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# Chapter 3 – Torsion TORSIONAL SHEARING STRESS, τ

## For a solid or hollow circular shaft subject to a twisting moment T, the

torsional shearing stress τ at a distance ρ from the center of the shaft is
Torsion

 angle of twist 𝑇𝜌 𝑇𝑟

𝜏= and 𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 =
power transmitted by a shaft 𝐽 𝐽
 torsion
 torsional shearing stress
where J is the polar moment of inertia of the section and r is the outer radius.
TORSION
Consider a bar to be rigidly attached at one end and twisted at the other end
by a torque or twisting moment T equivalent to F × d, which is applied For solid cylindrical shaft:
𝜋 16𝑇
perpendicular to the axis of the bar, as shown in the figure. Such a bar is said
𝐽= 𝐷4 𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝜋𝐷3
to be in torsion. 32

## For hollow cylindrical shaft:

𝜋
𝐽= (𝐷 4 − 𝑑 4 )
32

16𝑇𝐷
𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥
𝜋 (𝐷 4 − 𝑑 4 )
ANGLE OF TWIST Problem 305
What is the minimum diameter of a solid steel shaft that will not twist through
The angle θ through which the bar length L will twist is more than 3° in a 6-m length when subjected to a torque of 12 kN·m? What
maximum shearing stress is developed? Use G = 83 GPa.
𝑇𝐿
𝐽𝐺
Solution
𝑇𝐿
𝜃=
where T is the torque in N·mm, L is the length of shaft in mm, G is shear 𝐽𝐺
modulus in MPa, J is the polar moment of inertia in mm 4, D and d are 𝜋 12(6)(10003 )
3𝑜 ( )= 1
diameter in mm, and r is the radius in mm. 180𝑜 𝜋𝑑 4 (83000)
32

𝑑 = 113.98 𝑚𝑚
POWER TRANSMITTED BY THE SHAFT
A shaft rotating with a constant angular velocity ω (in radians per second) is 16𝑇 16(12)(10003 )
𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = = 41.27 𝑀𝑃𝑎
being acted by a twisting moment T. The power transmitted by the shaft is 𝜋𝑑 3 𝜋(113.983 )

## 𝑷 = 𝑻𝝎 = 𝟐𝝅𝑻𝒇 Problem 306

A steel marine propeller shaft 14 in. in diameter and 18 ft long is used to
transmit 5000 hp at 189 rpm. If G = 12 × 106 psi, determine the maximum
where T is the torque in N·m, f is the number of revolutions per second, and
shearing stress.
P is the power in watts.

Solution 306
Problem 304
𝑃 5000(396000)
A steel shaft 3 ft long that has a diameter of 4 in is subjected to a torque of 𝑇= = = 1667337.5 𝑙𝑏 ∙ 𝑖𝑛
2𝜋𝑓 2𝜋(189)
15 kip·ft. Determine the maximum shearing stress and the angle of twist. Use
G = 12 × 106 psi.
16𝑇 16(1667337.5)
Solution 304 𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = = 3094.6 𝑝𝑠𝑖
𝜋𝑑 3 16(14)3
16𝑇 16(15)(1000)(12)
𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = = 14324 𝑝𝑠𝑖 = 14.3 𝑘𝑠𝑖
𝜋𝐷3 𝜋(43 )

𝑇𝐿 15(3)(1000)(122 )
𝜃= = 1 = 0.0215 𝑟𝑎𝑑 = 1.23𝑜
𝐽𝐺 4 6
𝜋(4 )(12 𝑥 10 )
32
Torsion of thin-walled tube Solution 337
The torque applied to thin-walled tubes is expressed as 𝑇 = 2𝐴𝑡𝜏

## Where: 𝑇 = 600 𝑁 ∙ 𝑚, 𝐴 = 30(80) = 2400 𝑚𝑚2 , 𝜏 = 80 𝑀𝑃𝑎

𝑁
600000 𝑁 ∙ 𝑚𝑚 = 2(2400 𝑚𝑚2 (𝑡) (80 )
𝑚𝑚2
𝑡 = 1.5625 𝑚𝑚

where T is the torque in N·mm, A is the area enclosed by the center line of At any convenient center O within the section, the farthest side is the
shortest side, thus, it is induced with the maximum allowable shear stress of
the tube (as shown in the stripe-filled portion) in mm 2, and q is the shear flow 80 MPa.
in N/mm.

## The average shearing stress across any thickness t is:

Problem 338
𝑞 𝑇
𝜏= = A tube 0.10 in. thick has an elliptical shape shown in Fig. P-338. What torque
𝑡 2𝐴𝑡
will cause a shearing stress of 8000 psi?

## Thus, torque T can also be expressed as:

𝑇 = 2𝐴𝑡𝜏

Problem 337
A torque of 600 N·m is applied to the rectangular section shown in Fig. P-337.
Determine the wall thickness t so as not to exceed a shear stress of 80 MPa.
What is the shear stress in the short sides? Neglect stress concentration at
So
the corners.
Where: 𝐴 = 𝜋𝑎𝑏 = 𝜋(3)(1.5) = 4.5𝜋 𝑖𝑛2

𝑇 = 2𝐴𝑡𝜏
𝑡 = 0.10 𝑖𝑛, 𝜏 = 8000 𝑝𝑠𝑖

𝑇 = 2(4.5𝜋)(0.10)(8000) = 22619.47 𝑙𝑏 ∙ 𝑖𝑛

## 𝑇 = 22.62 𝑘𝑖𝑝 ∙ 𝑖𝑛 answer

Problem 339 Problem 340
A torque of 450 lb·ft is applied to the square section shown in Fig. P-339. A tube 2 mm thick has the shape shown in Fig. P-340. Find the shearing
Determine the smallest permissible dimension a if the shearing stress is stress caused by a torque of 600 N·m.
limited to 6000 psi.

𝑇 = 2𝐴𝑡𝜏 𝑇 = 2𝐴𝑡𝜏
𝑇 = 450 𝑙𝑏 ∙ 𝑓𝑡 = 450 (12)𝑙𝑏 ∙ 𝑖𝑛 = 5400 𝑙𝑏 ∙ 𝑖𝑛 𝐴 = 𝜋(10)2 + 80(20) = 1914.16 𝑚𝑚2
𝐴 = 𝑎2 600 000 𝑁 ∙ 𝑚𝑚 = 2 (1914.16 𝑚𝑚2 )(2 𝑚𝑚)𝜏
Solution: 𝜏 = 78.36 𝑀𝑃𝑎 answer
𝑙𝑏
5400 𝑙𝑏 ∙ 𝑖𝑛 = 2 (𝑎2 )(0.10 𝑖𝑛) (6000 )
𝑖𝑛2
For rigid flanges, the shear deformations in the bolts are proportional to their
Flanged bolt couplings
radial distances from the shaft axis. The shearing strains are related by

##  flanged bolt coupling 𝛾1 𝛾2

=
 torque 𝑅1 𝑅2
 torsional shearing stress 𝜏
Using Hooke's law for shear,𝐺 = , we have
𝛾
In shaft connection called flanged bolt couplings (see figure), the torque is
𝑃1 𝑃2
transmitted by the shearing force P created in he bolts that is assumed to be 𝜏1 𝜏2 𝐴1 𝐴2
= 𝑜𝑟 =
uniformly distributed. For any number of bolts n, the torque capacity of the 𝐺1 𝑅1 𝐺2 𝑅2 𝐺1 𝑅1 𝐺2 𝑅2
coupling is
If the bolts on the two circles have the same area, 𝐴1 = 𝐴2 , and if the bolts
are made of the same material,𝐺1 = 𝐺2 , the relation between 𝑃1 and 𝑃2
reduces to:

𝑃1 𝑃2
=
𝑅1 𝑅2

Problem 326
A flanged bolt coupling consists of ten 20-mm-diameter bolts spaced evenly
around a bolt circle 400 mm in diameter. Determine the torque capacity of
the coupling if the allowable shearing stress in the bolts is 40 MPa.

𝜋𝑑2
𝑇 = 𝑃𝑅𝑛 = 𝜏𝑅𝑛 Solution 326
4
If a coupling has two concentric rows of bolts, the torque capacity is 1
𝑇 = 𝑃𝑅𝑛 = 𝐴𝜏𝑅𝑛 = 𝜋𝑑2 𝜏𝑅𝑛
4
𝑇 = 𝑃1 𝑅1 𝑛1 + 𝑃2 𝑅2 𝑛2 1 2 (40)(200)(10)
𝑇 = 𝜋(20)
4
Where: 𝑇 = 8,000,000 𝜋 𝑁 ∙ 𝑚 = 25.13 𝑘𝑁 ∙ 𝑚
the subscript 1 refer to bolts
on the outer circle and answer
subscript 2 refer to bolts on
the inner circle. See figure
Problem 331
Problem 328 A flanged bolt coupling consists of six ½-in. steel bolts evenly spaced around
A flanged bolt coupling consists of eight 10-mm-diameter steel bolts on a bolt a bolt circle 12 in. in diameter, and four ¾-in. aluminum bolts on a concentric
circle 400 mm in diameter, and six 10-mm-diameter steel bolts on a bolt circle 8 in. in diameter. What torque can be applied without exceeding
concentric bolt circle 300 mm in diameter, as shown in Fig. 3-7. What torque 9000 psi in the steel or 6000 psi in the aluminum? Assume Gst = 12 × 106 psi
can be applied without exceeding a shearing stress of 60 MPa in the bolts? and Gal = 4 × 106 psi.

Solution 331
𝑇 = (𝑃𝑅𝑛)𝑠𝑡 + (𝑃𝑅𝑛)𝑎𝑙
𝑇 = (𝐴𝜏𝑅𝑛)𝑠𝑡 + (𝐴𝜏𝑅𝑛)𝑎𝑙
Solution 328
1 1 2 1 3 2
For one bolt in the outer circle: 𝑇 = [( ) 𝜋 ( ) 𝜏𝑠𝑡 (6)(6)] + [( ) 𝜋 ( ) 𝜏𝑎𝑙 (4)(4)]
4 2 4 4
𝜋(10)2 𝑇 = 2.25𝜋𝜏𝑠𝑡 + 2.25𝜋𝜏𝑎𝑙
𝑃1 = 𝐴𝜏 = (60) = 1500𝜋
4 𝑇 = 2.25𝜋(𝜏𝑠𝑡 + 𝜏𝑎𝑙 ) → (1)

## For one bolt in the inner circle: 𝜏 𝜏

( ) =( )
𝐺𝑅 𝑠𝑡 𝐺𝑅 𝑎𝑙
𝑃1 𝑃2
= 𝜏𝑠𝑡 𝜏𝑎𝑙
𝑅1 𝑅2 =
(12 𝑥 106 )(6) (4 𝑥 106 )(4)
1500𝜋 𝑃2 9
= 𝜏𝑠𝑡 = 𝜏 → (2𝑎)
200 150 2 𝑎𝑙
2
𝑃2 = 1125𝜋 𝑁 𝜏𝑎𝑙 = 𝜏𝑎𝑙 → (2𝑏)
9
Equations (1) and (2a)
𝑇 = 𝑃1 𝑅1 𝑛1 + 𝑃2 𝑅2 𝑛2
9
𝑇 = 2.25𝜋 ( 𝜏𝑎𝑙 + 𝜏𝑎𝑙 ) = 12.375𝜋𝜏𝑎𝑙
𝑇 = 1500𝜋(200)(8) + 1125𝜋(150)(6) 2
𝑇 = 12.375𝜋(6000) = 74250𝜋 𝑙𝑏 ∙ 𝑖𝑛
𝑇 = 3,412,500𝜋 𝑁 ∙ 𝑚𝑚 = 3.4125𝜋 𝑘𝑁 ∙ 𝑚 = 10.72 𝑘𝑁
𝑇 = 233.26 𝑘𝑖𝑝 ∙ 𝑖𝑛

## Equations (1) and (2b)

2
𝑇 = 2.25𝜋 (𝜏𝑠𝑡 + 𝜏𝑠𝑡 ) = 2.75𝜋𝜏𝑠𝑡 = 2.75𝜋(9000) = 77.75𝑘𝑖𝑝 ∙ 𝑖𝑛
9
For heavy springs and considering the curvature of the spring, a more
precise formula is given by: (A.M. Wahl Formula)
Helical Springs 16𝑃𝑅 4𝑚 − 1 0.615
𝜏= ( + )
𝜋𝑑3 4𝑚 − 4 𝑚
 helical spring
𝟒𝒎−𝟏
 helix where m is called the spring index and
𝟒𝒎−𝟒
is the Wahl Factor
 spring constant
The elongation of the bar is
 springs in parallel
 springs in series 64𝑃𝑅 3 𝑛

𝛿=
torsion 𝐺𝑑4
 When close-coiled helical spring, composed of a wire of round rod of
diameter d wound into a helix of mean radius R with n number of
Notice that the deformation δ is directly proportional to the applied load P.
turns, is subjected to an axial load P produces the following stresses
The ratio of P to δ is called the spring constant k and is equal to
and elongation:
𝑃 𝐺𝑑 4 𝑁
𝑘= =
𝛿 64𝑅3 𝑛 𝑚𝑚

Springs in Series
For two or more springs with spring laid in series, the resulting spring
constant k is given by

The maximum shearing stress is the sum of the direct shearing stress 𝝉𝟏 =
𝑷 𝑻𝒓
and the torsional shearing stress 𝝉𝟐 = , with 𝑻 = 𝑷𝑹
𝑨 𝑱

𝑷 𝟏𝟔𝑷𝑹 𝟏𝟔𝑷𝑹 𝒅
𝝉 = 𝝉𝟏 + 𝝉𝟐 = + = (𝟏 + )
𝝅𝒅𝟐 𝝅𝒅𝟑 𝝅𝒅𝟑 𝟒𝑹 1 1 1
𝟒 = + + …
𝑘 𝑘1 𝑘2
This formula neglects the curvature of the spring. This is used for light spring
𝒅
where the ratio is small
𝟒𝑹
where k1, k2,... are the spring constants for different springs.
Springs in Parallel Problem 344
Determine the maximum shearing stress and elongation in a bronze helical
For two or more springs in parallel, the resulting spring constant is
spring composed of 20 turns of 1.0-in.-diameter wire on a mean radius of 4
in. when the spring is supporting a load of 500 lb. Use Eq. (3-10) and

G = 6 × 106 psi.

Solution 344
16𝑃𝑅 4𝑚−1 0.615
𝜏= 𝜋𝑑3 (4𝑚−4 + 𝑚
) → 𝐸𝑞. (3 − 10)

𝒌 = 𝒌𝟏 + 𝒌𝟐 + ⋯
Where
P = 500 lb; R = 4 in
Problem 343 d = 1 in; n = 20 turns
2𝑅 2(4)
Determine the maximum shearing stress and elongation in a helical steel m= = =8
𝑑 1
spring composed of 20 turns of 20-mm-diameter wire on a mean radius of 90
mm when the spring is supporting a load of 1.5 kN. Use Eq. (3-10) and 16(500)(4) 4(8)−1 0.615
𝜏= 𝜋(1)3
(4(8)−4 + 8
) = 12,060.3 𝑝𝑠𝑖 = 12.06 𝑘𝑠𝑖
G = 83 GPa.

## 16𝑃𝑅 4𝑚−1 0.615 64𝑃𝑅 3 𝑛 64(500)(4)3 (20)

𝜏= 𝜋𝑑3 (4𝑚−4 + 𝑚
) → 𝐸𝑞. (3 − 10) 𝛿= = = 6.83 𝑖𝑛.
𝐺𝑑4 (6 𝑥 106 )(1)4
Where:
P = 1.5 kN = 1500 N; R = 90 mm
d = 20 mm; n = 20 turns
2𝑅 2(90)
m= = =9
𝑑 20

## 16(1500)(90) 4(9)−1 0.615

𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = [4(9)−4 + ] = 99.87 𝑀𝑃𝑎
𝜋(20)3 9
64𝑃𝑅 3 𝑛 64(1500)(90)3 (20)
𝛿= 𝐺𝑑4
= (83 𝑥 103 )(20)4
= 105.4 𝑚𝑚