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© 2004 R.A. Hulsebos.

Contributions from Michael Foundation


Bryant, ProfiBus and Paul
Griem, Foundation Fieldbus Profibus Fieldbus H1 DeviceNet CANOpen Modbus-1 Ethernet
General
Abbreviation Process Field Bus Foundation Fieldbus - Modicon Bus -
Available since (ca.) Ca. 1990 ca 1996 Ca. 1996 Ca. 1995. Ca. 1979. Ca. 1975
Developer Profibus International The Fieldbus Foundation Allen-Bradley, now Open CiA (CAN In Automation) User Modicon / Gould / Groupe Xerox (US)
(U.S.) DeviceNet Vendors Assoc. Group Schneider (US)
(ODVA)
National standards DIN 19-245 (Germany) ISA SP50 - - IEEE 802.3
European standards EN 13321/1 (FMS), EN 50254/2, EN 50170 EN 50325/4 - -
EN 50170/2
International standards IEC 61158 Type 3 IEC 61158 ISO 11898 &11519 - - ISO 8802.3
Industry standards SEMI E54.8 (DP) SEMI E54.x - - -
Official website www.profibus.com http://www.fieldbus.org/ www.odva.org www.can-cia.de www.modbus.org -
Non-official website www.us.profibus.com www.canopen.us - www.iaona-eu.com
Email list available? Yes, see Yes, see www.vector- Yes, see www.modbus.org There used to be an email list
www.profibus.cz/archive informatik.com/canlist/ of the Industrial Ethernet
Association, but this one is no
longer active.

OSI layers covered 1, 2, 7 1, 2, 7 1,2,7 1, 2, 7. A specification for 2, 7 1, 2


layer 5 (session
management) exists but is not
often implemented.

Variants FMS, PA, FDL, DP (with H1, HSE No V1, V2, V3, V4 plus minor ASCII, RTU (Remote 10Base2 (coax), 10Base5
subversions DP/E, DP/V1 and variations on these. Terminal Unit) (coax), 10BaseT (twisted-pair),
DP/V2) 100BaseTX (idem)
Most often used variant at DP/V1 H1 V4 RTU 10BaseT, 100BaseTX
this moment
Compatibility between FMS and DP and FDL are fully compatible Both variants have the Compatible when switches or
these variants incompatible; but they can be same commandset but a hubs are used that handle the
connected to the same network different transmission- conversions.
without problems. format; they can not be
both on the same network.

Variants that are not used FDL, FMS none V1, V2, V3. ASCII 10Base2, 10Base5
anymore or are seldomly
used
Intrinsically safe variant Yes (PA). Yes (H1) No Under Consideration, NIST Yes No
available? IEEE 1451.6
Safety variant available? Yes (ProfiSafe). under development Yes Yes (CAN/Open Safety). - -
© 2004 R.A. Hulsebos.
Contributions from Michael Foundation
Bryant, ProfiBus and Paul
Griem, Foundation Fieldbus Profibus Fieldbus H1 DeviceNet CANOpen Modbus-1 Ethernet
Ethernet variant available? Under development (ProfiNet); HSE Yes No. Yes, Modbus/TCP. -
first serious usable version
announced for end of 2003.

Profiles ProfiDrive, ProfiNet, various FF uses Function Blocks, both Device Profiles, MFCs, I/O, measuring devices, One (for semiconductor -
others for DP and FMS. standard and supplier-defined, endpoint devices for SEMI. closed loop controllers, PLCs, equipment).
for various application encoders, maritime devices,
functions. drives, passenger info
systems, fluid power,
inclinometers, medical
devices, truck gateways,
weaving machines, road
construction, building door
control, lift control, battery
chargers, extruders, injectors,
municipal vehicles
("ClEanOpen").

Other protocols that MPI (Multi-Point Interface) from none CANOpen, SDS CAL (CAN Application Layer), The French "J-Bus" is not -
resemble it Siemens (like FDL). the predecessor of officially a Modbus-1
CAN/Open. variant, but for 99%
compatible.
Specification of basic Only for members of the user's Yes for FF members. See Only for members of the Only for members of the Yes, can be downloaded Yes, can be downloaded from
protocol free? group; otherwise must be http://www.fieldbus.org user's group; otherwise must user's group. Others can get from the website. the IEEE website
bought. be bought. the previous version for free www.ieee.org
from the website.

Specification of profiles No, must be bought from the For Function Block specs, see Only for members of the Yes, can be downloaded -
free? user's group. http://www.fieldbus.org user's group. Others can get from the website.
the previous version for free
from the website.

Stability of the system? FMS is stable since about 10 H1 is very stable, and has High High, although the CAN/Open High. High; the versions developed
years, but may be phased out. been implemented by all major specification is known to be 20 years ago are still
All new developments since process industry suppliers. The unclear at some points. compatible.
about 8 years are for DP and first HSE products have
PA. ProfiNet is a completely new entered the market.
development.

Books about this system? Yes; 1 book about FMS See publications from ISA and Several and many books Three books specifically for - 5; there are many other books,
(German / English), but sold out. FF about CAN also discuss this CAN/Open, but many books but these are usually written
About a dozen books about DP protocol. about CAN also discuss this for the office-user of Ethernet.
(mostly German, some English). protocol.
© 2004 R.A. Hulsebos.
Contributions from Michael Foundation
Bryant, ProfiBus and Paul
Griem, Foundation Fieldbus Profibus Fieldbus H1 DeviceNet CANOpen Modbus-1 Ethernet
Available as shareware or No No No No, except for a partial Yes (various). Also not very -
open source? implementation by difficult to implement
www.esacademy.com/ yourself.
Most important PA: Foundation Fieldbus. DP: Profibus PA CanOpen Profibus/DP, DeviceNet. - -
competitor(s) Interbus, CAN.
Major supporting company Siemens (Germany) Allen-Bradley, Cutler-Hammer, - Schneider -
Omron
Notes - Intended as the successor to CAN/Open is an extension of - Ethernet itself is not a network,
4-20 mA for process control the older "CAL" (CAN only a way of cabling. A higher-
devices such as transmitters, Application Layer) whose level protocol (ProfiNet, IDA,
valves, controllers specification was lacking, too Ethernet/IP, Modbus/TCP, etc.
formal and too difficult to etc. etc.) is always needed.
understand for many users.

Usage
Applicable for Yes Yes Yes Yes. No. No, hardware too large.
sensor/actuator I/O?
Applicable for remote I/O? Yes (DP only). Yes (HSE) Yes Yes. Yes. Yes.

Applicable for Yes (FMS for communication Intended for process control No Yes. Yes, but officially only for Yes.
communication between between controllers, PA for field devices such as transmitters, Modicon / Schneider
controllers, PC's, and/or instruments). valves, controllers controllers, although many
intelligent equipment? other controller vendors
also support Modbus.

Application areas Discrete industry (DP), process Process industry Material Handling, SEMI Many (see list of profiles Discrete industry, process Office automation; higher
industry (PA) above). industry. levels of industrial networks.

Availability of interface Yes, several vendors. Yes, several vendors. Yes, several vendors Yes, several vendors. Not needed when RS232 Most modern PC’s come with
cards for PC's is used; for RS422/485 a an integrated Ethernet on the
converter can be used or a motherboard.
normal PC plug-in board.

Driver Availability Comes with the PC card or the Yes In many cases the Comes with Windows or Linux
PLC. For DP, a network Windows or Linux support (virtually for free).
configuration package is also suffices.
needed.

Cabling
© 2004 R.A. Hulsebos.
Contributions from Michael Foundation
Bryant, ProfiBus and Paul
Griem, Foundation Fieldbus Profibus Fieldbus H1 DeviceNet CANOpen Modbus-1 Ethernet
Cable 2-wire. 2-wire 5-wire 2-wire. Commonly used are either Coax (10Base2, 10Base5), 4-
RS232 or RS422/485, wire twisted pair (10BaseT,
although this is not 100BaseTX).
formally specified.

Cable color Purple (DP), blue (PA). Orange/blue (H1) gray Not specified. Not specified. Yellow (coax 10Base5), black
HSE uses Ethernet cabling (coax 10Base2), or usually
grey for all other variants.

Redundant cabling Not yet (only specification for H1 is not intended for No No. Depends on vendor. Yes .
possible? redundant slaves is now redundant cabling.
available). HSE can use several types of
redundant Ethernet networks

Fiber optic possible? Yes (via repeaters). Yes (via repeaters). Yes (via repeaters). Yes, depends on vendor. Yes, depends on vendor. Yes.

Power supply for nodes on Via separate connection Yes, via the communication Yes Via separate connection. Not specified. Via separate connection.
the network (FMS,DP). With PA via the wires.
network itself.
Connector 9-pins sub-D connector (most Normal instrument wiring Many available 9-pins sub-D connector (most Not specified; often 9-pin 15-pins sub-D (10Base5), BNC
common); other connectors practice is typically used. common); other connectors sub-D is used, but the (10Base2), RJ45 (10BaseT,
possible. Connectors are available. possible. pinning is always different. 100BaseTX).

Topology Bus (FMS, DP, PA), or chicken Bus, chicken foot Bus Bus. Bus. Bus (10Base2, 10Base5), star
feet (PA). (10BaseT, 100BaseTX).

Termination 3 resistors at both ends of the Terminators are available Resistor of 120 Ohm at both Resistor of 120 Ohm at both Not specified, depends on 1 resistor at both ends of cable
cable (FMS, DP). Combination embedded in termination ends of the cable. ends of the cable. supplier (when using (10Base2, 10Base5 only).
of R and C (PA). blocks or as separate modules RS422/485).

Vulnerability for incorrect Nodes with terminators may not Operation with incorrect Too many or too few can Nodes with terminators may Nodes with terminators None.
termination be switched off or be removed termination is not defined, but degrade network performance not be removed from the may not be switched off or
from the network. H1 network might operate network (however they may be removed from the
depending on number of nodes be switched off). network (not applicable for
and cable length RS232).

Signal transmission According RS485 (FMS, DP) or IEC 61158 According CAN datalink layer According RS232 or Ethernet specific.
IEC 61158/2 (PA). specified in ISO 11898. RS422/485.
© 2004 R.A. Hulsebos.
Contributions from Michael Foundation
Bryant, ProfiBus and Paul
Griem, Foundation Fieldbus Profibus Fieldbus H1 DeviceNet CANOpen Modbus-1 Ethernet
Maximum length (without 1200 m. Nominally 1900m. Depends on 500 m According RS232 (15… 500m (10Base5), 200m
using repeaters). type of power system 60m), or RS422/485 (10Base2), 100m (10BaseT,
(1200m). 100BaseTX).
Speed (bit rate) 9.6 / 19.2 / 93.75 / 187.5 / 500 H1 is 31.25 kbps only 125K, 250K, 500K Network 10 / 20 / 50 / 125 / 250 / 500 / Not specified; usually not 10 Mbit/s (10Base2, 10Base5,
Kbit/s (FMS), DP like FMS but HSE runs at Ethernet length varies inversely 800 Kbit/s and 1 Mbit/s. higher than 38,4 Kbit/s and 10BaseT) or 100 Mbit/s
also supports 45.45 Kbits and rates, nominally 100 Mbps most often only 19,2 or 9,6 (100BaseTX).
1.5 / 3 / 6 / 12 Mbit/s; PA only Kbit/s (lower speeds are
supports 31.25 Kbit/s. also possible).

Stubs possible? Yes, with limitations (up to 1.5 H1 spurs can be up to 200m Yes. Yes. Yes. Yes (only 10Base5)
Mbit/s only).
Repeaters possible? Yes, maximum 3 according to H1 can have up to 4 repeaters Yes Yes, although the CAN timing Yes, according to Yes, but nowadays usually
standard, but more (up to per IEC 61158 requirements are very strict RS422/485 specification. hubs or switches are used.
10..20) possible in practice and repeaters are not very
(supplier-dependant!). commonly found.

Maximum length (when 10 km (copper), more than 90 9.5 km Not known. Not applicable.
using repeaters). km (fiber optic).
Speed configuration Via local switches or software not required Via local switches or software Via local switches or software Via local switches or Not possible.
configuration; DP sometimes configuration. configuration. software configuration.
have an autobaud feature. Not
needed for PA (only has 1
speed).

Nodes
Maximum number of nodes 32 (limitation of RS485). Typically 8-16; depends on 64 64. 2 (with RS232) or 32 Practically no limits.
without using repeaters power consumption of nodes (RS422/485).
and type of power system

Maximum number of nodes 126 (= maximum 125 slaves + 1 Typically 8-16; depends on 64 127. 2 (with RS232), 250 Practically no limits.
with use of repeaters. master). power consumption of nodes (RS422/485).
and type of power system

Network address Via local switches, or sometimes via the network Via local switches or software Via local switches or software Via local switches of Not necessary.
configuration. via the network itself (DP). configuration. configuration. software.

Network address None (FMS), 126 (DP/PA) in a set of temporary addresses 1 None. Not necessary. Every Ethernet-node has a
configured "out of the box". case no local switches are is reserved for devices joining worldwide unique 48-bit
available. the H1 network address (MAC-address).
© 2004 R.A. Hulsebos.
Contributions from Michael Foundation
Bryant, ProfiBus and Paul
Griem, Foundation Fieldbus Profibus Fieldbus H1 DeviceNet CANOpen Modbus-1 Ethernet
Communication relations Multi-master (FMS), publisher-subscriber and Master/Slave, Multi-master, Many Master/slave. Multi-master, but higher
between nodes. master/slave (DP/PA), client-server Producer/Consumer protocol layers can limit this.
producer/consumer (DP/V2).
Message destination. Point-to-point, multicast and Point-to-point, multicast and Point-to-point, multicast and Point-to-point, broadcast. Point-to-point, broadcast. Point-to-point, multicast and
broadcast possible. broadcast possible. broadcast possible. broadcast possible.
Broadcast implementation. Use network address 127. See FF specifications Via special CAN identifiers. Use network address 0. Via MAC-address
Note that this is very often FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF
not implemented in a
slave.

Network management. Via token-ring between masters; Via one of the Link Masters Master/Slave Master/slave; but slaves may Master/slave. CSMA/CD for 10Base5 and
otherwise master/slave. becoming the Link Active communicate amongst each 10Base2, and 10BaseT with
Scheduler other via special CAN hubs. Software may determine
identifiers. additional management
strategies (such as token-bus,
master/slave, etc.).

Maximum number of No limitation (in practice usually No limit; at least 2 in practice, 1 (but the network- 1. No limitation.
masters. no more than 1). often 3-4 management master can be a
different node than the
application master).

Messaging
Maximum data in one 241 bytes (FMS), 244 bytes 244 bytes 8 bytes 8 bytes (in a so-called 250 bytes (=125 registers 1500 bytes.
message (DP,PA) "Process Data Object"). or 2000 single bits).

Minimum data in one 0 bytes. 0 bytes. 0 bytes 0 bytes. 0 bytes. 46 bytes.


message
Overhead per message 9 bytes (SD2), plus 3 bits per see IEC 61158 and FF 47 bits, plus a variable 38 bytes, plus minimal 46
byte. Also short transmit pause specifications number of stuff bits (average bytes in the data field. For
between messages. ca. 5) depending on the small amounts of data a
message contents. minimum message is thus 672
bits long.

Number of messages 2*n (for inputs and for outputs). 2*n (for inputs and for outputs). Minimum 2*n (for inputs and Minimum 2*n (for inputs and 4*n (for inputs and for 2*n (for inputs and for outputs).
needed for handling 'n' for outputs). However it is for outputs). However it is outputs, which must be
remote I/O modules possible to work event-driven, possible to work event-driven, handled via two separate
so with stable data less so with stable data less commands). Optionally
messages need to be sent. messages need to be sent. 2*n, if the combined
read/write command is
used (often not supported).
© 2004 R.A. Hulsebos.
Contributions from Michael Foundation
Bryant, ProfiBus and Paul
Griem, Foundation Fieldbus Profibus Fieldbus H1 DeviceNet CANOpen Modbus-1 Ethernet
Fault detection Balanced transmission per bit; see IEC 61158 and FF Balanced transmission per bit; Balanced transmission per Paritybit per byte 32 bit CRC per message.
parity bit per byte; 8 bits specifications 15 bits CRC per message; bit; 15 bits CRC per message; (optional); 8 bit checksum
checksum per message; automatic error counters with automatic error counters with per message (ASCII) or 16
Hamming distance 4 on first and bus-off after exceeding limits. bus-off after exceeding limits. bit CRC (RTU).
last byte of a message.

Number of retries after a Configurable 1..8. configurable configurable Indefinite (automatically Not specified; it is vendor- None (to be handled by higher
fault is detected. handled by the CAN controller specific and this usually protocol layers).
chip). means that application
program must handle the
retries by itself.

Remote I/O
Cycle time calculation Calculate number of bits CAN/Open has no standard Modbus has no standard Per remote I/O node this costs
transmission for inputs of slave, for this, therefor it is for it, therefor it is 672 bits per message. Multiply
and also for the outputs. Add impossible to calculate a impossible to calculate a this by twice the number of
overhead: twice 9 bytes, and cycle time in advance. The cycle time in advance. slaves, and divide by 10 or
add master and slave pause best case cycle time is Basically one can cycle I/O 100 Mbit/s. This is the
which are bit rate dependent. calculated by having 2 PDO's with separate commands theoretical best cycle time (at
Add 3 bits overhead per byte. (for inputs and outputs) per for read and for write of 100% network load). In
Do this for all slaves, and sum device in every cycle. To this inputs and outputs, or with practice software delays cause
the outcome. Divide by the bit the master-overhead (vendor one command for much longer (slower) cycle
rate. This gives a theoretically dependent) should be added. combined reading and times.
best cycle time. writing. This can either be
done in ASCII or RTU,
giving 4 different methods
to calculate a cycle time.

Analogue I/O possible Yes. yes yes Yes. Yes. Yes.


Maximum I/O per node 244 bytes for inputs and 244 There is no limit on the number 8 Bytes data per event; 250 bytes for inputs and 1500 bytes for inputs and 1500
bytes for outputs in any of I/O a node may have multiple events per node are 250 bytes for outputs in bytes for outputs in any
combination analogue / digital. possible depending on the any combination combination analogue / digital.
vendor. analogue / digital.
© 2004 R.A. Hulsebos.
Contributions from Michael Foundation
Bryant, ProfiBus and Paul
Griem, Foundation Fieldbus Profibus Fieldbus H1 DeviceNet CANOpen Modbus-1 Ethernet
Configuration FMS is not standardized; the All FF devices have Device Electronic Data Sheet (EDS) Each node has an "Object No standard known. No standard known.
specification for using GSD files Description files, by which they Dictionary", which is usually
is hardly implemented. DP is are configured by FF hosts set by the vendor. The master
configured via GSD files and a is often configured via
network-configurator. PA idem, configuration files for each
and it also has EDD files. node, but this is not strictly
necessary.

Diagnostics at the network Which nodes are present and of FF hosts report devices Yes Which nodes are present Not specified (vendor None (to be handled by higher
level what type (active or passive). entering/leaving network, ("node guarding"). specific). protocol layers).
Counters for transmission communication errors, etc.
errors, etc.

Diagnostics at the node Part standard diagnostics bits IEC 61158 and FF specs Yes A diagnostic command is None (handled by higher
level (specified by DP); remainder is define several diagnostics specified, although very protocol layers).
supplier-specific or profile- often it is not implemented,
specific.

Vulnerabilities Nodes with terminators that are Incorrect termination; improper Improper termination, short Improper termination, short Nodes with terminators Failure of hub/switch
removed or switched off; short- grounding; short-circuit on the circuit of bus, duplicate circuit of bus, duplicate that are removed or (10BaseT, 100BaseT); or
circuit on the bus; dual use of bus addressing addressing switched off; short-circuit failure of the power-supply of
network-addresses. on the bus; dual use of that equipment.
network-addresses.

Can I/O nodes be removed Yes; this is detected. Yes, that is expected and Yes; this is detected (if Yes; this is detected (if Yes; this is detected if the Yes, but detection must be
from a running network? detected. switched on for that node). switched on for that node). master regularly done in higher protocol layers.
communicate with that
node (a timeout is the
result).

Can I/O nodes be Yes. If node was configured Yes, that is expected and Yes, if previously configured. Yes (but there are Yes. Is possible when supported by
connected to a running earlier, it is activated again. detected. protocolstacks that depend on higher protocol layers.
system? the application to handle this).

What happens when a Ignored. Its presence is reported, but it iIgnored Ignored. Ignored. Depends on higher protocol
node is connected that is is not used until configured layers.
not configured?
Synchronous reading of Yes; but only if supported by Yes - - Is possible when supported by
inputs possible? supplier (it is an option in DP). higher protocol layers.
Not possible in FMS.
Synchronous activation of Yes; but only if supported by Yes - - Is possible when supported by
outputs possible? supplier (it is an option in DP). higher protocol layers.
Not possible in FMS.