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I. Noun – name of a person, place, thing, animals, events, or ideas

Ex. My family booked a flight to Africa.
Gendered Nouns
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Man Woman Person
Husband Wife Spouse

Countable and Uncountable Nouns

Ex. Marie has three dogs. Countable
Beauty is in the eye of the beholder.

Compound Nouns
First part: type or purpose Second part: what or who Compound noun
police man policeman

II. Pronoun – a replacement of a noun

Ex. They booked a flight to Africa.
Definite Pronouns- ex. I, you, he, she, it, they

Indefinite Pronouns-ex. everyone, someone, nobody

III. Adjective – describes a noun or a pronoun

Ex. An ancient painting was found in a burial site.
Ordering Multiple Objectives:
ex. four charming tall young Chinese women (quantity-opinion-size-origin-material)

Participles- words that are formed from verbs but function as adjectives
 Words that are formed from verbs but act as adjectives.
 End with “-ing”, “-d”, “-t”, or “-n”
 Ex. shooting star, broken heart

IV. Verb – shows action or state of being (Be verbs: am, is, are, was, were)
Ex. The security responded in the crime scene.
We are there to witness the thrill.
Present Tense:
1. Simple Present Tense- ex. They walk home.
2. Present Progressive Tense- ex. They are walking home.
Past Tense:
1. Simple Past Tense- Kim lived in China in 1990.
2. Past Progressive Tense- I was reading the book.
Future Tense:
1. Simple Future- I will go to the beach next weekend.
2. Future Progressive- I will be travelling to Maasin by a bus.
Perfect Tenses:
1. Present Perfect- I have lived here since 1991.
2. Present Perfect Progressive- I have been living here for years.
3. Past Perfect- I had been to Pangasugan river for several times.
4. Past Perfect Progressive- I had been watching Korean dramas for some time.
5. Future Perfect- We will have arrived in the airport by the time you receive my message.
6. Future Perfect Progressive- By the end of this lecture, you will have been studying English
Gerund- I like dancing.
Infinitive- to + base form of verb

V. Adverb – describes a verb, adjective and another adverb

Ex. The hungry king eats greedily.

VI. Preposition – specifies a location or a location in time

Ex. She accidentally left her phone under her table.
Manny Pacquiao’s fans never stopped cheering him during the final round.

VII. Conjunction – connects words, phrases, or clauses (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)
Ex. This room is very crowded and noisy.

VIII. Interjection – expresses emotions

Ex. Wow! We have a lot of things to discuss today.

Sentence Patterns

1. Subject + Verb (S-V)

 Abraham speaks fluently. (subject, verb, adverb)

 There were no leftovers after the buffet. (verb, subject, adverb)

2. Subject + Verb + Direct Object (S-V-DO)

 Andrew composes music. (subject, verb, direct object.)

3. Subject + Verb + Complement (S-V-SC)

 Mother looks tired. (subject, verb, complement--predicate adjective)

4. Subject + Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object (S-V-IO-DO)

 I sent her a birthday present. (subject, verb, indirect object, direct object)
 Granny gave every last asset to Gary. (subject, verb, direct object, indirect object in a
prepositional phrase)

5. Subject + Verb + Direct Object + Object Complement (S-V-DO-OC)

 Debbie left the window open during the rain storm. (subject, verb, direct object, object
complement, adverb)


General Rule: The verb should always agree with the subject in terms of number.
Ex. She lives in Baybay City.
Most students live in dormitories inside the campus.

Specific Rules:
1. Compound subject joined by ‘and’ uses plural verb except when considered to be a single subject
Ex. Hams and eggs are expensive in the market today.
The ham and egg sandwich in the cafeteria is expensive.

2. Intervening phrases after the subject does not affect the number of the verb
Ex. Mr. Helmar Ycong and Ms. Louisa Marie Andrade, teachers from College of
Education, are some of the reviewers today.

3. Singular indefinite pronouns use singular verbs and plural indefinite pronouns use plural verbs
(singular indefinite pronouns) each, either, neither, everyone, any, anyone, someone,
everybody, anybody, somebody

Ex. Is anybody home?

(plural indefinite pronouns) few, several, many, both

Ex. Few are willing to donate money for the poor.

4. The expression ‘the number’ takes a singular verb while the expression ‘a number’ takes a plural
Ex. The number of participants in this year’s review is staggering.
A number of participants are absent today.

5. Time expression, numbers, mathematical abstractions, and units of measurement take singular
Ex. One thousand pesos is not much in today’s monetary value.

6. The number of the verb for a fraction depends on whether the noun in the of- phrase is singular
or plural
Ex. Half of his house needs repairs after Yolanda.
Half of the houses in our subdivision need repairs after Yolanda.

7. ‘You’ always uses the plural form of the verb
Ex. You are an astonishing performer.
You, not I, are to be blamed.

1. Use commas to separate ideas or elements in the sentence
Ex. The subjects to be reviewed today are Math, English, and Social Science.

2. Use a comma in direct address

Ex. Let’s eat, Lola.

3. Use a pair of commas in the middle of a sentence to set off clauses, phrases, and words that
are not essential to the meaning of the sentence. Use one comma before to indicate the
beginning of the pause and one at the end to indicate the end of the pause
Ex. Mitzi’s car, a red Chevrolet, needs new tires.

4. Use commas after introductory clauses, phrases, or words that come before the main clause
Ex. Because of his previous lies, his classmates no longer trust him.

5. Use commas to separate independent clauses when they are joined by any of these seven
coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet
Ex. The new house has a large backyard, so I am sure our dogs will enjoy it.

Doctors are concerned about the rising death rate from asthma, but they don't
know the reasons for it.

6. Use a comma to shift between the main discourse and a quotation

Ex. "Yes," she promised.

Todd asked, "Will you be back this afternoon?"

Quotation Marks
1. Use quotation marks to set off a direct speech
Ex. “Where are we going to eat lunch?” she asks.

1. Use a colon at the end of a business letter greeting.
Ex. To whom it may concern:

2. Use a colon after an independent clause when it is followed by a list, a quotation, or other
idea directly related to the independent clause.
Ex. Julie went to the store for some groceries: milk, bread, coffee, and cheese.

3. Use a colon to emphasize a phrase or word at the end of the sentence

Ex. The jury had reached a decision: not guilty.
1. Use a semicolon to connect two independent clauses that are closely related or in contrast
with one another
Ex. She eats a lot of vegetables; it improves her metabolism rate so that she’ll lose
weight faster.

2. Use a semicolon to join two independent clauses when the second clause begins with a
conjunctive adverb (however, therefore, moreover, furthermore, thus, meanwhile,
nonetheless, otherwise) or a transition (in fact, for example, that is, for instance, in addition,
in other words, on the other hand, even so)
Ex. Terrorism in the United States has become a recent concern; in fact, the concern
for America's safety has led to an awareness of global terrorism.

3. Use a semicolon to join elements of a series when individual items of the series already
include commas
Ex. Recent sites of the Olympic Games include Athens, Greece; Salt Lake City, Utah;
Sydney, Australia; and Nagano, Japan.

1. Use a hyphen to join parts of a compound word to show that they function as one unit
Ex. The trend in education now is to use a student-centered approach in teaching.

2. Use a hyphen when spelling out numbers 21 to 99

Ex. In the latest LET, only ten out of our ninety-five reviewees failed the exam.

En Dash
1. Use an en dash to separate a range
Ex. The review for English is from 8:00–5:00 on Monday.

Em Dash
1. Use an em dash to emphasize the content enclosed within the dashes or the content that
follows a dash.
Ex. Perhaps one reason why the term ‘love’ has been so problematic—so resistant to
definition—is because of its multitude of applications.

The jury had reached a decision—not guilty.

2. Use an em dash to set off an appositive phrase that already includes commas. An appositive
is a word that adds explanatory or clarifying information to the noun that precedes it.
Ex. The cousins—Tina, Todd, and Sam—arrived at the party together.


1. When the pronoun shifts its point of view unnecessarily or does not agree with its antecedent
Ex. If you eat healthy food and exercise regularly, one would be able to maintain
one’s desired weight.

 If you eat healthy food and exercise regularly, you would be able to
maintain your desired weight.

2. When the pronoun does not agree with its antecedent in number
Ex. Teachers who expect respect from their students should himself be a model of
good behaviour.

 Teachers who expect respect from their students should themselves be

models of good behaviour.

3. When there is a shift between present and past without valid reason
Ex. The Multiple Intelligences Theory states that there are nine types of intelligences
that represented an individual’s distinct capability.

 The Multiple Intelligences Theory states that there are nine types of
intelligences that represent an individual’s distinct capability.

A sentence with parallel structure contains ideas that are similar in type or form.
Ex. Angelica performs her tasks quickly, willingly, and with accuracy.

 Angelica performs her tasks quickly, willingly, and accurately.

Tracy’s problem is not that she earns too little money but spending it foolishly.

 Tracy’s problem is not that she earns too little money but that she spends it


A modifier is a word, clause, or phrase that adds details to the noun. A faulty modifier makes a sentence
confusing and ambiguous.
Ex. After congratulating Gladys, continued the conversation.

 After congratulating Gladys, we continued the conversation.

Growing wild in the forest, we picked the tiny mushrooms.

 We picked the tiny mushrooms growing wild in the forest.

The store attracted costumers with unusual window displays.

 The store with unusual window displays attracted costumers.

Homophones are words that sound alike but are different in spelling, meaning, or origin.
 affect/effect
affect (verb) – to do something that influences someone or something
Ex. The actions of the nobility affected girls’ ideas of correct behaviour.
effect (verb) – to make something happen
Ex. His careful work effected (brought about) the new structures in the

effect (noun) – a result or reaction to someone or something

Ex. The aristocrats’ purchase of more and more elaborate clothing had the effect
increasing social divisions.

 its/it’s
its (possessive adjective) – belonging to people, animals, or things
Ex. The company needs to do what is in its best interest.

it’s – the short form of “it is”

Ex. It’s important to understand the organization’s goals before implementing

 lay/lie
lay, laid (present, past verb) – to put or set something down
Ex. You can lay (present) your books over there.
She laid (past of lay) her books on the table yesterday.

lie, lay (present, past verb) – for a person or creature to recline or rest in a horizontal
Ex. Every afternoon, I lie (present) down to take a nap.
Yesterday after the exam, I lay (past of lie) down for just five minutes.

 lead/led
lead (noun) – substance in a pencil
Ex. You need to sharpen your pencil because the lead is dull.

lead (verb) – to guide a person or animal to a place

Ex. Moses endured many obstacles to lead the Israelites out of bondage.

led (past tense of lead)

Ex. The actions taken in science to better our society led people to become too

 then/than
then (adverb) – after something has happened; next
Ex. If the risks are too great, then the company may gain almost nothing.

than (conjunction) – used when comparing

Ex. Although he should be more grieved than the doctor, David displays less

 there/their/they’re
there (expletive) – it has no meaning but is used to start sentence
Ex. There are many areas in which a manager needs to be competent; these
areas include writing, speaking, critical thinking, and active listening.

there (adverb) – it is used to describe a location

Ex. She dumped the books over there and then left for school.

their (possessive adjective) – belonging to people, animals, or things

Ex. The employees’ need to care for their sick relatives is a sensitive issue.

they’re – the short form of “they are”

Ex. A person may follow rules, but they’re not always the best guide to the
right action.

 to/too/two
to – used with the basic form of a verb to make the infinitive
Ex. He mentioned that he liked to watch TV for the liquor commercials and
that it made him want to try new drinks and beverages.
to (preposition) – toward or in the direction of
Ex. I went to the lab early in the morning.

too (adverb) – more than is needed or wanted

Ex. However, too much monitoring can have a negative effect on morale.

too (adverb) – also

Ex. I have that exam tomorrow, too.

two – number
Ex. Assuming that these two issues are truly the source of the absentee
problem, then implementing the recommendations will decrease the
absentee rate.

 you’re/your
you’re – the short form of “you are”
Ex. Sometimes you do not know if you’re doing well at all, since nobody tells
you where you stand at each meeting.

your (possessive adjective) – belonging to people

Ex. Your teacher told you that the most important aspect of being human is to
use your intelligence and reasoning abilities.

 whether/weather
whether (conjunction) – used when talking about a choice between two possibilities

Ex. Resources obviously play a big role in whether or not a company takes

weather – the temperature or conditions outside

Ex. The rainy weather was responsible for the car accident.

 already/all ready
already – by this or that time
Ex. I expect the board meeting is starting already.

all ready – everyone is ready

Ex. All ready for the field trip tomorrow?

 farther/further
farther – used for greater physical distance
Ex. Tacloban City is father from Baybay City than Ormoc City.

further – used for a greater degree

Ex. We cannot take our business proposal any further.

Context clues are hints that help define a difficult or unusual word.

 Synonym
Ex. My opponent's argument is fallacious, misleading – plain wrong.

 Antonym
Ex. Although some men are loquacious, others hardly talk at all.

 Explanation
Ex. The patient is so somnolent that she requires medication to help
her stay
awake for more than a short time.

 Example
Ex. Celestial bodies, such as the sun, moon, and stars, are governed by
predictable laws.


Unity – staying on topic
Coherence – clear movement or flow of thought from one sentence to another

 Make sure that the supporting details add relevant information to the topic sentence.
Ex. Have you ever heard of the Dead Sea? It is named so because no form of life is
found in it. The composition of the water makes it difficult for fishes to keep
themselves under water. The Pacific Ocean is the largest ocean in the world. The

Dead Sea is very dense because of salt. The kinds of salt found in the water
include some which are fatal to life especially to sea plants and animals. One of
such is calcium chloride, a kind of compound in the Dead Sea that is poisonous to
all forms of life. Salt is usually used to preserve meat during ancient times.

 Make sure that the sentences are ordered logically and connected clearly. Use transition words
and repeat relevant words or their synonyms.
o Chronological order (the order in which events happened)
o Spatial order (order according to position)
o Order of importance
o Comparison and contrast

Ex. To get good grades in classes, I need to plan to do three things. First of all,
listening carefully to the teacher in class makes me understand the lesson. If I
listen carefully to what the teacher says, I can ask questions about things that I
don’t understand. I can also do the right homework that the teacher assigned.
Second, doing my homework every day makes me review the lesson from class.
The homework helps me to practice many things from class. I can also find
questions in the homework to ask the teacher that will make my English better.
Third, making an effort to study gives me the will to learn. If I don’t make an
effort, I will be lazy. The will to learn makes me try to finish the homework first,
and then I will let myself go out with my friends. Finally, I try to make a plan to
get a good grade in class, and I will abide by it.

Understand both the explicit and implicit message of the text

1. John was a compassionate, sensitive, and gentle man. His twin brother James, however, was
merciless, unfeeling, and cruel.

The relationship between the two sentences is best described as

a. cause and effect
b. contrast
c. repetition
d. statement and example

2. Two of the most common causes of homelessness are the lack of homes and of income with
which to rent or acquire them. Two million jobs are lost in industry every year and 50% of
the people laid off end up in jobs that pay low wages.

How are the two sentences related?

a. The first sentence contradicts the second.
b. The second sentence presents an event and the first sentence its consequences.
c. The second sentence illustrates the point made by the first sentence.
d. The first sentence explains the meaning of the second.

3. During the 1890s in America, child labour was common in the garment trade. Textile
manufacturers squeezed workers into small, cramped, poorly ventilated workplaces known as
sweatshops. Factory labour had a devastating effect on children's lives. For example, children
who worked six-day weeks in a candy factory refused gifts of candy. The legs of a 7-year-old
girl were paralyzed and deformed because she worked day after day with little legs crossed,
pulling out bastings from garments.

The purpose of the passage is to present

a. a personal observation
b. a solution to the problem
c. factual information
d. opposing scientific theories

4. Research shows that young children who are read to on a regular basis will grow up to be
better readers. When children sit on their parent's lap and listen to stories, they are learning
about the pleasures of reading and the patterns of language. When you see children turning
the pages of a book, looking at the pictures, and telling the story, often from memory, they
are engaged in what is called emergent literacy. Parents can foster this early language and
literacy development by talking with their children, telling them stories, reading to them
every day, and surrounding them with books.

Emergent literacy is best defined as

a. the practice of pretend reading
b. reading to children every day
c. patterns of language
d. early language and reading development