Tehnica_UTM, 2017.-56 p.
50 ex.
lsBN978-997F45503-9

547(o7s)
s94

8un detipar27,09:017 Formatulhirtiei 60x8rlxv8


Hiftie ofset Tirajul50 ex.
Colidetipar Z0 Comendanr. 72

tsBN978-9975-45-503.9
CUPRINS

1 Configuratia electronic5
a atomuluide carbon 5
2 Teoriastructuriichimicea compugilor organici 6
3 Tipuride izomeriea compu5ilororganici 7
4 Modulde prezentarea formulelorcompugilororganic' 8
5 ALCANII 9
5.1 $irulomological alcanilor.proprietitilefizice 9
5.2 Nomenclaturaalcanilor 10
5.3 Proprietitilechimiceale alcanilor 'la

5.4 Sintezepe bazSde metan t2


5.5 Utilizareaalcanilor 13
s.6 ctcLoALcANl L4
5.7 HALOGENOALCANI 15
6 Distilarea
fraclionati a petrolului 16
7 ALCHENE t7
7.L lzomeria.Nomenclatura. Proprietilifizice.Oblinereaalchenelor L7
7.2 Proprietililechimiceale alchenelor 18
7.3 Utilizareaalchenelor 19
8 AICADIENE
8.1 lzomeria.Nomenclatura. proprietSlifizice.
Oblinereaalcadienelor 20
8.2 Propriet5tilechimiceale alcadienelor 2t
8.3 Utilizareaalcadienelor 22
9 ALCHINE 23
9.1 lzomeria.Nomenclatura. Proprietitifizice.Obfinereaalchinelor 23
9.2 Proprietdtilechimiceale alchinelor 24
9.3 Utilizareaalchinelor 25
10 ARENE 26
10,1 lzomeria,Nomenclatura, ProprietAtifizice.Obtinereaarenelor 26
10.2 Proprietetile chimiceale arenelor 27
10.3 Utilizareabenzenului 2a
11 ALCOOLTI 29
tl.t lzomeria.Nomenclatura. Proprietitifiziceale alcoolilor 29
Il.2 Obtinereaalcoolilor.Fenolul 30
11.3 Proprietetile chimiceale alcoolilor 31
17.4 Utilizareaalcoolilor 32
12 ALDEHIDE 5I CETONE 33
L2.I lzomeria.Nomenclatura. Obtinereaaldehidelorsi cetonelor 33
f7.2 Proprietitifizice.Proprietilichimiceale aldehidelorgi cetonelor 34
12.3 Utilizareaaldehidelor5i cetonelor J)
13 ACtZtCARBOX|L|C|. 36
13.1 lzomeria.Nomenclatura. Clasificarea.proprietetifiziceale acizilorcarboxilici 36
13.2 Metodelede oblinere.Propriet5lichimiceale acizilorcarboxilici 3t
13.3 Utilizareaacizilorcarboxilici 38
t4 ESTERI 39
L4.t Nomenclatura. Obtinerea.Proprietitifizice.Proprietitichimice,Utilizareaesterilor 39
L4.2 Relatiamiros-structura esterului 40
15 GRASIMI 4T
15.1 Clasificarea.Proprietiti fizice.Obtinerea.Hidrolizagrdsimilor 4l
15.2 Utilizareagr5similor 42
16 AMINE 43
15.1 Clasificarea.
Nomenclatura. lzomeriaaminelor 43
16.2 Metode de oblinere. Proprietiti fizice.Proprietetichimic€ale aminelor 44
16.3 Utilizareaanilinei 45
t7 AMTNOACIZI 46
17.l Nomenclatura.lzomeria.ProprietSlifizice.Metode de obtinere ale aminoacizilor 46
L7.2 Propriet5tilechimiceale aminoacizilor 47
L7.3 Utilizareaaminoacizilor 48
18 HTDRATT DECARBON 49
18.1 Clasificareahidratilorde carbon 49
18.2 Glucoza.Structura.Proprietetifizice.lzomeria.Obtiner€ahidralilor de carbon 50
18.3 Glucoza. Proprietdtilechimiceale glucozei 51
18.4 Zaharoza 52
18.5 Amidonul 53
18.6 Celuloza 54
18.7 Utilizareaamidonuluigi celulozei 55
19 IDENTIFICAREA COMPUSILOR ORGANICI S6
Configuratia aatomutui
electronic[
IIPURII.E
DEHIBNIDEANE
decarbon
c13
Confi9u14iaelectronici Confgur.liaelectronld
a rtomululdecarbon e atomulul de6rbon
ln sterefundamentali LaN^ ln stareaxclt.tl

Qr

gl
hibridizarea- sp3
rl
-c-c-
eCI09
eeee
"....."-_-------

tt Patruotbltall Patruorbltallhlbrlzl(sD1
(s+3p)
nehibddlzall

hibridizarea- sp2
-C=C-
e.gg.g
--:-i-p
Trelorbltall
P' -->
909.
eee ----------------

tl
nehlb dlzatl{s+2p) hlb zl (spr)
Trelorbltall

- sp
hibridizarea eI .88 p; p,
--------------
'ee
GO
VV + ........,,.--.-.----.---
z

vl'
-c=c- p, \-!..-./

nehlbrldlzall(s+p)
Dolorbltallhlbrlzl(sp)
l'8*,.
Teoria
structurii
chimice
organici
acompusilor
Atomiiin moleculi suntlegati Proprietitilesubstanteisuntdeterminate
conformvalenteiintr-o anumiti ordine, nu numaide componenta moleculelor
ei,
numiti structurdchimicd, dar gide structuraacestota.

AleksandrButlerov
(1828-1886)

Uneisubstante cuaceiagi compozitie


Reactivitateaatomilorin moleculS
calitativi gi<antitativi pot si-i
depindede naturaatomilordin moleculi
corespundimaimulficompugi gi influentalor reciproci.
cu structurichimicediferite,numiti izomeri.
derzomene
Tipuri acompu$itor
It

0rgantcl
rzoMERrA
or srnucrunA

DEFUNCTTUNE
deprezentare
Modut aformutelor organici
compu$itor
ACID
BUTAN IZOBUTAN CICLOHEXANIZOPROPANOL LACTIC

Moleculari CnH,o CuH,, c3Hso caH6o3


HH
HHH HHH
HHHH rtt H -..,zC ..- -H lll HH
H_C-C-C-H H-C-C-C-H rr,.v
De structuri tlll
H-C-C-C-C-H rtl H'Y Y-H rtl H-c-g-c:o_H
trll HIH HIH
desfigurati HHHH H.C-H
Hrri ).H o HO
I H.'\/\C,'\J\H I I

H H H
HH
CH"
De structuri cH3-cH-cH3
u^c'bh^
"t | "
cH3-cH2-cH2-cH3
semidesfisurati CH, H2C, ,cH2 il;3""-o"cH3-cH-cooH
OH
CH"

H\ /H H\ /H u$,n OH COOH
GraficN Ir
"),,-C...^-C,.
C
"{SJ-q.H I I
ff:.-{--.:fi -- }'-.-c-b-n H-f-cu, u-!-cH,
dil 'H
trldimensionaH X XH
HH HH H.H.H "? CH, CH,

\e
OE
Formuli
simplificati A A uoF"oo"
a[atcanito
omologic
$irut
FORMULA NUMARULSTAREA
STDENUMIREA DE TEMP. TEMP.
ALCANULUI IZOMERILOR
AGREGARE TOP.
Co FIERB.
CO

CHo Metan -182 -16/:


|rI -183
CrHu Etan N €9
C,H, Propan -r90 42
\,
CnH,o Butan 2 -r38 -1

C,H,, Pentan 3 -r30 36


CuH,n Hexan 5 95 69
CrH,u Heptan 9 -91 96

C,H,, 0ctan 1E -57 126


IJJ
CrHro
CroH,
Nonan
Decan
35
75
e-
-51
-30
l5l

174

C,,H,, Undecan 159 U -26 r96


J
CrrHru Dodecan 355 -10 216
C,,H,, Tridecan 802 6 235
C,oHro Tetradecan 1828 6 254
C,,H,, Pentadecan 4347 10 2t1
CroHo, lcosan 366319 EJ 37 343
l-.
CroHu, Triacontan 450
CooH'
4t11846763

Teracontan -1013
=B
F-i
6

80

CroH,o, Pentacontan-10r8 60
-rt/l
93
C,ooHro, Hectan -103e
.tr lt5
ilolnenclatura
alcanilor
123
cH3-cH-cH3 2 - metilpropan
CH,

1234
cH3-cH-cH2-cH3 2 - metilbutan
CH,

3456

cH3-cH-cH2-cH2-cH3
,9H, 3 - metilhexan
'CH,

CH"
r lz': 4 s
c - cH2-cH-cH3 2,2,4- trimetilpentan
cH3-
CH, CH,

1234567
CH..
r
CH;
Ll
CH-CH"-
CH-CH"-
L I L
CH,,
r

QH, CH, 3-etil-5-metilhepan


l"
CH,
10
Proprietitite
chimice
atealcanilor
Reacliidesubstitufie Descompunerea
termici Dehidrogenarea
(t. > 1000.c)
Halooenatea
CHn'''''-C+2H,
cH,$'c4= cH-cHr+H,
cH,-cHr-
lho,t",rhedfiisfi radkalic)
cFu:2C+3H2
clr-E*cH3cl+ Hcl
cHn+ CH:=CH-CH,-CH3+H'
cH3ct+cl-!!*cHpl, + Hcl Oxidarea cHr-cHr-cttr-ctt,{
Arderea CHr-CH=CH-CH3+
H2
cl2-q cHcL+ Hcl
cH2cl2+ (ellminaredeQ)

+ CL-is*CCl4
CHCI, + HCI CHo+2O"* CO2+2H2O
cH3-cHr- c4- cH,{* CHr=CH- CH= CH2+2H,
Orldarea
bltndi
lnecdttisnul
rcacllei zctto*o,$ 2cH3oH
Clr* 91' * at ' inifierea
$ H-c(fl*np
orn+0, Dehidrogenarea
intermoleculari
CH,+Cl'*Ctt,'+tto
I propagarea
cq.+ cl,-cH3cl+cl.,|
)
zcno* o"*
lo,$zn- c( zn,o 2cHo
""'*' cH=cH+3q
;;:;..'#;;; intre,upe.,ea Conversia
metanului
cu.+u,ofrco+ru, lzomeizarea
l{itrarca oazderintezd (c> 4,f,Alcu
g P)
Konovalov,
{reacl.
Cracarea
termici cH3-cH2-cHr-cttr- cn, S cu3-cH- cHr- cHj
cttn+Houor$cH3Nor+Hp cB,o-f*cpr+crHo
etan etend
CH,
pebaz[
Sinteze demetan
I cr{,rrtninETrLAjr,l}rA
I I ccr,No;cloRoprcRrrA
I

I BEltzrNfiNTEncA
I

cl,h)
;ffi,ffi,
Glotutar€

I Ht'HrpRoGEr,r
I
I ct'unrircrtrE I

I cK.-DrcLoRoMErAN
I
lHcoficrpFoRMrcl@
t cocrr'osc"r
I@ ffiffi;l-- T.j----T_l
atcanilor
Utilizarea
F---,r,
E
[ aeu^Atc,-c,"1 |
@
(,
\Th4 I MATERTEPRn4AI
I PENTRU
srNrEzAI

G-fu
r,",-"^""1& @
w
Cicloalcani
Formulagenerald Metodele
deoblinere Proprietitichimice
l. Derlvall
dlhalogenafl
marglnall
al alcanllor
+Na 1.Pentruclcloalcanl
nestablll
CoHro{n>l)
,rCHz..tcrr,f,i----"., 7CH;CH, cH^
cH_ H.C - CH" H,t^,, --;;ffii*2N?j-H"c | +2Nacl * cH3-
cH,-cH3
'l
/\' | " .Lrz " \ct6ctt, "'*
HrC-CH, HrC-CH, ",/.ttcH^
-
ciclopropan
\//
ciclobutan 2. Hidrogenareaarenelor
n-sa_E*at, 9u;cH,-
c,H,
cicluriinstabile t{
tfo?t*sH.-'- t{, CH^
BT BT

Ht -
cH- ,Q$, 4f 9t' Hy'.ig,. cH3-
cH,-cH2I
2 H-C
'l CH- HCJH
H '-tC ",'
CH |' H,c.,.
H '"tC
rcH, 2. Clorularea
A I' ( g ,C
' H" CH CH,
H,C-CH, benzen ciclohexan ,S, ,{I,
ciclopentan ciclohexa-n
H.C
't CH" -. H^C CH-CI
z+cl^--su-
I "l | +HCl
\//
cicluristabile
sau
e) + 3H,_r_(---) HrC...
rCt,
'rC.,.
F,
3.Dehldrogenarea
alcanllor cH, cH:,
CH,
H,9 CH;CH,
tl
Irrc-cH,
ft"", 4CH;CH'-__
H"C.
-
- -9E'mit6;
\cHr-cHi '
TCH,CH'...
" H,C'
'
CHJH"
\CH,-CH,,'
3. Dehldrogenarea

H"C
'l
,!€,
CH" . HC' CH
,9!
metilciclopentan l ' - + *-' | ll +3H^
hexan ciclohexan HrCr HC\\,,CH
rCH,

",4-tr, H 7CH;CH, o 7CH;CHr.,. 4,Arderea


CH" CH

,,['_'Lr" H HA
- \CHr-CH;
^__ ^-_rCH;CHrMndHrC.. ___ ___ pH-CH3
- \CH;CHrl
+H"
H"C-CH"' + 6 0
"l | 4CO2+4H2O
2-
1,2- dimetilciclobutan metilciclohexan lr2c- cH'
H a to g
9Jlg,9'f9fl, * p,rN
rNrocu,rEA
AroM,,.oR
DE
H,D'.GEN
D,N
A,cA,{,
cuAroM,
DE
HA,ocEN
Clasificarea Proprietififizice Proprietifichimice
Duplnumlrulatomilor
dehalogen Determinate
denatura Bazdalcalini(HrO)
(derivatl dF,trF,poli-halogenati)
mono-, gia radicalului
halogenului
cH3-cH2-cttpt +ron -89*cH3-cH'-cH'oH+KCI
. insolubiliin
HrO
I I . solubiliin
CrllrOH
H-C-Cl H-C-Cl . incolori,
volatili
I I cH3-cr!- cHcl,+2KoH-!8* cH3-cH2-c( ff +zrct +tr,o
H cl
(rl clorometan diclorometan
Utilizarea
FREoNI(CF,C|,,...) -!8* gu,- cH,-c<$" * ,*ct *
cH3-cH,-ccl3+3116g
Dupi poziliaatomilorde halogen . instalalii ",o
frigorifice,
stingerea
incendiilor
SoLVENTI CuNa(reactia
Wiirtz)
C4- CH - CH.- 1,2-dicloropropan
l- I (vicinalS)
ct ct CH,- CHr- Cl + 2Na+ Cl- CHr- CH3* CH3-CHr- CHr- CH,+ 2NaCl
Identificarea
cl probaBeilgein
I (alcool)
Bazialcalind
- cH" -colorarea
fldciriiln
cH.-
-l c 2,2-dicloropropan
(geminali) culoarea
verde CH3-CH,-CHrBr+KOH d*r, CH3-CH=CH2+
KBr+ HzO
cl
apetrotutui
fractionatd
Distilarea

GAZEUSOARE MOTORINA
(c,-q) (cr4-cro)
ETERDEPETROL ULEIDEAX
(c5-c6)
BENzTNA ULEIDEMOTOR
(c5- cll)
6) ucRorNA DECILINDRE
(c!- cr.)
PETROITAMPANT GUDRON
(cr2-crs) (> cro)
MOTORINA
(cr4-cro)

<@
GAZNATURAL
* rrr*Ot (> c2o)
Atchene
Izomeria Formula CoHro
generald Oblinerea
alchenelor
ln industrie
l. Depozilie l.Cracarea (f)
alcanilor
1tl1
CH;CH-CH;CH, but-1-end
t-entt
Nomenclatura CFr"*r-C"ILr+CF2"
CH;CH=CH-CH,but-2-eni CH;CH, etgq[(etilen;)
+Hp {H,
CH,-CH;CH;CHr-CH,.*CH,-CHr-CH3
2.Dehidrogenarea (to,Ni)
alcanilor
2.Decateni CHr=Cg-at, propqq(propilend) CJI,*,*CF#H,
l2t1
but-l'ena
CH;CH-CH;CH, CH'=CH-CH;CH3 but'l's41i CH,-CH,*HrC=CH2+ H2
3,Hidrogenarea (1",
alchinelor ft (P4Ni))
HrC=C-CH,2-m€tllpropeni *
C"Hr.r+H, C,H"
-.1 CH, Proprietififizice HC-=CH+ H,*HrC=CH,
C,- Co gaze ln labontor
3.Defun(iune(cucicloalcanii) 1.Dehidratarea (f, H,SQ
alcoolilor conc.)
C,-C, lichide
l{

CH;CH-CH;CH,but-l'eni C,il ... solide R- CHTCHTOH*R-CH=CH,+ 4O


CH,-CH;0H*CH2=CH,+ Hp
*putinsolubile
in api
ciclobutan 2.Dehidrohalogenarea (f, CrHrOH)
monohalogenoalcanilor
"r9-9H, lsulublle
ln solvenli
organlcl
HrC-CH, R- CH,CH;Hal+NaOH*R-CH=CH2+ HrO+ NaHal
-trans) Hal -Cl,-Br,-I
4.Spatiali
Gcis, - sp2
Hibridizarea 3.Dehalogenarea (fl,CrHrOH)
dihalogenoalcanilor
CH" H cH^cH^ R- CH- R-CH=CH2+ZnHal2
c=c c=c fHr+ Znr
Hal Hal
H CH, HH R- CH-CHr+Zn- R-CH=CH:+ ZnClz
-trans
izomer -cis
izomer cl cl
Proprietdlite alealchenelor
chimice
Reacfiideadilie Reacfiideoxidue
1n
dehidrogel
Aditie
'(r'Ni) CJI,"+Hr* C"H*, toali (ardere)
Oxidarea C_I[-+f O"*nCOJnILO
"^ 2
cHr=cHr+Hr-cHycH,
cI{=cHr+3Q* 2CO2+2H20
Adifiede
halogen C$o+Halr* C$rHal, parliali
Oxidarea 2CH.= CH,+O.+-2 CH.-CH,
'
\'/
CHr=Q11r4
tr.*?";9", o
Br Br
+ apadebrom* reactie
alchena deidentificare oxiddeeten;

Hidrohalooenarea t CO,+HrO
CH;CI!-CH=CH,+5[O]*CH3-CItr-COOH
@
Odiliedupl-regula
tlarcovnlcov)
CHr=91111 - CH3-CH,CI 3tol-CHifi -CH3+CH3-COOH
= CH-CH3+
CH3-C
"tt cloroetan CH, o
CH,-CH=CHr+HBr- CH:-CH-CH: 4[Ol- 2CH3-
CH,-CH= CH-CH3+ COOH
Br
2-bromopropan
Adigie
anti-Marcovnicov Reacfiidepolimerizare
CHr-CH=CHr+HBrP- CH,-CHr-CHpr (r,eTKI{A(Ctrl,l
r)
nCHr=CHr*(-Qt1-CHr-)" Polletilena
Aditiedeape(c H,Po.) propan-2-ol
CH,-CH=CI!+ HOH-CHr-!H- CHr
n CHr=CHr-911r*(*CHr-9H-) poliropilena
OH
CH,
Utilizarea
alchenelor
(urn&rnoreHr)

I or.oor.r'-,. I | ,or,r*or'rr*o
I I ;'.*"---_l

(o

I ;r"-T- l ffi
9rTEGUMELoR
lFRucrELoR I
Alcadiene
FormulageneraldCoHro_, Izomeria Obfinerea
l. Depozitie l.Dehidrogenarea (t",Crpr)
alcanilor
Nomenclatura n>3Gdienr) 1234
CHr=CH= 911-911, buta-1,2-dieni CH3-CH2-CHr-CHr*CI1r=911-gH=CHz+
2Hz
CH'=C=911, Pro'adieni
1234 1234
CHr=C=911-9113 buta-1,2-djgqi CH,=CH-Ql{=611, buta-1,3-dieni
CHr-CH- CHr-CHI CHr=g - 911=911,+2H,
CH, CH,
HibridizareasP' 2.Decateni

N
op, 8l 12145 2.Dehidrogenarea (f, MgOZnO)
alchenelor
o "1 "1
H.C=CH-CH=CH^ CHr=911- a"r- CH=CHz penta-1,4-dieni
CHr=C11-at,-CH,-CHr= Q11-CH=CHz+
Hz
1234
CH.,=
- l C-CH=CH,
2-metilbuta-1,3-diena
CoHu CH, gidehidratarea
3.Dehidrogenarea etanolului
buta-1,3-dieni (t",zno,A1203)
(cualchinele)
3.Defunctiune
HH HH
Proprietififizice r234
tt ttttl l

CHr= CH- Ql1=611,


H-C-C-H+Il-C-C-Hr
- gaautorlichifiabil;
buta-1,3-dieni buta.l,3-dieni | | \..- --l | |

insolubilin
apa,
solubilin eter9ibenzen
-
2-metilbuta-l,3-dieni lichid
volatil;
1234
CH=C-911,-4", but-l-ind -CHz=CH-CH=CH,*2HrO* H,
insolubil
inap6,
solubilinmajoritatea
solvenlilor
organici
Proprietdfite
chimice
tEACl[ DEADflE
alealcadienelor
Hidrogenarea Hidrohalogenarea
(f, ft,-?4 Ni) _. r-----_CH,-CHCI-CH=CHz
CHr=Q]l-Qlf =CHr+Hr.*CHr-CH=CH-CH:
HCI-.1
CH"=f,H- Q11=CH,+
L_CH._CH=CH_CH.CI

Polimerizarea Halogenarea
(t., Na)
p- CHpr-CIIBT-CH=CHz
n CHr=Ql1-911=CH,* (- CHr- CU= CH- CHr-)n -t
CH,=CH-CH=CH"+Br"
I$
cauciuc (sintetic)
butadienic CHpr-CH=CH- CHpr

n cH,=! - CH=CH, - CH,-)o


*(- CH,-9= 611
CHr=Q[f- Ql1=CHr+2Btr- CHpr - CHBr- CIIBI - CHpr
CH, CH, cauciuc (natural)
izoprenic

I
Vulcanizarea (t.,s)
cauciucului sI
...-cH"-cH- cH- cH--...
sI
...-CH.-CH=CH- CH.-,,.+...-CH"-CH=CH- CH^-...+ S * s
I
...-cH"-
' l cH- cH- cH^-...
sI
Atchine
Nomenclaturo
cini) Proprieti,tifizice
FormulageneraldCoHro_,CH=CH etfli(acetileni) Cr-Co gaze rputlnsolubile
ln aptr
CH3-C = CH ptopllq(metilacetileni) C,-C,, lichide *sulubile
ln solventi
organici
Izomeria 1234 C,r-... solide
CH=C-CH"-CH, but-i-ind
L Depozilie
a hgeturii
triple
Obtinerea
alchinelor - sp
Hibridizarea
1234 ,
CH=C-CHr-CH3 but-l-ine Acetilena
1,Din (1500'C)
metan
1234
CHj-C =C-CH, but-2-ini 2CHo*119=at * r"
N)
o) 2.Dincarburi
decalciu
2.Decatene CaCr+2Hp -*HC=CH+ Ca(OH),
(cao+3c2!eccac,
12345
HC= C-CHr-CHr-CH! +co)
pent-l-ine A|Ieatcntne
1234 1.Dehidrohalogenarea (Na0H/KOH,
dihalogenoalcanilor etanol)
HC=C-CH-CH3 CHr-CHr- CBrr- CH,+2KOHs CH; C= C-CH3+2KBr+ 2HrO
CH, 3-metilbut-1-ine 2,2-dibrombutan
CH,- CIIBr-CHBr-CHr+2KOHes{CII3-C= C-CH3+ 2KBr+ 2HrO
3.Defun4lune
cualcadlenele
2,3-dibrombutan
CHr=CH-Ql{=911, buta-I,3-dien6 2.Alchilarea
acetilenurilor
CH,-C = CNa+ Br - CrHr* CHr- C =ic -c2H5+NeBr
CH=C-CH,-CH. but-r-ine
propinilurA
desodiu 2-ini
Proprietttite
chimice
aleatchinelor
Reacfiideadifie Reac{iide substitufi€ ahidrcsenutuiacetitenic
Hldrooenarea Halogenarea CH=Ctt+2tAt*,),OH l-AgC =AgCl+4NH3+
(e [i, Pt] 2H,O
acetiluni
dediargint
HC=CH+
4-*CHr=CH, HC= CH+ Br2-CHBr= CHBr
CH!-C=CH+tAg(NH,)rOH
l*CH,- C=AgCl+2NII,+Hp
HC=CH+2H2-CH3-CH3 HC= CH+ 2Br,* CIIBTT-CHBr, propinilur;
deargint

Hidrohaloqenarea
(seaplicd
regula
luiMarkovnikov)
cl Reac{ii
deoxidue
I
CHj- C =CH+ ItCl-*CHr-C=CHz totali(ardere)
Oxidare
cl
N I 2CH=CH+
50,-4Cq + 240 + Q Q= 2800-3000"
s CHr-C=Ctt+
2HCl*CH"-
Jl
C-CH"
cl pa{iali
Oxidare
-cHr=CHcl
CH=CH+HCl
=cHlPlcn
H3c-c -c<fl"*co,
acidacetic
Hldratarea
(Hg'i H'SO.)
(reaqhKucerov)
c(f;"s.2gs,*
tt
cH H- ou*1n-
=cH+ Caan -. :l ".=.so+"$X-
tilil h.*t
tardehidEaceticd
acidoxalic

Reacfii (r,c)
detrimerizare
cH3- H- oH*
c=cH+ cnj*r:fi
[n;c=, lcrr=or-@
:",
Utilizarea
atchinelor
ACETII.ENA

w
| (r,z-aictoro6tan) |
t vtNtLAaEiitENn
I CH,=CH-C=CH
@ t"'=t"-tt
I I
i
N)
rc
I
-' ---
clonopnrru Jr
--'
b L
I eor-rcronunnoevrnrr.
(rl

I
Arene
Formulagenerald Izomeria Hibridizarea- sp2
cH"
{o >o)
CoHro_u
A;CH3 -trimetilbenzen
1,2,3
\lfcH,
Seriaomoloagi 9H"
9H, A;CH, '1,2,4

o o
-trimetilbenzen
\#'
CH, Ob[inerea
Denzen (toluen)
metilbenzen 1.Reaclia
Wurtz-Fitting
9H,-CH3 2NaCl
C.H,-C1+2Na+CH;Cl*Cp;CHf
N
o, cHr-cH3 9H, rAr 1-etil-3-metilbenzen

o \4cn, 2.Trimerizarea (C,600"C)


acetilenei
rArcH.
v
1,2- dimetilbenzen
pH.
3cH=cH-LU)l
/Ar

etilbenzen '1,2- (to,catal.)


ciclohexanului
3.Dehidrogenarea
(orto-xilen)
rA;cH'
v
dimetilbenzen
(orto-dimetilbenzen)
f)-*t6r+En-
o-xllen
Proprieti[i fizice \-/ \z
9,H, 4.Dinhexan(300"C,
Pt,Cr,Or)
-r
l(
-
)l -lichidincolor; @.", 1,3-dimetilbenzen
(meta-dimetilbenzen)
m-xilen
-
7CH;CH, "
'\cH--cHj cH"
H.c.
71
' * l( 4H,
\/ mirosspecific; 9H" \t/ )l+
insolubil
in apd;
solubil
in alcool,
eter,acetoni.Toxic. Q:
CH,
1,4-dimetilbenzen
(para-dimetilbenzen)
p-xilen
- reaclia
benzenului
5.Alchilarea
cF6+ cH3-cl-c#5-cH3 + Hcl
(t",AlClr)
Friedel-Crafts
alearenelor
chimice
Proprietltite
Reacfiidesubstitu[ie Reacliidepolimerizue
Halosenarea Reacfiideoxidare
@* cr;@cl ncH=cH,-{- ( - gH-cH,-)n

9H, 9H,
O*rr,,*t'@B'*run,
"tt
oo (arderc)
Oxidaretotali

2CF6+150'* 12CO'+
6Hp

Br
Reacfiideadifie parliali
Oxidare
9H'cl
N Aditiedehidrcgen inmediu
acid:
{
9H' @*ncr cH"
@+cr, 9H, 9H,
@*lr,*Q rC.** Cirt<8'*"p
o".Q 9H, 9H,
\:2
*,-4r0,
\,:t

Nltrarea
(H1{0, in mediuneutrugislab{azic:
HIor't.) NO.
@*r",*Q
fO]+no-no,*
\r/ fO]+n,o
, -\7 *.+-(/ --oH+2H'o
Aditiedehalogen ,4,7CH;CH, ,o. *c'-O
(-tr*" +co'
cl
9H, 9H' /A..' crrArcr
-\z r"o-"o,irl6l*o'
J6* \r +3no tvj*3cL*.,v.,
NO, cl
Utilizarea
benzenului
Alcooli
.
Formulagenerald /al
Denaomoroaga
le
Proprietifi fizice
metanol(alcool
metilic) Stareadeagregare
CH3-OH
(coH2o*2o)
coH2o*roH CH3- CHr- OH etanol(alcool
etilic)
Alcooliin staregazoasi
prezenlei
nusuntdinmotivul
legiturilordehidrogen.
CH3- CHr- CHr- OH (alcool
propanol propilic)
Alcoolii - lichizi.
inferiori Alcoolii - solizi
suoeriori
RR
Clasificarea
alcoolilor Izomeria
1.Dupi pozitiagrupei-OH cH" Depozitie g;ou",,u,.ri-.
F._ou,
6-
$._
o"'
t- 32r
CHr-CHr-OH Primar
cH"-
,I c -cH" CH3- CHr- CHr- OH ProPan-l-ol R R
Solubilitatea
in apl
N r23
(l) CHr- CH - CH, secundar OH
cH.-
' l cH-cH"
propan-2-ol Cucrettereacatenei scadesolubilitatea
in api
te4iar - -
OH OH C, Cr solubili in oriceproporlii
2. Dupitipul radicalului Cu(hexan-1-ol)- solubilitatea
0,6%
Decatena
cII3- CHr- OH saturat 4321 Miros
CH3- CHr- CHr- CHr- OH butan-l-ol
- mirosspecific
Alcooliiinferiori dealcool
CII,=CH-CHr-OH nesaturat - inodori
321 Alcoolii
suoeriori
CH"- - 2-metil-propan-l-ol
aromatic - l CH CH"- OH
A.oH Temperatura defierbere
v CH,
Dinmotivulprezentei legiturilordehidrogen,
3. Dupi numirulgrupelorhidroxil (cueteri) alcoolii
fierblatemierat-uriinalte
Defuncliune
Temperatura defierberecrestein sirul:
CH3-OH monohidroxiliciCHr- CH - CH, alcoolitd{iari
<alcooli ialcooliprimari
secundari
CH3- CHr- OH etanol
CH^-CH^ -dioli OH OH OH Densitatea
l" l' -trioli
OH OH CHr- O - CH3 eterdimetilic Densitatea
alcoolilor
< 1glcm3
alcoolitor.
0btinerea I
Fenotu ALCOOtI FENOtUt
Obfinereaalcoolilor Obfinerea
baziciaclobenzenului
Hidroliza
bazicia halogenalcanilor
Hidroliza
H-O @ on+Hrct
@cr* r.ruon--
cHicHpl + NaoH----!-cHiclt-oH + NaCl cataliticia izopropllbenzenului
oxldarea
alchenelor
Hidratarea

cH,=c1t-a"r*
"oH
-'- -"
H"SO.
cH3-9H-CH3
OH
cH3-9H-CH3

O *o,s& o OH

clinice
Propriettrfile
o
tl
+cH3-c-cH3

(r) glucozei
Fermentarea Metalele
alcaline
o
2CprOH+ 2Na*2CprONa+ H,
2CO,
Cp,rO.-2CfIrOH+
Bazele
alcaline
Reducerea gicetonelor
aldehidelor C.IITOH+NaOH* C.IITONa
+ HrO

Bromurarea
cr,-c(fl+n -!r*cHicHPH

o
OH OH
Br-/\- Br
1 3 8 1 2* + 3HBr
cH3-c - cq+ H,-Ni- g11,-
g11-gn, -7'
ooH Br
OH OH
Dingazuldesintezi
co+2[,^f6 cqon o o'N No'
,\r 1$1 +rnp
+lno-uo,ll%-
NO,
Propriet[tif.e
chimice
Reactiicuparticiparea
atomuluidehidrogen
din grupahidroxil Cu metaleleactive
Cumetalealcaline H,!-On H,C-ONa
2CH"OH
' + 2Na*2CH-ONa + H- 2 HC-OH+6Na*2 HC-ONa+3H^
metan'oat
desodiu' tl
Cu acizicarboxilici
Hp-oH H,C-ONa
n u+ .r
+ cH3-c<;H--::--
cH3-cH,-oH ctt,-c-:f,_a",_clr,+
H,o (glicerol) tripropanolatde
propan-I,2,3-triol sodiu

ester(acetat
deetil)

Reacfii cu participareagrupei hidroxil H^C-OH ILC-ONa


___+
HC_OH+3NaOH HC_ONa+3H"O
Cuhalogenuridehidrogen tl
CH3-CHr-OH+ I{Bt - CH3-CHpr+ Hp Hp-oH Hp-ONa
Eliminareaapei(f, HrSOn)
CII,- CHr-OH*CHr= CHr+HrO
Cu Cu(OH),-reacfiedeidentificare(cul. albastrl)
intermoleculari
Deshidratarea
CHr-CIq- OH+ HOCI{-CH;CH; CH; O-CHi CH3+Hp HJ-OH H.C-O-^-.-O-CH"
* ilS:."- fil-o-"'-o - c11+
z riE-ou zu,o
Reacliideoxidare H"C-OH H"C-OH HO-CH.
Eliminarea
hidrosenului
;u, cu,-c(fl* H,
cH,-cHr-oH Cu IINO, (HrSOn)

3fi5ii-o"-rel.cr,-c(fl
*np nf-opfl-No, H2c-o-No2
* H9-o-No2+}HP
Hc-oF{+Hol-No,
Arderea
CflrOH+3O,-2CO,+ 3Hp H2C-OFI HOI-NO, HrC-O-NO2
Utilizarea
alcootitor
(arcoorur
rruc)

I o.,o
o..r,. I I tot"*ll
t
f,;t

o)
N
$ cetone
Atdehide
Seriaomoloagl Metodele
deoblinere
Formulagenerald l. Oxidarea
alcoolilor ,.'
cH"-c-cH. -le* cn,-c(i +tt,
cH,-cH,-oH
tTfiSfir.to,'iar
'tl

-cF,P-. "-.(l O propanone


(acetona) CH,-CH,-oH+Cuo*Ctt,-c(fl*nP* Co
*-.(fl n-c(fl cn;c'1flt"trltilou
u..tiot
CH;C-CH,-CH,
1234
ctt,-cH-cH, H2
*,f a,4cHr-c-cH3+
oldehide oHo
-ol
ctryctl-c(f,uoo*'r O butan-2-ond
CH,-CH-CH,-4*CH;C-CH,+ H,
oHo
q)
o) Izomeriaaldehidelor Izomeriacetonelor 2.Reaclia
Kucerov
1.Decateni l. Decateni 96 n,".''CUr-C(fl
HC=9111
12345
4 ' ' t --o cH"-c-cH"-cH"-cH.
'[ HC= C-CH!+ HrO-'c'L CH3-C-CH3
CH3-CH2-CHr-C|g buttn.l ^^^,
O Pentan-2-oni o
3 2 r--O r234 3.Hidroliza geminale
dlhalogenurllor
CIL-CH-C-1H 2-metilnropanal cH"-c-cH-cH. ,.,
jl ctt,-c(il+ 2NaCl+
-[ | - cHj-cHcl,+2Naott Hp
CH, O CH3 3-metil-butan-2-oni
2.Depozitie Br
2.Defuncliune(cucetonele) |
12 3 i| 5 s. . ^ CH3-C-CH'+
cHr-c -cH3+2KOH 2KBr+Hp
n CH,-C-CH,-CH,-CH. pentan-2-oni
propanal 'tl
cH,-cttr-c([ Br
o
I 2 34 5 4.Oxidarea
metanului
CH.-C-CH. ProPanoni CH.-CH"-C-CH"-CH,
-tl
pentan'3-oni n
'tl -
cH.+O,J!e-H-C([ +qo
o o
Atdehide
sicetone
Structuragrupeicarbonil t. Reducerea
rr Proprietlfichimice
cH,-ctt- c(i +EA
)8. cr,- cH,-cH,-oH
cH3-f -cH3 + H, cNi, cH3_?H_cII3
9OH
2.Oddarea
Proprietifi fizice . reaclia,bglinzii
deargind"(reactivulTollens)
n
(,
H (c' - gaz CIr,-c ( i +ztlg (NH,),loH* cH,-c (

=13: H{ f, zlg r * 4NH3+


5
- C-Cr-lichide qo
Cs lichide aldehidaacetici
acidacetic "*
- solide C, -solide . cureactivul
Felling
n
cn- c(i +2tcu(NH,)ol(ou),
- ctr,-c(f," +cu,or+4NH3+
Omologii - solubiliin apd,
inferiori 2H,o
mirosspecific. 3.Polimerizarea
nCH2= O r' c3t, (- CHr- O_)n poliformaldehidi
(polioxtmetilena)
- gaz,
u _n..O !g[!g,solu]ie 4.Policondensarea
apoasd _formalini
- oH .---------- oFr
n
- lichid, "d tu;--H,;!r o( d.nd.n, ).
6D.i!;-$;;s,6r
ctt,- c (i foarte
toxic
*o riginafenolformaldehidici
Utilizarea
atdehidetor
$icetonelor

(, | (mas6plastice,
materialde legiturd) |
(,l

@
Acizi
carboxitici
Formulagenenld Clasifi acizilorcarboxilici
carea Grupafunclionald
c"tt Duptr
numirulgrupelor
carboxil
Dupinatura
radicalului
*tb'
*\:Qt-nu-
"-,c<!, monobazici saturali
ginomenclatura
Izomeria .-o .-o
decateni
lzomeria
cH3-cioH cH3-cH'-cloH Propriet{ifizice
4 3 Z I ,-o acidetanoic acidpropanoic
(acidacetic) (acid
propionic) Proprietdlile in maremdsurd
fizice sunt
c4- cH,-cH,-cioH deprezenta
determinate legdturilor
dehidrogen:
(^)
(acidbutkic)
acidbutanoic bibazici nesatura!i 6- 6+
o)
O.-.
Ho..
--o......
3 2 1.-O - .rro R-C\o_fi...5//C-R
cH3-cH-cloH HO." "-OH CIr,=cr-c'(3n
cH3 acidoxalic RRR
(etandioic) acidacrilic ttl
(acid
izobutiric)
2-metilpropanoic
acid (propenoic) ccc
\\a. s* / \\6- 6, / \\6.
6+f

lzomeria (cuesterii)
defuncliune
polibazici aromatici ...H-o o...H-o o...H-o 0...
nttO deformarea
in api estecauzati
Solubilitatea
n
cH,-cq-c(;H H-c"-oH
'l /A-'"o dehidrogen
legiturilor cusolventul
.-O "-oH
H O - C -C i o H V
I I
acidpropanoic HC HC
Hrct acidbenzoic / /\\
.-o n..o ...H-O...H-O0...H-O...H-OO...
cH3-c:.o _cH3 "-oH
propo(ii
inH,0inorice
C,-Cr-sedizvoltd
acidcitric
demetil
etanoat
Proprietttite
chimice deobtinere
$imetodele AtEACtZttOR
CATBOXI.|CI

Proprietifichimice 4. Reaclia
deesterificare
cualcooli
-o -,o
1.Disoclatla aclzllor inferiori
in solutilapoase: crr,-c(i" +tto- cH,-cH,5". cn,-c(i_ a",_cH,+H,o
cH3cooH=cH3coo- +H*
acetatdeetil(etanoat
deetil)
2.Formarea sirurilorcu:
Metalele 5. Reacfla
dedeshidratare
intermoleculari
-,O .-O
C H 3 - C - \ C i-i i - i C H 3 - c l o - cH,-c(f," *"j). -.",* cH,-c(ooo;-c
-cH,+H,6
-H*"ri* cq-c_i)Mc+H,
cH3-
c\o=-"-'--' anhidridiacetici
(.^)
\ o kffi,jj,1."H.?ff1.;"")
{
Oxiziibazici Metodedeobfinere
CaO*(CH,COO),Ca+ Hp
2CH3-COOH+ t, Oxidarea
alcoolilor
Bazele ctt,-cu,-ottfcn;c(f,"
+ NaOH* CH,COONa
CHTCOOH + Hp 2,Oxidarea
aldehidelor
maislabi
Sirurileacizilor * cH,-c(f,"* zlgl +4NH3+
cr,- c(f, * zleg(NH),lon Hp
H2O+ CO2
NaHCOT-CHTCOONa+
CH3COOH+
3.Oxldarea
alcanilor
3.Cuclorul 5O,-4Cn;C(f," * zn O
2CHj-CH,-CH,-CH3+
^-- ^..O + ^..O
cHr-c(oH cl,- cHr-c(oH+ Hcl 4, Hidroliza
halogenoalcanilor
Cl acidcloroacetrc
cH3-c -cL+3KoHq",cH,-c-(f," * r"a, *
",o
Utilizarea
acizilor
carboxitici
ACIDUTMETANOIC ACIDULETANOIC ACIDULCITRIC ACtDUtACRtLtC
(FORMTC) (ACETTC)

Industriaalimentari
(conservantregulator
Medicin6 alaciditS!ii)
(actiunebactericidd) lndustriaalimentari
(aditivti conservant)

q) lndustriatextild
@ (prelucrareaprimar6 a fibrelor,hirtiei) Cosmetologie
lndustriachimici
(ob!inerea
acetalilor<elulozei)

Ermetezant
Industriapetroliera
(miclorareapH)
Sinteza
chimice

Constructie(component
al cimentului) Plastificator
Ob!inerea
esterilor
Esteri
Formulagenerald Proprietifichimice
Hidroliza
acidi
C"Hr"*ifr-O- CoHzo*r 5 cu,-
c(f,*.r.*nion
cH,- c'if,"* .",o"
o Hidroliza
bazicd
cr; c(! ia"" * u.ion*cH,-c(oo*u*
ctr,oH
Proprietilifizice
. Lichide volatile
incolore,
Ob[inerea
(o . Putinsolubiliin
api Interacliunea
acizilor
carboxilici
cualcoolii:
' < lglml
Densitatea -o
'-o
' Mirospldcut ur,-c(i" +tto'-cH,-cH,:" cu,-c( i _ a",_cn.*Hp

Nomenclatura Utilizarea
n PTASTIFICATORI AROMATIZATORI soLvENTl
t4r-rt "
" ".o-cHr-cH,
lndustriaalimenta16
Palfumerie
. metanoatul
deetil Cosmetologle
. esterul
etilic
alacidului
metanoic
. formiat
deetil
Esteri n-c( !" * no-n.a*n-c(!-***H,o

! -.o !!l7
u-r'.o
" --o-cH^-cH-cH- -o l1E-f'.
CH,-CH;CH;C(6-cu. cH,-cH;cH;c(3-."ra", "^'r " \o- cHz-cHr-cH-cH3
CH, CH,
Metanoat -il
de2-metiFpropan-1 Butanoat
demetil -il
Etanoatd6 3-metil-butan-1
formiatdeizobutil butiratdemetil acetatde izoamil

u-a"O V u-nto ,,o


'^ '.o-cHz-cH2-cH2 " "'O-CH,-CH;CH-CH, rEI -t11.
'-O-(CHr)'-CH, ''o
"", cH3-cH,-cHr-c(o _1cHr1o_clt,
cHr-cH3 CH,
Forniatdepentil Metanoat -il
de3-metil-butan-1 Etanoatde octil depentil
Butanoat
formiatdeamil formiatdeizoamil acetatde octil butiratdepentil

CRIZANTEM
tsfl
n-c(3_crr,-
o "-t(3-.",-.",- .",-.(3-(.",).-.",
O-t<3-.",b
Metanoatde benzil Metanoat -il
de2-feniFetan-1 depentilI
Etanoat Benzoat
debenzil
formiat
debenzil fomiat de 2-feniletil
Grisimi
UIiIAIAESIECDEGIICERIDE
Reacfiideoblinerea grlsimilor (esterificare)
cft-oHHo-c<flcu,-o-r<fl
+Ho-c<$-cn-o-c<$* ln,o
cH-oH
grisimilor
Clasificarea cHroHr*o-c(R,,
in,-o-c<fl"
glicerol acizicarboxilici grdsimi
supenon

ACtZtSATUnATI ActztI{ESATURATI
(Dr.domlnl '
ln gildml.nlm.lc)
Intrlt|ml Hidrolizagrisimilor (saponificare)
. oleic (CrTH3rcooH)
stearic (q7H35COOH)
palmitic(CT5HTCOOH) 1bgeturedubld
. linolic(C,'H3ICOOH) cr"-o-c1f;
- ,, CHTOII
2 legdtutiduble | drr^35
5 . linolenic(C|TH,9COOH) cH-o-c([.r"+ + 3CrrIssCOONa
3NaoH-.CH-OH
3 bgetu duble
. arahidonic (CrrH3lCOOH) d"r-o-c<!'n', iH;oHsteratoesodiu(sepun)
4legetui duble

grisimilor (lichide)
Hidrogenarea
cn,-o-c<!,n.. 9rr,-o-c(3,.s..
Proprietififizice Bc cu-o-c<!,g.
cn-o-c<! rr' +3H2Ni'
densitatea< 1glcm3
insolubile
in api
grisime+ api/proteine* emulsie (deex.lapte)
in,-o-c<!'n,, .n-"-.r3;.,
inodore,
incolore, fird (culoarea
gust 9igustulsuntcauzate
deimpurititi)
trioleoilglicerol tristearoilglicerol
grtrsimilor
Utilizarea
SAPUN
soLID/ LIGHID PARFUMERIE
PRODUSE
COSMETICE oBTTNEREA
GLTCEROLULUT

# fr fp.
-l;')
4rt

s
N

nneOlClttA PRELUCRAREA LEMNULUI PRODUSE ATIMENTARE


unguente,suplimente uleiuri sicative margarini,unt,ciocolati
Amine
DEREVAI
At oNtAcutut,iN CARE
uNUtsAuMAtMUtItAToMtDEH|DRoGEN
sut'fiittoctul cu RADtcAtl

Formulagenerali-NH2 Izomeria
1.Decatene
CHr-CH-CH1NH, CH3-f-NH,
?",
Clasificarea
aminelor cH3-cHr-cHr-CH2-NH2
cH, cH3
butan-l-amini 2-metilpropan-2-amind
2-metilpropan-l-amin5
DUPANATURA
RADIcALULUI (butilamini) (izobutilamild) (te4-butilamini)

I
ALIFATICE
+
AROMATICE PRIMARE TERTIARE
2.Depozitiea grupei- NH,
cHr-cHr-cHr-NH, cH3-cH-cH3
cHr-l,II! NII. R-N-R prcpilamini NH"' izopropilamine
5 R-NH, I (propan-l-amind) (propan-2-amini)
cl) metilamina
cH3-NH-CF'
AV anilina
R
3,Gradul
desubstitutie
laatomuldeazot
(fenilamina) SECUNDARE
metiletilamina R_NH
H., zH H.. zCH^ H"C...
, N Z CH-
R N N,
I I I
cHr-cHr-cH3 cH2-cH3 CH,

Nomenclatura propilamini metiletilamini trimetilamini

4. Optici (dela C.HTNHJ


cH3-cH2-NHz (CH3),NH
@'NH-CH3
(etanamind)
etilamini dimetilaminS metilfunilamini
Amine
Metodedeoblinere Proprietitichimice
1.CH3-BI+NH3*', CHr-l'[Hr+IDr Aminele(cagiamoniacul) proprietdti
manifestd bazice
'H i R NH>RNH,>NH3>RrN>cFs-NH,
i
2. C#s-N\H+ CHPr-Cflr- -N'H *
.CH, ID, , +l
! BAzlcE
scADPRoPR|ETATILE i
aminelor
Bazicitatea primare
gisecundare
scade dimensiunilor
odatdcucretterea radicalilor
9iramificdrii
c.H--N'H
-u--t - r
* c.H.-t:!l'*
+cH.Br o' .CH,
o,
rCHr deamineposedimediubazic
Solutiileapoase

5
s
3. R-NOr+ 6[H] !'stR-NHr+ 2Hp
cFsNOr+ 3H,rer cFs-NIIr+ 2Hp
'o'=F*_iltl
cu,-$* vn nu modificdculoareaindicatorilor

demetilamoniu
hidroxid
Proprietlfi fizice cuacizii
Interactiunea OxidareatotalS(arderea)

AminelealifaticeinferioareCH.NH,, (CH.),NH, cH3-NHr+HCI- [CH3-NH3


]Cl + 2N,
4CH,-NH,+9Or*4COr+10HrO
(CH.).N - gaze(miro-s deamohlac) demetilamoniu
clorurd
Aminelealifatitemedii- lichide(mirosdepegte)
Aminelealifaticesuperioare - solide(inodore) Anilina
Aminele -
aromaticelichide incolore sausolide (<uapadebroml
la inelulbenzenic
Reactia la grupaamind
Reaclia
Amineleinferioare primare 9isecundare suntbine *Nn,cr-
in api dinmotivul
solubile formdrii legiturilor NH. NH" NH^
dehidrogen: -\' Br.*Alsr
6. 6+ u rR
6,
O.zH
: H . . . O'.ii
r - - O - H . . . : N\R
l( )l+3Br^-* l( )l +3IIBr
\r/
Br
@'-".'-@ defenilamoniu
clorurA
2.4.6-tribromoanilina
Utitizarea
anitinei
Aminoacizi
coMputtoRGANlcl,
CAREcoNINDouAGRUpE
tuNcJtoNALE

Grupefunclionale Nomenclatura Izomeria


-NH, -COOH cH"-cH"-cH-cooH
' -l
4321
l. Decatene CH,
t-
NH2 cH.-cH.-cH-cooH
'l
cH3-c - cooH
"
acidul
2-aminobutanoic NH, NH,
Proprietififizice 5au
'rpc acidul
2-aminobutanoic acidul2-amino-2-metilpropanoic
Substantesolide cH"-cH,-cH-cooH
' -l
CristalinL
in api gicompugi
Solubili organici NH2 2,Depozitie - NH,
agrupei
ttoo>25ooc 0.-aminobutanoic
acidul
A
o) cH3-cHr-cH-cooH cH3-cH-cHr-cooH
Metode
deoblinere NH2 NH2
l. Dinacizicarboxilici acidul
2-aminobutanoic acidul
3-aminobutanoic
R-CH,-COoH + Cl,+LR-CH-COOH+
HCI
cl 3.Optici(o-aminoacizii, NH'-CHr-COOH)
excepfie
R-CH- COOH
i'' -l r'
-R-CH- COOH
+ 2NH" + NH.CI
'
l'l
CI NH,
proteinelor
2.Hidroliza
u;" "'t\oo" El
cH.-co-NH-CH-cooH= cH.-cooH+cH,-cH-cooH
r
NH2 dipeptid;CH,
t''l
NH2 NH2
"oo/
opticiaalaninei
izomerii
ProprietEtite
chimice
ateaminoacizitor
AMINoAcIzIIMANIfESIAPnoPRtETAfl
AMFoIERE

Reactiideidentificare Proprietitilegrupei- COOH


l{eutrallzarea
Intramoleculari Cu bazele (tonreazt
i n' l
tl\if sn,-6-(3 ; NH,-CH,-COOH+NaOH*NHz-CHTCOONa+HrO

SoluJiile
apoase
L;I',N. ;**,ffi ;"3_:
conduccurentul sipotfi acide,
electric bazice
saunewre
CU alGoolli (romeazr
erterit
in funcliedenumdrul
gruieiorfuncfionale. NHr-cHr-
cooH+cu,ouf rctr-cHr-coocH3+
IIro
Pollcondensarea CuamOniacul
tormeazi.mtdet
-Orr
n,N-cu;c([_"+H_I_g{- NHr-Cfir-COOH+NHr*NH;CH,_COONHT+
HrO
glicina H alanina
H,o
:oo1r*H,N_or;ffi_cH_cooH+
CH,} dipeptidA
C", Intera4luneqlntramoleculari.
a grupelor
fun4ionale
-
5 CUmetale glele 0dentficarea.-anthoa(tztbO
pentruacldul8-amlnocapronic
-.I NHr-CHr-COOH*NH,-CHi CO,
,e
Proprietifigenerale CH;CH;CH;CH;gu,--I,!!",*",O
H-llili__
___ -,''.Nr'-*o
______HOl-c=o
Formarea
complecailor
t-€a prolactam
2R-cH-cooH+ lfF'.r,- o-ro
oton, '"z+ogAg2Lu-'--
-lp ",u..*
albastru-violet *tcaprolactam
- produsintermediar
pentruobtinerea
capronului
NH2
RCf Ctlf Xf ntf PfotGlcl 0den{fierea.mtnordroraron.rtct{ her.rodctid) Proprietifilegrupei- NH,
t"t'.tj. too"*
* nHo.-?:IIOf Cu aclzi tall (forme.d
struit)
' Ho^\" NH-
qalDen
",o -c";r.nr,* - cqun]l
ncr*l"$>c cr
"$)c
Cuacidulazotos
?')@'"n{*;cooH*znnon=*!}@cH;c,H-coot'ta*r"o
portocaliu
NH,-CH;COOH+
HNOr-HO-CH;COOII+N,+
Hp
aminoacizilor
Utilizarea
SINTEZA
PROTEINELOR

5
decarbon
}|idrati
ZAHARIDE
GIUCIDE.

Clasificarea

Hidraliidecarbon

ffi nuhidrolizeazi
@
I hidrolizeaziin maimultde l0|
moleculede monozahatide I
I I I

5 ++ @
I hidrolizeaziln de la2 oindla 10
|
T
f^.o""] || cetotrioze
"'"" II I moleculede monozbharide I
FI
I aldotrioze |
I aldotetroze
|
I aldopentoze
|
|cetotetroze
I
| cetopentoze
I
I | trLltF
I
I aldohexoze
| | cetohexoze
I [rr^*r* I
+t
:l

f iiSoza
++
^r"----.---.ar*;ll-.".--..-*l
I r.dr.d,.".I T."-*r-,.dtil[l
I mal-toz5- | | AFaroza I
I lactozi
celobiod
| | tregalozi I
I Aucoza fiucioza
|| I I I

Il^-*l iliHall
ii:$Jftr' I
Glucoza
Structura apoasiaglucozei
Tnsolulia sintprezente
toateformele
tautomere;
Propriet{ifizice
formaS-D-glucopiranozi
esteceamaistabili.
Glucoza
H H H OHH
"ra'o . Solidi
.Incolori
ttttt_o
H-C-C-C-C- C-C?7
njE-ou . Cristalini
ttttt-Ir
HOHOHO H OH
no-.:C-n H H
. Binesolubili
in api
n-:C-on HO HO . Dulce
Fructoza njC-oH
HHHOH H n-r6-on
I Oblinerea
glucozei
(Jr rrttt H glucoza
H-C-C-C-C-C-C-H formetautomere
tttt [l l.ln naturi
HOHOHO H O OH
9H,oH
H o 6CO,+
640,#:CFnO6+602
H
Izomeria
optice HO O HH ciclupiranozic

" .t1on,frI z HOH 2.lnindustrie


I (hldrcllza
polizaharidelor)
".aro | ".aro 4(i o" ,'.c??
Ho\c'_y !4ott
H+oH '61 HO+H \ CHOH^ (CFroOj)"
+ nH,0$ nCp,,O,
HO+H
H-foH
=I
Pl
H+OH
HO+H
HHO
r"\o"H/iI
A\on ciclufuranozic
H+oH -l Ho+H 3.ln laborator
H
cH,oH cH,oH HHO
I -n
0tt-c(fi 656,CuH,,Ou
Transformarea
formeialdehidice (semiacetalicd)
in ciclicd
Gtucoza.
Proprietfltite
chimice
Reactiideoxidare Proyietdlidealdehidd
Reactii"oglinzii
deargint" Reacfia decupru(ll)lat"
cuhidroxidul
-o -o
"ta'o "ota'o cH,oH-(cHorDo- --LcH,oH-(cHoH)o-
c-:; + 2cu(oH), +2Hp
cii"+ Cu,ol
H OH H OH otucoza actogtuconrc ro$u
HO H + A g r O H HO H" + 2Ae.[
H OH H
Reac{iidereducere
H OH H OH -n
cHroH crloH c([ + H,ttl gH,oH-(cHorD4-cHpH
cH,oH-(cHolr)n-
grucoza acidgluconic glucoza sorbitol

(rl Propfietdli dep olialcooI


Reacfiacu hidroxiduldecupru(II) Reacliispecifice
"ta'o "ta'o Fermentarea
lactici
H+OH H+OH sO*H
2HO-FH + Cu(OH),
H+OH I - "fi+$.--^..
n=$:fffH
+zn,o CfI,rOu--*2CI{r-CH- COOH
H+OH H+oi;"""-o+H OH
cHroH HOHrC " CH2OH acidullactic(acidul
2-hidroxipropanoic)
combinatie
complexi
deculoare
albastri Fermentarea
alcoolici
o
g.c? cII3
cslro6-2cp.5oH+2co'
+ 5H2O
'cq
Zahartlza
orzlnlnoA,ronmlrADrN srrRucrozA
GrucozA

Formarea
zthuozei
0, -D-glucophanoza

HOH

-D-fructofu
ranoza
B

(,l
N

Proprietifichimice
H H
1.Hidroliza
zaharczei
HO
Hrso'r>
crrHrror+Hp cprp6+ cpno5 H oHo*tt,o H,SO.,fy' HOH
=(
glucoza ftuctoza qH,04 cH^oH^U\oH
r
fi\t uoltn"on
t-{
OHH
cuCa(OH)r,
2.Interactiunea Cu(0H),

( 3fi * Ho'cu
c,F,,o, -* c,p,ooo
-oH+ fi3) oF,oc,, <$.) co{'$ ) o,nz.c 2H2o
t2+
H'
I rl I

Amr00nut
pouzAHARrDA,
FORMATA UNIEpRtNtEGATUR|
DrNUNrrAilDED-CTUCOZA c{,.GUCOZ|D|CE

Formarea
amidonului Proprietifichimice
glucozei
Policondensarea Reac!ia
deidentificare
nCuH,rOu-* (C6H1oOj)J
nHrO
Amidonultratat
cuioddi o coloratie
albastri

Hidroliza
amidonului

(,
(, (c.Hroos) olzc,Fro,,4 ocF,p,
"g(cuH,oor),9
o-+ nHro amidon dextrine maltoza glucoza
(m<n)
OH H
legltura 0-glicozidici

Unitateastructuralia amidonului

o-- + oH"o t{:o' ' t


HO
o-- n
n
Cetuloza
por.rMER
NAruRAr,
FoRMAT or D-erucozAuNlEpRrN
DrNuNtrATr uoArunrB-cucolorcr

Formarea
celulozei Proprietitichimice
glucozei
Policondensarea Hidroliza
celulozei
Ilso.
nCfl,pu * (CuHroOj)J
nHp (CF,'O')JnHpsoCrH,P,
cHroH cHroH cH,oH
H
H H H
OH OH OH H OH
O1...
H
H H
qHPH qqoH
(rl
s o glucoza
H
O\....+ trHrO
oII H
Nitrarea
celulozei
OHH OH
legiturap-glicozidici
I
3nrroNo, i H_$H; ,*o
it.n,"r'.Hfi]
n+ frcp,o,r ];
Unitateastructuralia celulozei

q40H Interacliunea
cuCH3COOH
o
H
o-......
OH H
.un,+fiff] -urQ- <P,ffi
3ncH,cooH
n l ; fnno, ]"*,*o
Utilizarea
amidonului
$icelutozei
INDUSTRIA
ALIruenrRRA FIBREARTIFICIALE PRoDUcEREA
HIRTIEI RcnrcurrunA
(hranaanimalelor)

(tl
(tl

COSMETOTOGIE rurolcttrtA SUBSTANTE


EXPLOZTBTLE coNsTRucTrE

r {[ v

.fr'^''
. -"C
t
CLASADE REACTN DE UASA DE w c'fII DE
COMPUSI IDEN'I'FIC,'RT SEMNE!j,R'ACTIEI (nMPU6t CLASADE REACTII
DE
IDENfIFICAPF (NMPUSI IDENTITICAXX SEMNELEREACTIEI
ALCAI{I

cLoRAtcA[l FEI'lOl
I
,9,*'.e""6*
I
J AMINE

4r, u,"1- u"t' - clt

Aedblodolo'n|d(l'+Md)
ftr lHu[
'
ALCHEI{E
sorqth*hnq (m.drqrdru)
34, . cH,! 2Me. + eup -
atcooLl
-ru,lt stut1 ,.@u. , sq,o rYr
4.et' rM.'

:r-*,^,"-'4.*j
34tu - I
_ u4/-\r?,,10
"'li GLUCOZA q\ ++q,.*,'o.aan4tu,
'k'ffiflttr'*^r*"'p

FRUCTOZA (o
ro
u'-c\i' aalqalot -
- *"-1" . ZAHAROZA
, ,,,o
ALCADIEIIE ALDEHIDE "a1,"uu,

*,-1i, aq*1.xo,a-
- *,-1" , ^,a. 'u*,. .u," Iii AMIDOI{UI

CEIULOZA
iLl '
fituaN | (urrl', + HNo)

,1.',c.a , cu...ttl.-u L

ALrcHll{G u . cu+2tar(NuJoq -
- Atc. cAtl+4N4\+2tto
U, actzl
cAa8ox-tcl AM[{OACtzl
I
."-"-,"
ucooq ' 44(^M)l toH 4

I )

fi
(t,2-Nea.hi@a-llht'a
h tuti! . hi'dtit /. tudi!)
HcooHzLca,l+2H,o
/

AREI{E
ldentificarea
compu$itor
0rgantct
tt