Sunteți pe pagina 1din 37

# INTRODUCTION

WHAT IS SATELLITE ?
A satellite is any object that moves in a curved path around a planet. The moon is
Earth's original, natural satellite, and there are many man-made (artificial) satellites,
usually closer to Earth. The path a satellite follows is an orbit, which sometimes
takes the shape of a circle.
To understand why satellites move this way, we must revisit our friend Newton.
Newton proposed that a force -- gravity -- exists between any two objects in the
universe. If it weren't for this force, a satellite in motion near a planet would continue
in motion at the same speed and in the same direction -- a straight line. This
straight-line inertial path of a satellite, however, is balanced by a strong gravitational
attraction directed toward the center of the planet.Sometimes, a satellite's orbit looks
like an ellipse, a squashed circle that moves around two points known as foci. The
same basic laws of motion apply, except that the planet is located at one of the foci.
As a result, the net force applied to the satellite isn't uniform all the way around the
orbit, and the speed of the satellite changes constantly. It moves fastest when it's
closest to the planet -- a point known as perigee -- and slowest when it's farthest
from the planet -- a point known as apogee.
Satellites come in all shapes and sizes and play a variety of roles

Weather satellites help meteorologists predict the weather or see what's happening
at the moment. The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) is a
good example. These satellites generally contain cameras that can return photos of
Earth's weather, either from fixed geostationary positions or from polar orbits.
Communications satellites allow telephone and data conversations to be relayed
through the satellite. Typical communications satellites include Telstar and Intelsat.
The most important feature of a communications satellite is the transponder -- a
radio that receives a conversation at one frequency and then amplifies it and
retransmits it back to Earth on another frequency. A satellite normally contains
hundreds or thousands of transponders. Communications satellites are usually
geosynchronous (more on that later).
to communications satellites).
Scientific satellites, like the Hubble Space Telescope, perform all sorts of scientific
missions. They look at everything from sunspots to gamma rays.
Navigational satellites help ships and planes navigate. The most famous are the
GPS NAVSTAR satellites.

 Earth observation satellites check the planet for changes in everything from
temperature to forestation to ice-sheet coverage. The most famous are the
Landsat series.
 Military satellites are up there, but much of the actual application information
remains secret. Applications may include relaying encrypted communication,
nuclear monitoring, observing enemy movements, early warning of missile
(using what are essentially large telescopes that take pictures of militarily
interesting areas).

 BAKEGROUND

A satellite is a moon, planet or machine that orbits a planet or star. For example, Earth is a satellite
because it orbits the sun. Likewise, the moon is a satellite because it orbits Earth. Usually, the word
"satellite" refers to a machine that is launched into space and moves around Earth or another body
in space.

Earth and the moon are examples of natural satellites. Thousands of artificial, or man-made,
satellites orbit Earth. Some take pictures of the planet that help meteorologists predict weather and
track hurricanes. Some take pictures of other planets, the sun, black holes, dark matter or faraway
galaxies. These pictures help scientists better understand the solar system and universe.

Still other satellites are used mainly for communications, such as beaming TV signals and phone
calls around the world. A group of more than 20 satellites make up the Global Positioning System, or
GPS. If you have a GPS receiver, these satellites can help figure out your exact location.

## Why Are Satellites Important?

The bird's-eye view that satellites have allows them to see large areas of Earth at one time. This
ability means satellites can collect more data, more quickly, than instruments on the ground.

Satellites also can see into space better than telescopes at Earth's surface. That's because satellites
fly above the clouds, dust and molecules in the atmosphere that can block the view from ground
level.

Before satellites, TV signals didn't go very far. TV signals only travel in straight lines. So they would
quickly trail off into space instead of following Earth's curve. Sometimes mountains or tall buildings
would block them. Phone calls to faraway places were also a problem. Setting up telephone wires
over long distances or underwater is difficult and costs a lot.
With satellites, TV signals and phone calls are sent upward to a satellite. Then, almost instantly, the
satellite can send them back down to different locations on Earth.

## What Are the Parts of a Satellite?

Satellites come in many shapes and sizes. But most have at least two parts in common - an antenna
and a power source. The antenna sends and receives information, often to and from Earth. The
power source can be a solar panel or battery. Solar panels make power by turning sunlight into
electricity.

Many NASA satellites carry cameras and scientific sensors. Sometimes these instruments point
toward Earth to gather information about its land, air and water. Other times they face toward space
to collect data from the solar system and universe.

## How Do Satellites Orbit Earth?

Most satellites are launched into space on rockets. A satellite orbits Earth when its speed is
balanced by the pull of Earth's gravity. Without this balance, the satellite would fly in a straight line
off into space or fall back to Earth. Satellites orbit Earth at different heights, different speeds and
along different paths. The two most common types of orbit are "geostationary" (jee-oh-STAY-shun-
air-ee) and "polar."

A geostationary satellite travels from west to east over the equator. It moves in the same direction
and at the same rate Earth is spinning. From Earth, a geostationary satellite looks like it is standing
still since it is always above the same location.

Polar-orbiting satellites travel in a north-south direction from pole to pole. As Earth spins underneath,
these satellites can scan the entire globe, one strip at a time.

## Why Don't Satellites Crash Into Each Other?

Actually, they can. NASA and other U.S. and international organizations keep track of satellites in
space. Collisions are rare because when a satellite is launched, it is placed into an orbit designed to
avoid other satellites. But orbits can change over time. And the chances of a crash increase as more
and more satellites are launched into space.

In February 2009, two communications satellites - one American and one Russian - collided in
space. This, however, is believed to be the first time two man-made satellites have collided
accidentally.
What Was the First Satellite in Space?
Sputnik 1 was the first satellite in space. The Soviet Union launched it in 1957.

## What Is the History of NASA Satellites?

NASA has launched dozens of satellites into space, starting with the Explorer 1 satellite in 1958.
Explorer 1 was America's first man-made satellite. The main instrument aboard was a sensor that
measured high-energy particles in space called cosmic rays.

The first satellite picture of Earth came from NASA's Explorer 6 in 1959. TIROS-1 followed in 1960
with the first TV picture of Earth from space. These pictures did not show much detail. But they did
show the potential satellites had to change how people view Earth and space.

## How Does NASA Use Satellites Today?

NASA satellites help scientists study Earth and space.

Satellites looking toward Earth provide information about clouds, oceans, land and ice. They also
measure gases in the atmosphere, such as ozone and carbon dioxide, and the amount of energy
that Earth absorbs and emits. And satellites monitor wildfires, volcanoes and their smoke.

All this information helps scientists predict weather and climate. The information also helps public
health officials track disease and famine; it helps farmers know what crops to plant; and it helps
emergency workers respond to natural disasters.

Satellites that face toward space have a variety of jobs. Some watch for dangerous rays coming
from the sun. Others explore asteroids and comets, the history of stars, and the origin of planets.
Some satellites fly near or orbit other planets. These spacecraft may look for evidence of water on
Mars or capture close-up pictures of Saturn's rings.

## List of Indian Satellites: ISRO’s Journey from 1st to 106th

Satellite!
Posted on October 22, 2018 by kadamb in Out of The Box

India has launched 106 satellites since 1975. Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) is
responsible for India’s Space Program.
In February 2017, ISRO has created a new record by launching 104 satellites in one go. Out of
these 104 satellites, only 3 of these were Indian Satellites. These were launched by Polar
Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) – C37 on 15th February 2017.

Earlier, this record was set by Russia in 2014 by launching 37 satellites in a single mission. US
Space Agency NASA has launched 29 satellites in one go.

ISRO launched many types of satellites. These include Indian Remote Sensing Satellites, GPS or
Navigation Satellites, Spy Satellites, and Military Satellites etc.

Below in this article we have provided the complete list of India Satellites launched since 1975.
So, keep reading this blog to know when and for what reason these satellites were launched.

But first look at some important facts and news regarding ISRO and Indian Satellites.

Indian Satellites: Important Facts and News Every Indian Must Know!

We must be aware of all the Indian Satellites which were launched by ISRO till date. But we
don’t know the facts and news behind these launches. So, we are providing some facts and
news regarding ISRO and Indian satellites.

## ISRO was formed by Dr. Vikram Sarabhai on 15th August 1969.

A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was the director of India’s first Indigenous Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-3).

The first Indian Satellite, Aryabhatta was named after an Indian astronomer and
mathematician.

Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi named the first Indian Satellite as Aryabhatta.

ISRO’s Mars mission is the cheapest mission so far with just Rs. 450 Crores (Rs. 12/km).

ISRO’s mission to Mars was the only mission to reach the Mars in the first attempt.

ISRO has set a national record of launching a rocket carrying 20 satellites out of which 13 were
from US.

ISRO is one of the six space agencies in the world with the capability to build and launch
satellites from its own soil.

## Complete List of Indian Satellites

The first Indian satellite launched was Aryabhatta. Since then, ISRO launched many satellites.
So, below we have provided the complete list of Indian satellites and their uses.

## First Indian Satellite.

Aryabhatta(19th April
1975)
It was built to conduct
(Decay date:
experiments in X-ray astronomy,
11th February 1992)
aeronomics, and solar physics.

## First Experimental Remote

Sensing Earth Observation
Satellite.
1979)
(Decay date:
Carried Two TV cameras and
17th February 1989)
(SAMIR).

## Rohini Technology Contained instruments to

Payload(10th August measure the performance of the
1979) launch vehicle, SLV.

## Rohini RS-1(18th July

First Indian Satellite successfully
1980)
launched by indigenous launch
(Decay date: 20th May
vehicle SLV.
1981)

## Rohini RS-D1(31st May

1981) Carried a solid-state camera for
(Decay date: 08th June remote sensing applications.
1981)

## First Indian three-axis stabilized

experimental Geostationary
Experiment
(APPLE)(19th June 1981) Used in various experiments
including relay of TV programmes

## Bhaskara – First Indian Satellite for Earth

II(20th November 1981) observation from orbit.
(Decay date:
30th November 1991)

## INSAT- 1A(Indian National First operational multipurpose

Satellite) communication and meteorology
(10th April 1982) satellite.

## It was on a mission for 17

Rohini RS-D2(17th April
months.
1983)
(Decay date: 19th April
It carried a smart sensor camera
1990)
which captured 2500+ pictures.

transponders.

## Eleven C-band and two S-band

INSAT-1B(Indian National transponders provided
Satellite) nationwide TV and
(30th August 1983) communications to thousands of
remote villages.

## Provided a detailed weather and

disaster-warning service.

## It conducted astrophysics, Earth

Remote Sensing and upper
Stretched Rohini Satellite atmospheric monitoring
Series (SROSS- experiments.
1)(24th March 1987)
Conducted new and novel
application-oriented missions.

## First remote sensing satellite.

IRS-1A(Indian Remote
Sensing-1A) It was launched to develop
(17th March 1988) indigenous remote sensing
capability.

Stretched Rohini Satellite
of German space agency in
Series (SROSS-2)(13th July
1988)
Big Govt. agencies like All India
INSAT- 1C(Indian National Radio, Doordarshan, Department
Satellite) of Space and Indian
(21st July 1988) Meteorological Department were
using its services.

## INSAT- 1D(Indian National

Launched for Communication &
Satellite)
Meteorological Observations.
(12th June 1990)

## Improved version of IRS-1A.

IRS-1B(Indian Remote
Sensing-1B) First Remote Sensing Satellite by
(29th August 1991) ISRO using imagery generated by
remote sensing technology.

## It was a communications Satellite,

earlier called as Arabsat-1C also
INSAT- 2DT(Indian
known as INSAT-2R.
National Satellite)
(26th February 1992)
Operated initially by Arabsat and
then by ISRO.

## Stretched Rohini Satellite

Launched for conducting
Series (SROSS-
astrophysics, Earth Remote
C)(20th May 1992)
Sensing and upper atmospheric
(Decay date: 14th July
experiments.
1992)

## First Indian Multipurpose

Satellite.
INSAT- 2A(Indian National
Satellite)
Launched for Communication,
(10th July 1992)
Meteorology and Satellite based
search and rescue.

## Second satellite in INSAT-2 series.

INSAT- 2B(Indian National
Satellite) Launched for Communication,
(23th July 1993) Meteorology and Satellite based
search and rescue.

## IRS-1E(Indian Remote Also known as IRS-P1.

Sensing) Indian Experimental Earth
(20th September 1993) observation satellite.

## Launched to develop earth

imagery using instruments carried
on board.

## Stretched Rohini Satellite

Series (SROSS-
C2)(4th May 1994) Identical to SROSS-C.
(Decay date: 12th July
2001)

## Launched to provide spaceborne

IRS-P2(Indian Remote
capability to India in observing
Sensing)
and managing the Natural
(15th October 1994)
Resources.

## Updated version to improve

INSAT- 2C(Indian National
communication in remote areas
Satellite)
like Northeast and Andaman &
(7th December 1995)
Nicobar Islands.

## IRS-1C(Indian Remote Indian second generation

Sensing) Operational Remote Sensing
(29th December 1995) Satellite.

## Experimental Earth Observation

Satellite.
IRS-P3(Indian Remote
Sensing) Carries two remote sensing
(21st March 1996) payloads, an X-ray astronomy
transponder.

Identical to INSAT-2C.
INSAT- 2D(Indian National
Satellite)
Indian Satellite used for
(4th June 1997)
Communication.

## IRS-1D(Indian Remote Operational Remote Sensing

Sensing) Satellite.
(29th September 1997) Similar to IRS – 1C in terms of
spatial resolution, spectral bands,
stereoscopic imaging, wide field
coverage and revisit capability.

Indian geostationary
communications and weather
INSAT- 2E(Indian National satellite.
Satellite)
(3rd April 1999) Launched to provide
communications to Asia and
Australia.

## First Indian Satellite built

specifically for Ocean
applications.
Oceansat-1
(IRS-P4)(26th May 1999) Carried Ocean Colour Monitor
(OCM) and a Multi-Frequency
(MSMR).

## Indian Satellite used for

INSAT-3B(Indian National multipurpose communication like
(22nd March 2000) developmental communication,
and mobile communication.

Experimental Communication
Satellite for the first
GSAT-1(GramSat-1)
developmental flight of
(18th April 2001)
Geosynchronous Satellite Launch
Vehicle (GSLV).

Experimental Satellite to
demonstrate and validate
Technology Experiment
technologies such as attitude and
Satellite
orbit control system, high-torque
(TES)(22ndOctober 2001)
reaction wheels, new reaction
control system, etc.

## INSAT-3C(Indian National Launched to provide voice, video

Satellite) and digital data services to Indian
(24th January 2002) and neighboring countries.

## First Indian dedicated

meteorological satellite.
Kalpana-1
(MetSat)(12th September
Earlier known as MetSat-1 and
2002)
renamed to Kalpana-1 in memory
of Kalpana Chawla.

Multipurpose Geostationary
satellite.
INSAT-3A(Indian National
Satellite) Launched for
(10th April 2003) telecommunications,
search & rescue operations.

## Experimental satellite for the

GSAT-2(GramSat-2)
second developmental test flight
(08th May 2003)
of Geosynchronous Satellite.

## INSAT-3E(Indian National Communication satellite to

Satellite) augment the existing INSAT
(28th September 2003) System.

Satellite.
Resource Sat-1 (IRS-
Intended to continue the remote
P6)(17th October 2003)
sensing data services and also
enhance the data quality
provided by IRS-1C and IRS-1D.

## First Indian Satellite built

exclusively to serve the
educational sector.
GSAT-3(GramSat-3)
(EduSat)
Launched to meet the demand
(20th September 2004)
for an interactive satellite-based
distance education system for the
country.

satellite.

## The satellite covers the entire

globe in 1867 orbits on a 126-day
cycle.

## Micro satellite for providing

HamSat(5th May 2005) communications to the Indian as
operators.

## INSAT-4A(Indian National Advanced satellite for providing

Satellite) television, telecommunication
(22nd December 2005) and broadcasting services.

## Indian Satellite used for

INSAT-4C(Indian National communication.
Satellite)
(10th July 2006) It was based upon the I-2K
satellites bus.

satellite
CartoSat-2(10th January
carrying a panchromatic camera
2007)
capable of providing scene-
specific spot images.

## Indian Experimental Satellite

intended to demonstrate the
Space Capsule Recovery
technology of an orbiting
Experiment (SRE-
platform for performing
1)(10th January 2007)
experiments in micro gravity
conditions.

## Indian Satellite used for

INSAT-4B(Indian National communication.
Satellite)
(12th March 2007) It is based upon the I-3K satellite
bus.

## INSAT-4CR(Indian Replacement satellite of INSAT-

National Satellite) 4C.
(2nd September 2007) It carried 12 high-power Ku-band
transponders designed to provide
direct-to home (DTH) television
services.

satellite.

## An Indian Military Satellite which

CartoSat-2A(28th April
carries a panchromatic (PAN)
2008)
camera capable of capturing black
and white pictures in the visible
region of electromagnetic
spectrum.

## IMS-1 (Third World

First Indian Satellite to use ISRO’s
Satellite–
Indian Mini Satellite.
TWsat)(28thApril 2008)

## Chandrayaan- This was a major boost as India

1(22nd October 2008) researched and developed its
own technology to explore the
moon.

satellite.
Satellite) Launched to monitor India’s
(20th April 2009) borders and as part of anti-
infiltration and anti-terrorist
operations.

## Indian student research

microsatellite.
ANUSAT(Anna University
Satellite)
It was designed, developed &
(20th April 2009)
integrated at Aerospace
(Decay Date: 18th April
2012)
Technology (MIT), Chromepet,
Anna University.
technology demonstration
experiments.

## Launched to provide service

Oceansat-2(IRS-P4)(23th continuity for operational users of
September 2009) the Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM)
instrument on Oceansat-1.

## Also known as HealthSat was an

Experimental Communication and
(15th April 2010)
First Indian Satellite to employ ion
propulsion.

## Carries a panchromatic (PAN)

CartoSat-2B(12th July
camera capable of capturing black
2010)
and white pictures in the visible
region of electromagnetic
spectrum.

## A CubeSat satellite designed by

StudSat(Student Satellite) India.
(12th July 2010)
First Indian pico-satellite, a
miniaturized satellite.

## Indian Satellite used for

communication.
GSAT-5P /INSAT-
4D(25th December 2010) Intended to operate in
geosynchronous orbit as a
replacement of INSAT-3E.

## Provides the same services as

RESOURCESAT-1.
ResourceSat-2(20th April
2011)
Designed to provide data with
enhanced multispectral and
spatial coverage.

Indo-Russian scientific-
educational artificial satellite.
Youthsat(20th April 2011)
Built using ISRO’s Indian Mini
Satellite-1 bus.

## An Indian Satellite used for

communication.
GSAT-8 / INSAT-
4G(21st May 2011)
First satellite to carry GAGAN

## Indian Communication Satellite.

It is considered to be a
replacement of INSAT-3B.
GSAT-12(GramSat-12)
(15th July 2011)
Provides services like tele-
education, tele-medicine, disaster
management support and
satellite internet access.

## Developed by ISRO and CNES,

Megha- France.
Tropiques(12th October
2011) Launched to study the water cycle
in the tropical atmosphere.

satellite.

## Operated in IIT Kanpur and was

built under the guidance of Dr. N.
Jugnu(12th October 2011)
S. Vyas.

## A nanosatellite used to provide

data for agriculture and disaster
monitoring.

## SRMSat(Sri Ramaswamy A Nano-satellite developed by

Memorial Satellite) SRM University.
(12th October 2011) Used to monitor Greenhouse
gases in atmosphere.

## An Indian Remote Sensing

Satellite.
Satellite)
It is the heaviest earth
(26th April 2012)
observation satellite launched by
India.

## An Indian Satellite used for

communication.
GSAT-10(GramSat-10)
(28th September 2012)
Second Indian Satellite to carry

## The Satellite with ARGOS and

ALTIKA (SARAL) is a joint Indo-
French satellite mission.
SARAL(Satellite
with ARGOS and ALTIKA)
It performs altimetric
(25th February 2013)
measurements designed to study
ocean circulation and sea surface
elevation.

IRNSS-1A(Indian Regional
IRNSS series.
System)
Launched to provide a system
(1st July 2013)
similar to GPS.

## An Indian Military Satellite used

for communication.

## GSAT-7(INSAT-4F) It will enable the navy to extend

(30th August 2013) its blue water capabilities and
stop relying on foreign satellites
which provide communication
services to its ships.
Also known as Mangalyaan is
India’s first Mars orbiter.
Mars Orbiter Mission
Launched to develop the
(MOM)(5th November
technologies required for
2013)
designing, planning, management
and operations of an
interplanetary mission.

## An Indian Satellite used for

communication.
GSAT- 14(GramSat-14)
(5th January 2014)
Expected to replace the GSAT-3
satellite.

tracking and mapping services.
IRNSS- 1B(Indian Regional
System)
solar arrays, which generate
(4th April 2014)
power up to 1,660 watts, and has
a life-time of ten years.

tracking and mapping services.
IRNSS-1C(Indian Regional
System)
(16th October 2014)
laser retro-reflector.

communication.

## GSAT-16(GramSat-16) Launched to increase the number

(7th December 2014) of transponder that in turn
enhance the satellite-based
telecommunication, television,
VSAT services in India.

## IRNSS-1D(Indian Regional The only satellite in the

Navigation Satellite constellation slated to provide
(28th March 2015) The payloads of this satellite
and S-band.

It is a multimedia communication
satellite.
GSAT-6(GramSat-6)
(27th August 2015) Provides a Satellite Digital
service.

## First Indian Satellite with multi-

wavelength space observatory.
Astrosat(28th September
It enables the simultaneous multi-
2015)
wavelength observations of
various astronomical objects with
a single satellite.

## Indian Satellite used for

communication.
GSAT-15(GramSat-15)
(11th November 2015) Launched to provide more
bandwidth for Direct-to-Home
television and VSAT services.

IRNSS-1E(Indian Regional
An Indian satellite which was
System)
services.
(20th January 2016)

## The sixth out of seven in the

Navigation Satellite Satellite System (IRNSS) series of
System) satellites.
(10th March 2016)

## The final satellite of the Indian

IRNSS-1G(Indian Regional
System (IRNSS) series of satellites.
System)
(28th April 2016)
After its launch, Indian Govt.
renamed IRNSS as NAVIC

satellite.

2016) camera.

## Satellite is capable of capturing

minute long video of a fixed spot.

## Indian micro experimental

satellite developed by students
and faculty of Sathyabama
SathyabamaSat(22nd June
University, Chennai.
2016)
Launched to collect data on
greenhouse gases.

## A 1-U picosatellite developed by

the students of College of
Engineering, Pune.
Swayam-1(22nd June
2016)
First Indian Satellite launched to
demonstrate passive attitude
control.

## INSAT-3DR(Indian An Indian weather satellite

National Satellite) launched to provide
(08th September 2016) meteorological services.

## Indian ionospheric research

satellite.
Pratham(26th September
2016)
Launched to count electrons in
the Earth’s ionosphere.

## Remote sensing nanosatellite

PISat(PESIT Imaging developed by PES Institute of
Satellite) Technology, Bengaluru.
(26th September 2016)
Carries a camera which can
capture images with 80-meter
resolution.

## An Indian Miniature satellite

developed by ISRO.
ScatSat-1(Scatterometer
Satellite-1)
Launched to provide weather
(26th September 2016)
forecasting, cyclone predictions
and tracking services.

## An Indian satellite used for

communication.
GSAT-18(GramSat-18)
(06th October 2016) Carried 24 C-band, 12 extended
C-band and 12 Ku-band
transponders.

## A Remote sensing satellite

ResourceSat-2A
launched to continue providing
(07th December 2016)
the remote sensing data services.

## It was launched with two other

Indian nanosatellites (INS-1A and
CartoSat- INS-1B) and 101 nanosatellites
2D(15th February 2017) from other countries.

## With this launch, ISRO created a

record of launching the most
number of satellites in one go.

An Indian Nanosatellite
developed by ISRO.

## Launched to accompany bigger

INS-1A (ISRO Nano
satellites on PSLV.
Satellite 1A)(15thFebruary
2017)
Single Event Upset Monitor
(SEUM).
An Indian Nanosatellite
developed by ISRO.

## Launched to accompany bigger

INS-1B (ISRO Nano
satellites on PSLV.
Satellite 1B)(15thFebruary
2017)
Exosphere Lyman Alpha Analyzer
(EELA) and Origami Camera

A communications and
meteorology satellite.
South Asia Satellite
(GSAT-9)(05th May 2017) It was operated by ISRO for South
Asian Association for Regional
Cooperation (SAARC) region.

## An Indian Satellite used for

communication.
GSAT-19(GSAT-19E)
It carries a Geostationary
(05th June 2017)
payload to monitor and study the
nature of charged particles.

## Launched by Noorul Islam Centre

NIUSat(Noorul Islam for Higher Education (NICHE).
University Satellite)
(23rd June 2017) Used for agricultural applications
and facilitate higher education.

## An Earth observation satellite

developed by ISRO.

## Launched to collect high-

CartoSat-2E(23rd June
resolution, large-scale images for
2017)
use in urban planning,
infrastructure development,
utilities planning, and traffic
management.

## GSAT-17(GramSat-17) An Indian Satellite used for

(29th June 2017) communication.

ISRO.

## IRNSS-1H(Indian Regional Launched to replace the failed

Navigation Satellite IRNSS-1A and complete the
(02nd September 2017) satellites.

## An Earth observation satellite.

CartoSat-2F(10th January
2018) Almost same as previous CartoSat
2C, 2D & 2E satellites.

## An Earth observation satellite.

MicroSat-
TD(Microsatellite) India’s 100th satellite in space.
(10th January 2018)
Can take pictures at night.

An Indian Nanosatellite
developed by ISRO.

## INS-1C (ISRO Nano Launched to accompany bigger

Satellite 1C)(10th January satellites on PSLV.
2018)
Carries MMX-TD (Miniature Multi
Spectral Imager – Technology

A Communications
Satellite operated by ISRO.
GSAT-6A
(29th March 2018)
Also provides a platform for
developing various technologies.

## IRNSS-1I It’s an eighth navigation satellite

(12th April 2018) to join the IRNSS series.
PAKISTAN,S SATELLITES NAMES AND DATE

It was the first ever artificial and digital satellite launched by pakistan in 1990..

## Decay date: December 8, 1990

It is the second spacecraft and first earth observation satellite launched into earth orbit
on 2001 by SUPARCO-Pakistan National Space Agency.

Rocket : Zenit-2

## It is an advanced geosynchronous and communication satellite that was manufactured

by China Great Wall Industry Corporation(CGGIC)

## and operated by Space And Upper Atmosphere Research Commission(SUPARCO) of

Pakistan in 2011.

## Operator : Pakistan Space Research Agency

Duration : 12 years
icube-1

## It is a miniaturised satellite built by Institilute Of Space Technology In Pakistan in 2013

with an objective to provide a wide range of future experiment in the domain of
imaging,microactivity,biology,nano technology,space dynamic,chemistry,space physics
and various other fields .

Operator : IST

## Mission duration : 2 yrs

It was the first ever artificial and digital satellite launched by pakistan in 1990..

## Decay date: December 8, 1990

It is the second spacecraft and first earth observation satellite launched into earth orbit
on 2001 by SUPARCO-Pakistan National Space Agency.

Rocket : Zenit-2

## Pakat-1R or(Paksak-1 replacement)

It is an advanced geosynchronous and communication satellite that was manufactured
by China Great Wall Industry Corporation(CGGIC)

## and operated by Space And Upper Atmosphere Research Commission(SUPARCO) of

Pakistan in 2011.

## Operator : Pakistan Space Research Agency

Duration : 12 years

icube-1

## It is a miniaturised satellite built by Institilute Of Space Technology In Pakistan in 2013

with an objective to provide a wide range of future experiment in the domain of
imaging,microactivity,biology,nano technology,space dynamic,chemistry,space physics
and various other fields .

Operator : IST

## Mission duration : 2 yrs

Khizee's Blog
Tuesday, July 10, 2018
PAKISTAN LAUNCHES TWO 'RECONNAISSANCE' SATELLITES. SHOULD INDIA BE WORRIED?
On Monday, 9 July 2018 Pakistan launched two satellites Pakistan Remote Sensing Staellite-1
(PRSS-1) and Pakistan Technology Evaluation Satellite-1A (PakTES-1A) into orbit.

The two satellites were launched from the Jiquan Satellite Launch Centre in China. The Chinese
Long March 2C vehicle was used to launch the satellites.
What is the purpose of these satellites?

## According to the Pakistan's Space and Upper Atmosphere Research

Commission(SUPARCO) the first satellite called the PRSS-1 has a mass of 1200-kg and is
launched into orbit at an altitude of 640 km where it will have a sun-synchronous orbital
trajectory. This satellite has been equipped with a high resolution optical payload which
consists of two panchromatic/multi spectral cameras, which will be capable of taking images for
land mapping, agricultural assessment, urban and rural planning and development,
environmental monitoring, water source management and natural disaster management. The
satellite is designed to operate for a total of seven years.

The second satellite named the PakTES-1A was designed in house by SUPARCO's engineers
which in itself is a great feat weighs a mere 285-kg, which is a lot smaller than the PRSS-1is also
equipped with an optical imaging sensor. This satellite has a lifespan of three years and it will
operate at low earth orbit, at an altitude of 610km.

## What are the benefits to the nation?

The PRSS-1 will provide continuous and improved data for public and private uses. The data
collected will be used for various purposes such as planning, management, monitoring of
various areas of lands and natural resources.

Public and private data can be used for mapping of roads, telemetry data etc. which can be
used for economic benefits and betterment of the daily lives of the people of Pakistan.

Fresh-water has been a hot topic in Pakistan recently. The satellites have been launched in time
to manage the water crisis. The satellites will provide data for monitoring and distribution of
fresh water so it can be conserved and used appropriately.

Another important use of the PRSS-1 will be to track natural disasters such as heavy floods,
rains and storms. This will help in an early response of emergency rebuilding efforts and
prevention from future disasters.

For agricultural related uses the satellite can monitor performance related issues with irrigated
land to help farmers with better crop yields therefore increasing food production in the
upcoming years. This increase in food production can help millions of under privileged people
nationwide.

To sum up all the benefits, the satellites will help Pakistan with land mapping, agricultural
monitoring, fresh-water management and natural disaster monitoring.
Pakistan's National Space Program

The Government of Pakistan approved a budget of \$40.7 million Pakistan National Space
program for the year 2018-2019. The main goal of this program is to bring benefits of space
technology to the nation.

The vision for 2047, set by the program highlights a few key important applications such as
health, agricultural, disaster prevention, environment and climate change to name a few.

Pakistan has based its space technology on peaceful use and the development of Pakistan's
economy as the main purpose.

## Previous satellite launches

Previously Pakistan has launched a total of 4 satellites. The first two satellites named BADR-
1which had a mass of just 52 kg and BADR-B which had a mass of 68.5 kg, were launched in
1990 and 2001 respectively. Both the satellites were experimental and were used to
demonstrate the know-how of satellite development and performance testing.

PakSAT-1R was the first communication satellite launched in 2011 to its geostationary orbit
from China. it had a mass of 588kg and the designed lifetime was 15 years.

iCube-1 was a miniature satellite developed by the Institute of Space Technology (IST). It
weighed in at a mere 1.08 kg and was designed to last 2 years.

National Security

## The motto of of SUPARCO is "Strive to achieve self-reliance in space technology and

applications for national security, economy and society."

Till date Pakistan has not released information on the national security aspect of SUPARCO and
rightfully so. Any information regarding how these satellites will be used by Pakistan's Ministry
of Defence can put the nation's security at risk. One can only speculate how useful the
'reconnaissance' data will be.

With a defence budget of \$9.6 billion, Pakistan has been beefing up security against our
'friendly' neighbour for the past few years.

International cooperation

Pakistan being the first Muslim nation to launch satellites into space, is also an active
participant of the United Nations Office for Outer Space (UNOOSA).

Pakistan fully complies with rules and regulations regarding space launches and has previously
registered and submitted data for the four satellites launched.

ANALYSISE

## Written by:Slav Defence

Earlier,NASA initiated the space research program in which with the help
of phoenix they uncovered the presence of water ice & perchoride on martian
hills.This mission was lateron,carried by "Curiosity" which was so launched when
Phoenix was unable to sustain itself in martian environment.However,curiosity more
or less has come up with same result but at different location in mars.

Recently, India has made excellent achievement in her space program by launching
Chandrayan which will be measuring methane into atmosphere.

According to BBC:

## "The speculation has been that some methane-producing bugs, or methanogens,

could perhaps exist on Mars if they lived underground, away from the planet's
harsh surface conditions."

It seems very promising,we as humans are moving step ahead in order to discover
new species & life forms on other planets. How interesting is that to observe that
we are trying to unlock universal secrets with the help of nature & science but the
pattern is arbitrary-secrets are unlocked at random:just like we design experiments
following principle of randomization.
As human,I am very proud of achievements so made by our friends & competitors.

## Nevertheless as Pakistani I do care to see that where my nation stands:"Are we

making right choice?"
This question is similar to that being asked to Indian regime by critics:"Is India
doing right by working on space research program despite of this fact that they are
facing various challenges: poverty?"
So,today we will be asking a question to ourselves:"Survival or modification?"
"You cannot modify if you cannot survive but you can survive if you could
modify"

This is exactly what my analysis says as both strategies seem correct to me.The
first strategy is what Pakistan has adopted.However,the second strategy which is
very risky is being followed by Indians.India is in a state of taking risks while
Pakistan is not-This very same approach is being followed by Israel when she was
newly born and even Pakistan under Bhutto's era when we were dying of hunger
but managed to continue our program (under water testing).

## "So,where is the lapse?"

Pakistan is taking lesser risk. Pakistan was well known in taking risks but now
Pakistan has changed her approach temporarily because of increased pressure and
challenge in the Asian region.

## This can be reflected easily from approach made by SUPARCO.According to Salman

Sidduque:
"The space agency of Pakistan too initially was headed by scientists and many
prominent names had a significant role. The last civilian scientist to have headed
the Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (Suparco) was Dr
Abdul Majid, who planned the Paksat communication satellite system and satellite
launch vehicle projects."

This can be reflected when Pakistan tested Hatf-IX which is significant contribution
for our missile program.We are much more focused to survive.

So,over all conclusion is that Pakistan has very promising future.We must work
systematically and right men must be designated for right project. Pakistan will
Inshallah soon return back to usual tone as soon as current challenges will be
encountered.

## ACCORDING TO SCORPRIONX PDF THINK TANK

I find this outcry for “survival at the expense of modification” a little strange and
difficult to understand at the same point of time. While not denying the fact that,
India’s performance on improving its human development figures even compared to
countries like Bangladesh, Sri Lanka or Vietnam looks pretty shady the very notion
that it should sacrifice its deep space missions for this reason sounds broadly
prejudiced and imperfect.

Before criticizing the funding for Space research, we must note that India’s space
ambition when founded back in 60’s was not a luxury, rather a demanding
necessity. The satellite communication and remote sensing applications produced
direct and indirect dividends for a third world country like India after the successful
accomplishments regarding mapping and monitoring of rivers, geological aspects,
agricultural management etc. with time this organization became economically
independent and profit making too when it started launching and building satellites
for its foreign customers at a far less price compared to its American and European
competitors.

One may find it difficult to understand the motive behind deep space research for a
poor country like India; however one at the same point of time might not find it
that hard to understand the reasonability behind building and maintaining the huge
nuclear stock pile in the pathetically poor states like India, Pakistan and North
Korea when sincere state effort and simple diplomatic gestures could have been
used to sort out the perennial crisis left over by departure of colonial power or cold
war tensions. It should not also be much harder to realize the heart breaking fact
that thousands or Crores of moneys get siphoned out by corruption on different
hierarchies in the government. If we manage to estimate those figures which get
drained to the pockets of politicians and bureaucrats the budget allocated
for Mangalayan mission (Only 7% of ISRO’s overall budget gets diverted for deep
space research) might look minuscule and negligible.

## In my opinion, the theory of survival is an excuse and as well as a cover up of our

failures; A cover of our last 70 years of fatal inefficiency to build proper roads, to
provide drinking water,sanitation and decent health care to our citizens. While there
is no denying that enough money has not been invested for development and
infrastructure projects, it could also not be rejected that a big part of allotted
money has been wasted and drained to the corrupts. This survival theory also
ignores the fact that a nation’s success does not merely relies on feeding its
poor(21% of Americans still living under poverty line when Kennedy announced his
Moon mission). Achievements in Academic scientific research can put a poor
nation’s name in the big leagues which inspires its people to be more sincere and
work harder, building a stronger sense of national pride and uniting the
heterogeneous societies of big countries like both India and Pakistan which is the
urgent need of this hour.

CONCLUSION

## List of satellites launched by India

From Wikipedia,
India has launched 239 satellites for 28 different countries as of October, 2018. Commercial
launches for foreign nations are negotiated through Antrix, the commercial arm of
the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). All satellites were launched using the
ISRO's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) expendable launch system. Between
2013 and 2015, India launched 28 foreign satellites for 13 different countries earning a total
revenue of US\$101 million.
ISRO successfully launched 104 satellites on 15 February 2017, of which 3 satellites are Indian
satellites while the remaining are foreign commercial satellites. Ninety-six satellites are from
the United States, while the others come from Israel, the UAE, Kazakhstan, the Netherlands,
Belgium and Germany. It is the largest number of satellites launched on a single flight by any
space agency. The previous record was held by Russia's Dnepr launcher which launched 37 in
June 2014

## PAKISTAN,S SATELLITES NAMES AND DATE

It was the first ever artificial and digital satellite launched by pakistan in 1990..

## Decay date: December 8, 1990

It is the second spacecraft and first earth observation satellite launched into earth orbit
on 2001 by SUPARCO-Pakistan National Space Agency.

Rocket : Zenit-2

## It is an advanced geosynchronous and communication satellite that was manufactured

by China Great Wall Industry Corporation(CGGIC)

## and operated by Space And Upper Atmosphere Research Commission(SUPARCO) of

Pakistan in 2011.

## Operator : Pakistan Space Research Agency

Duration : 12 years

icube-1

## It is a miniaturised satellite built by Institilute Of Space Technology In Pakistan in 2013

with an objective to provide a wide range of future experiment in the domain of
imaging,microactivity,biology,nano technology,space dynamic,chemistry,space physics
and various other fields .

Operator : IST

## Mission duration : 2 yrs

It was the first ever artificial and digital satellite launched by pakistan in 1990..

## Decay date: December 8, 1990

It is the second spacecraft and first earth observation satellite launched into earth orbit
on 2001 by SUPARCO-Pakistan National Space Agency.

Rocket : Zenit-2

## It is an advanced geosynchronous and communication satellite that was manufactured

by China Great Wall Industry Corporation(CGGIC)

## and operated by Space And Upper Atmosphere Research Commission(SUPARCO) of

Pakistan in 2011.

## Operator : Pakistan Space Research Agency

Duration : 12 years

icube-1
It is a miniaturised satellite built by Institilute Of Space Technology In Pakistan in 2013
with an objective to provide a wide range of future experiment in the domain of
imaging,microactivity,biology,nano technology,space dynamic,chemistry,space physics
and various other fields .

Operator : IST

## Mission type Oceanography and Meteorolog

y
Earth observation
satellite
GIS and GPS
Operator SUPARCO
Website At SUPARCO.gov.pk

Spacecraft properties
Bus CAN-bus
Power 600 W

Start of mission
Launch date 9 July 2018
Rocket Long March 2C
Launch site Jiuquan Satellite Launch
Centre
Contractor China

Orbital parameters
Reference system Geocentric
Regime Sun-Synchronous
Eccentricity 0
Perigee 700 kilometres (430 mi)
Apogee 700 kilometres (430 mi)
Inclination 38.280°
Period 99.31 min
Epoch planned
showInstruments
The Pakistan Remote Sensing Satellite (PRSS), commercially known as Remote Sensing Satellite
System (RSSS), is a dual-purpose Earth observational and optical satellite. Pakistan Remote
Sensing Satellite-1 (PRSS-1) was launched from China's Jiuquan Satellite Centre on 9 July 2018.
History[
After successful launching and operation of Badr satellite programme which contained
the experimental Low Earth Observationalsatellites in the 1990s and early 2000s,
SUPARCO launched the work on the high resolution Remote Sensing Satellite (PRSSS) to meet
the national and international user requirements in the field of satellite imagery.
The PRS program is planned to be a progressive and sustainable program with an initial plans to
launch an optical satellite with payload of 2.5 metre PAN in 700 km sun-synchronous orbit
by the end of year 2014, which will be followed by a series of optical and SAR satellites in
future. Necessary infrastructure for ground control and image reception and processing is also
planned to be set upThe satellite is under development process and it is being developed by
SUPARCO.
Launch date
In 2012, the first remote sensing satellite project was completed. Suparco set up its own
version of Global navigation satellite system (GNS) and immediately acquired
the Beidou navigation system of China for this satellite in September 2012. Currently
three Satellites are under Design by SUPARCO in collaboration with different universities
throughout the country. According to SUPARCO, first satellite of this program is scheduled to
launch in 2018, and it is visioned to provide help in exploiting the potentials of space
technologies for natural resource surveying and environmental purpose.