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MACHINE TOOLS

MACHINE TOOLS

Definition of Machining

Machining is an essential process of finishing by which jobs are

produced to the desired dimensions and surface finish by

gradually removing the excess material from the preformed

blank in the form of chips with the help of cutting tool(s)

moved past the work surface(s).

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Machining to high accuracy and finish essentially

enables a product

fulfill its functional requirements

improve its performance

prolong its service

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Basic functions of Machine Tools

Machine

Tools

basically

produce

geometrical

surfaces

like

flat,

cylindrical or any contour on the preformed blanks by machining work

with the help of cutting tools.

The physical functions of a Machine Tool in machining are the

following. Firmly holding the blank and the tool

Transmit motions to the tool and the blank

Provide power to the tool-work pair for the machining action.

Control of the machining parameters, i.e., speed, feed and depth of cut.

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Machine Tool - definition

A machine tool is a non-portable power operated and reasonably

valued device or system of devices in which energy is expended

to produce jobs of desired size, shape and surface finish by

removing excess material from the preformed blanks in the

form of chips with the help of cutting tools moved past the work

surface(s).

A machine which performs the material removal operation with tools, to produce desired shape and size of the work piece is

known as machine tool.

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Machine tools are used

To improve production rates.

To reduce cost of production.

To achieve better quality.

To reduce wastage.

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The various types of machine tools used in the workshops

are

Lathe

Shaping machine

Drilling machine

Milling machine

Grinding machine

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Lathe is the most general purpose machine tool in which the work piece

is held and rotated against suitable cutting tool for the purpose of

producing surface of revolution.

Lathes are classified on the basis of drive mechanisms, processes,

purpose etc.

The main types are

Centre lathes(Engine lathe)

Speed lathes

Tool room lathes

Production lathes (Capston And Turret Lathe)

Special purpose lathes

Automatic lathes

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Centre lathe

These are power driven general purpose lathes. Here the

cutting tool is fed in the longitudinal as well as in the lateral

direction automatically.

As these support the work piece between a live center and a dead center, these are named as lathes.

As the early versions of these were used to machine the parts of watt's steam engine and later driven by steam engines, they derived the name 'Engine lathes'.

These are widely used in machine shops. These can perform various operations at different speeds.

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Central Lathes are classified on the basis of their power source as

Belt driven Lathe

Motor driven Lathe

Gear-head Lathe.

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Working Principle

The main function of Lathe is to provide suitable means to hold

a work-piece and to rotate it about the axis.

A cutting tool either fed perpendicular or parallel to the axis of

work removes material from the rotating work to give the

require size and shape.

If the tool is moved parallel to the axis of rotation of the work

then a cylindrical surface is produced.

If the tool is moved perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the

work, then a flat surface is produced.

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Fig Principal parts of the Lathe

Fig Principal parts of the Lathe 12
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Fig Schematic view of a Centre Lathe

Fig Schematic view of a Centre Lathe 14

Specifications of a Lathe (Size of Lathe)

A lathe size is mainly specified as follows :

Height of lathe centre’s from top of bed.

Swing over bed and carriage. (Maximum distance from the bed,

that the work-piece can be rotated between the centre’s with out

with touching the bed).

Distance between the centers.

Length and types of bed with or without gap.

Lead screw details.

Motor details.

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1 Bed

The bed is the base of foundation of the Lathe.

The headstock, tailstock, carriage etc. are mounted on the bed.

The bed also provides the required strength and rigidity to the machine.

The top of the bed is planed to form 'guides' or 'ways'.

Ways are accurate rails which support carriage and tailstock.

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2 Headstock:

The headstock is mounted on the bed at the left end.

Spindle is supported in headstock. Spindle is a hollow cylindrical

shaft supported by bearings.

Work-holding attachments such as, face plate, driving plate or

chucks are mounted on the spindle nose.

The spindle along with the work-piece is rotated by a combination

of gears and cone pulleys or by gears alone driven by the motor.

The head stock has a gear box for changing the speed of rotation of

spindle and thereby the speed of rotation of work-piece

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3 Tailstock:

The tailstock is mounted on the bed at the right end and can be

clamped at any convenient position.

It supports one end of the work-piece.

It is also used for holding tool for performing operations such as drilling, reaming etc.

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4 Carriage:

The carriage of a lathe consists of several parts that serves

to

support the cutting tool and to control the action of the cutting

tool.

It can be moved along the bed ways provided at the top of the bed. Carriage has five major parts :

Saddle

Cross slide

Compound rest

Tool post

Apron

Lead screw

Lathe centers

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a) Saddle:

Saddle is the base of the carriage. Saddle slides along the guide ways.

b) Cross slide: Cross Slide is mounted on Saddle. Saddle can be moved along the guide ways so that tool can be moved towards and away perpendicular to centre line of lathe.

c) Compound rest:

Compound Rest is mounted on the top of cross slide. Tool post is fixed on Compound Rest. Compound Rest can be swiveled (rotated) about the saddle, which makes positioning of cutting tool at the desired angle.

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d) Tool post:

Tool post is mounted on Compound Rest and slides in T- Slot. Cutting Tool can be firmly held on it.

e) Apron:

Apron is fixed below the saddle. Apron contains gears and levers for manual and automatic motion of carriage. For manual motion of carriage along the bed there is a hand wheel in front of the apron.

the

For

thread

cutting

operation

automatic

motion

of

carriage is made possible by engaging hand wheel shaft of

Apron with a lead screw.

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Lead screw The lead screw is a long threaded shaft which is brought into action only when threads have to be cut. The rotation of lead screw is used to move the tool along the work to produce screw thread.

f) Lathe centers Lathe centers are tapered components fit into spindles provided in the headstock and tailstock.

The center connected to the head stock is called live centre since this centre rotates with the spindle.

The center connected to the tailstock is called dead centre

since it does not rotate and its function is only to support the

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work piece

Operations performed on a Lathe

Various operations performed in the lathe are discussed below

Turning Turning is the removal of material from the periphery of a work piece to obtain a cylindrical surface.

Turning can be carried out by holding the work in a chuck or by supporting the work in between lathe centers.

The cutting tool, fed parallel to the axis of rotation of the

work, removes material from the rotating work.

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Turning operation

Turning operation 25

Single point cutting tool

Single point cutting tool 26
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The following procedure is adopted in turning.

i)

Hold

the

work piece in a chuck

with

a short length

projecting out. Rotate it at a constant speed.

ii)Face the end of the work by feeding the tool perpendicular to the axis of rotation

iii) Drill a small hole at the centre of this faced surface. This

can be done by fixing the drill bit in the tailstock and feeding it into the rotating work piece.

iv) Remove the drill bit from the tailstock and fix the dead

centre.

v) Set the work piece between the chuck and the dead centre.

vi) Fix a tool in the tool post in such a way that the tip of the tool is in level with the axis of rotation of work piece.

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vii) Adjust the depth of cut by moving the tool perpendicular to the

axis of work.

After giving the depth of cut, the tool is moved parallel to the axis

of the rotating work.

For further reduction in diameter of the work, apply further depth of cut and traverse the tool again.

For final finish the speed of rotation must be increased and a fine depth of cut must be given.

The traversing of tool must also be slow and steady.

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Taper turning

A taper is a conical shape.

Tapers can be cut with lathes quite easily. Some machine elements

and other parts are required to be turned with a taper. Taper is expressed as the ratio of the difference in the end

diameters to the length of tapered job, measured parallel to the

axis.

Taper turning means producing a conical surface by gradual

reduction in diameter from a cylindrical work piece.

The following methods are used for taper turning.

Forming tool method

Tail stock set over method

Compound rest method

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Forming tool method

The tool having a straight cutting edge is set at correct angle and

is fed straight into work to generate the tapered surface.

This method is limited to turn short external tapers only.

the tapered surface.  This method is limited to turn short external tapers only. Turning using
the tapered surface.  This method is limited to turn short external tapers only. Turning using

Turning using forming tool

Tailstock set over method.

In this method the normal rotating part of the lathe still drives the

work piece (mounted between centers), but the centre at the

tailstock is offset towards/away from the cutting tool.

Then, as the cutting tool passes over, the part is cut in a conical

shape. This method is limited to small tapers over long lengths. The

tailstock offset h is defined by h = Lsinα,

where L is the length of work piece, and α is the half of the taper angle. This method is limited to the production of small taper on

long jobs.

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Tail stock set over method.

Tail stock set over method. 34

Compound rest method

The principle of turning taper by this method is to rotate the work

piece on the lathe axis and feeding the tool at an angle to the axis of

rotation of the work piece.

The compound rest, on which the tool is mounted, has a circular

base graduated in degrees.

By swiveling compound rest, it can be set at any desired angle. For taper turning this angle must be half the taper angle.

Once the compound rest is set at the desired angle, rotation of the

compound slide screw will cause the tool to be fed at that angle and

generate a corresponding taper.

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Taper Turning by Compound rest method.

Taper Turning by Compound rest method. 36

Thread Cutting

Thread cutting is one of the most important operations performed in

a lathe. Threads can be cut either on outside or inside surface of an

object.

A thread on the outside surface of an object such as a bolt is called

external thread. Thread on the inside surfaces of an object such as a

nut is called internal thread.

For cutting a thread, it is necessary that there should be a relation

between the movement of the tool and rotation of work.

This is obtained by means of a lead screw. The lead screw is driven

by a set of gears from the spindle. The lead screw, through which

the saddle receives its motion along the bed, has a definite pitch.

For each turn of the screw the saddle moves along the bed a distance

equal to the pitch of the lead screw.

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The tool which is held in the tool post also moves the same distance.

Thus there is rotation of work, combined with a fixed longitudinal movement of the tool for each turn of work.

The gears connecting the headstock spindle with the lead screw can be selected to cut a thread of any desired pitch.

For example, suppose the pitch of a lead screw is l2 mm and it is

required to cut a screw of 4 mm pitch, then the gears are to be so

selected that the spindle rotates 3 times the speed of the lead

screw.

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Fig Thread Cutting operation

Fig Thread Cutting operation 39

Knurling

Knurling is the process of roughening a smooth surface of a

cylindrical work piece.

The purpose of knurling is to get grip over the surface. For

knurling process, the work piece is held between the chuck and the dead centre and rotated at the required speed.

The knurling tool, which consists of a set of hardened steel

rollers with the teeth cut on the surface in a definite pattern, is

held rigidly in the tool post.

The knurling tool is pressed against the revolving work piece and is traversed along the length be knurled

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Fig Knurling Operation

Fig Knurling Operation 41
Fig Knurling Operation 41

Drilling

Drilling is the operation of producing a circular hole using a drill by removing metal from the work piece.

the operation of producing a circular hole using a drill by removing metal from the work

Fig Drilling Operation

Fig Drilling in Lathe 43

Fig Drilling in Lathe

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Reaming

It is the operation of sizing and finishing a hole by means of a reamer (reaming tool) having several cutting

edges. A reamer cannot produce a hole in a solid job. It

can accurately size and finish the already drilled holes.

edges. A reamer cannot produce a hole in a solid job. It can accurately size and

Reamer

Reamer 46

Boring

Boring is the process of enlarging the hole by means of an adjustable single point tool.

 Boring is the process of enlarging the hole by means of an adjustable single point

Fig Boring operation

Lathe Accessories

The devices which are used for holding and supporting the

work and the tool on the lathe are called the lathe accessories.

The various accessories are the following. Chucks

These are used for holding and rotating the work piece in the

lathe. It is attached to the lathe spindle by means of two bolts.

There are many types of chucks, but the following are commonly used.

Three jaw chuck:

This chuck is called as Self Centering Chuck or Scroll Chuck.

During working all jaws of three chuck come towards the

center or away from the centers respectively in equal

distances. It is used for holding round and hexagonal work-

piece.

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Fig. Three jaw chuck: 49
Fig. Three jaw chuck: 49

Fig. Three jaw chuck:

Four jaw chuck:  It has four reversible jaws, each of which may be independently
Four jaw chuck:
 It
has
four
reversible
jaws,
each
of
which
may
be
independently adjusted to accommodate the work.
 Since movement of work is independent, it can be used
for holding square, round or irregular shape.
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Four jaw chuck

Four jaw chuck 51
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Centers:

It is a hardened steel device with a taper shank at one end and 60 o point at other end.

Drive plate:

It is a plain disc which is bored and threaded so as to attach it to spindle nose.

Face plate

Face plate is similar to Drive plate except that it is larger in

diameter.

Mandrel

Mandrel is a steel shaft used to hold hollow work-pieces.

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For turning, facing, boring, threading and similar operations, jobs of odd shape and size are usually mounted on large face plate

(instead of chuck) being fitted on the spindle nose as shown in Fig.

4.5.2. The job may be (b) directly clamped on the face plate or (c)

in case of batch or small lot production, in a fixture which is

clamped on the face plate.

on the face plate or (c) in case of batch or small lot production, in a
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Collet Chuck

Collet Chuck 60

DRILLING MACHINES

DRILLING MACHINES

DRILLING MACHINE

Drilling is the process of making holes in a work piece by forcing a rotating tool called drill against it.

Drilling is a process of producing round holes in a solid material

or enlarging existing holes with the use of multi tooth cutting tools called drills or drill bits.

Various cutting tools are available for drilling, but the most common is the twist drill.

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Basic purposes of use of drilling machines

Drilling machines are generally or mainly used to originate through or blind straight cylindrical holes in solid rigid bodies

and/or enlarge (coaxially) existing (premachined) holes

of different diameter ranging from about 1 mm to 40 mm

of varying length depending upon the requirement and the diameter of the drill

in different materials excepting very hard or very soft materials like rubber, polythene etc.

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Fig Radial Drilling Machine 4

Fig Radial Drilling Machine

Fig Radial Drilling Machine 5

Fig Radial Drilling Machine

The principal parts of the radial drilling machine are the

following

Base

Column

Table

Drill head

Base

Base is the of the drilling machine is a rectangular casting on

which the column is mounted.

Column

The column is the vertical member of the machine which

supports the table. The head supporting the motor and the

spindle is mounted on the top of the column.

Table

The table of the drilling machine supports the work piece or

other work holding devices. It can be moved up and down on

the column. Also it can be set at various positions in the

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horizontal plane.

Drill head

It is mounted on the top of the column and supports the spindle

head and motor. The spindle head houses drill houses drill holding

the rotating devices.

A hand wheel is provided for the upward and downward movement

of the spindle.

A drill chuck is mounted on the spindle for holding the drill.

The spindle receives power from the motor through belt and pulley arrangement.

The speed of the spindle can be varied by shifting the belt on the

different steps of the step of the cone pulley.

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Drilling

lt is the operation of producing a circular hole using a drill in the

work-piece.

Drilling lt is the operation of producing a circular hole using a drill in the work-piece.

Fig Drilling Operation

Reaming operation It is the operation of sizing and finishing a hole by means of a Reamer (reaming tool) having several cutting edges.

A reamer cannot produce a hole in a solid job. It can accurately size and finish the already drilled holes.

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 A reamer cannot produce a hole in a solid job.  It can accurately size

Boring

Boring is the operation of enlarging a hole by means of an adjustable single point tool.

 Boring  Boring is the operation of enlarging a hole by means of an adjustable

Counter boring:

Counter-boring operation differs from differs from boring operation in the sense that where as boring enlarges a hole for

its full length, the counter boring does so only for a small length to accommodate the heads of bolts, studs etc.

for its full length, the counter boring does so only for a small length to accommodate

Tapping Tapping is the operation of cutting threads in a drilled hole.

 Tapping  Tapping is the operation of cutting threads in a drilled hole. 12

Counter Sinking

It is an operation to produce, cone shaped enlargement

at the end of hole.

Counter Sinking It is an operation to produce, cone shaped enlargement at the end of hole.
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GRINDING MACHINES

GRINDING MACHINES

Grinding is a process of metal removal in which cutting tool used

is an abrasive (abrasive is a material, often a mineral, that is used

to shape or finish a work-piece eg.bauxite, diamond etc.) wheel.

Grinding wheels are made of abrasive particles bonded together by some bond.

Grinding is mainly used for the following purposes

To remove small amount of metal from the work-piece to bring its dimensions within very close tolerance of the size desired. To obtain better finish on the surface.

To sharpen the cutting tools.

To machine hard surfaces which are otherwise difficult to be

machined by other methods.

Types of Grinding .

According to the type of surface to be ground, grinding is classified as

Cylindrical grinding

Surface grinding

Form grinding

Cylindrical Grinding

Cylindrical grinding produces cylindrical surfaces on a work-piece. The work-piece is rotated about the axis and is traversed across the

face of a rotating abrasive wheel.

is rotated about the axis and is traversed across the face of a rotating abrasive wheel.
is rotated about the axis and is traversed across the face of a rotating abrasive wheel.

Fig Cylindrical grinding process

Surface grinding

Surface Grinding produces flat surfaces.

The grinding wheel is rotated about the axis and the work-piece is traversed (pass through) under the revolving grinding wheel.

about the axis and the work-piece is traversed (pass through) under the revolving grinding wheel. Fig

Fig Surface grinding

Form grinding

Form grinding produces surfaces on the revolving cylindrical work-piece depending up on the shape of the grinding wheel.

Form grinding produces surfaces on the revolving cylindrical work-piece depending up on the shape of the

Types of Grinding Machines based on type of Grinding Grinding Machines are classified into

Surface Grinding Machine

Internal Grinding Machine

Cylindrical Grinding Machine

Tool and Cutter Grinding Machine

Surface Grinding Machine

Surface Grinding Machines are used to produce and finish flat surfaces.

It consists of a base- table, column and wheel head.

One end of the base has a column for supporting wheel head.

The wheel head can be lowered or raised and the table can be

moved along the ways to provide longitudinal feed.

Table can be moved along with ways.

In some cases table can be raised and lowered.

Surface grinders can be manually operated or have CNC controls.

Fig Surface Grinding Machine

Fig Surface Grinding Machine

Production Machines and Processes

LATHE

Working Principle

Working Principle

Apron - Front part of the carriage assembly on which the carriage handwheel is mounted.

Bed - Main supporting casting running the length of the lathe.

Carriage - Assembly that moves the toolpost and cutting tool along the ways

Carriage Handwheel - A wheel with a handle used to move the carriage by hand by means of a rack and pinion drive.

Chuck - A clamping device for holding work in the lathe or for holding drills in the tailstock.

Compound - Movable platform on which the toolpost is

mounted; can be set at an angle to the workpiece. Also known

as the compound slide and compound rest.

Cross Slide - Platform that moves perpendicular to the lathe axis under control of the cross-slide handwheel.

Headstock - The main casting mounted on the left end of the

bed, in which the spindle is mounted. Houses the spindle speed

change gears.

Leadscrew - Precision screw that runs the length of the bed.

Used to drive the carriage under power for turning and thread

cutting operations. Smaller leadscrews are used within the

cross-slide and compound to move those parts by precise

amounts.

Spindle - Main rotating shaft on which the chuck or other work holding device is mounted. It is mounted in precision bearings

and passes through the headstock.

Tailstock - Cast iron assembly that can slide along the ways

and be locked in place. Used to hold long work in place or to

mount a drill chuck for drilling into the end of the work.

Tailstock Handwheel - A wheel with a handle used to move the tailstock ram in and out of the tailstock casting.

Bed & Leadscrew

Bed & Leadscrew

Carriage

Carriage

Cross Slide and Compound

Cross Slide and Compound

Toolpost

Toolpost

Tailstock, Centers and Drill Chuck

Tailstock, Centers and Drill Chuck

Lathe Specifications

A lathe is specified by its

Swing maximum diameter of the workpiece

Distance from headstock and tailstock centers

Length of the bed

Lathes are available in a variety of styles and types of construction

power

Types of lathes

Bench lathe:

Placed on a bench

Low power

Hand feed operated

Toolroom lathes: High precision

Engine lathes

Available in a wide variety of sizes

Used for a variety of turning operations

Various Cutting Operations

Turing produces straight, conical, curved, or grooved workpieces

Taper Turning- produces a taper

Facing produces a flat surface at the end of the part

Drilling - to produce a hole

Boring to enlarge a hole

Cutting off to cut off a workpeiece

Threading to produce threads

Knurling produces a regularly shaped roughness

Turning Operations

Turning is the removal of metal from the

outer diameter of a rotating cylindrical workpiece. Turning is used to reduce the

diameter of the workpiece, usually to a

specified dimension, and to produce a

smooth finish on the metal.

to reduce the diameter of the workpiece, usually to a specified dimension, and to produce a
to reduce the diameter of the workpiece, usually to a specified dimension, and to produce a

Turning Operations

Turning operations performed on a lathe

include:

Straight turning

Taper turning

Facing

Operations • Turning operations performed on a lathe include: – Straight turning – Taper turning –

Taper turning

A taper is a conical shape.

Taper is expressed as the ratio of the difference in the end diameters to the length of tapered job,

measured parallel to the axis.

Taper turning means producing a conical surface

by gradual reduction in diameter from a cylindrical

work piece

Different methods

Forming tool method

Tail stock set over method

Compound rest method

Forming tool method

Forming tool method

Tailstock set over method

Tailstock set over method

Compound rest method

Compound rest method

Facing Operation

Facing is the process of removing

metal from the end of a workpiece to

produce a flat surface.

Facing Operation • Facing is the process of removing metal from the end of a workpiece

Drilling Operation

Drilling Operation
Drilling Operation
Drilling Operation

Boring

Boring is an operation in which a hole is

enlarged with a single point cutting tool.

Boring • Boring is an operation in which a hole is enlarged with a single point
Boring • Boring is an operation in which a hole is enlarged with a single point

Thread Cutting

Thread Cutting

Knurling

Knurling

Workholding on a Lathe

Chuck

3,4, or 6 jaw

Soft jaws

Workholding on a Lathe • Chuck – 3,4, or 6 jaw – Soft jaws

Shaping Machine

A shaping machine is used to machine

surfaces. It can cut curves, angles and many other shapes.

work table and the tool reciprocated over

The work is held in a vice, fastened to a

the work.

Shaping Machine

Shaping Machine

Base. Base supports the whole machine and is rigidly bolted

to the floor

Column: The column is mounted on the base. All the other

parts of shaper are attached to column. The top of the

column is machined to form guide ways for ram reciprocation.

The front vertical face of the column is also machined to

enable the table to be raised or lowered.

Ram: It is the reciprocating part of the shaper. It reciprocates

on the guide ways provided on the top of the column. It

carries the tool head at the extreme front end. The ram is

connected to the quick return mechanism which allows the

ram to move at a slower speed during the cutting stroke and

at a faster speed during the return stroke.

Tool head: It is mounted at the front of the ram. It can be

swiveled to any angle to enable the tool to take angular cuts.

Table: Vice is clamped on the table. Vice is a device to-hold

work on the table of the shaper.

Operations performed on a shaper

Machining horizontal surface

Machining Vertical Surface

Machining Angular Surface

Machining Irregular surface

Machining Horizontal Surface

Machining Horizontal Surface Machining Vertical Surface

Machining Vertical Surface

Machining Horizontal Surface Machining Vertical Surface

Machining Angular Surface

Machining Angular Surface

Drilling

The drilling machine (drill press) is a single

purpose machine for the production of holes.

Drilling

is

generally

the

producing holes.

best

method

of

The drill is a cylinderical bar with helical flutes and radial cutting edges at one end.

The drilling operation simply consist of rotating

the drill and feeding it into the workpiece being

drilled.

Principal Parts of Drilling Machine

Base

Base is the rectangular casting on which the column is mounted.

Column

The column is the vertical member of the machine which supports the

table. The head supporting the motor and the spindle is mounted on the

top of the column.

Table

The table of the drilling machine supports the work piece or other work

holding devices. It can be moved up and down on the column. Also it can

be set at various positions in the horizontal plane.

Drill head

It is mounted on the top of the column and supports the spindle head

and motor

movement of the spindle. A drill chuck is mounted on the spindle for

holding the drill. The spindle receives power from the motor through belt

and pulley arrangement. The speed of the spindle can be varied by

shifting the belt on the different steps of the step of the cone pulley.

A hand wheel

is provided for the upward and downward

Different operations performed on the

Drilling machine

Drilling- lt is the operation of producing a circular hole using a

drill in the work-piece.

producing a circular hole using a drill in the work-piece. • Reaming operation - It is

Reaming operation- It is the operation of sizing and finishing

a hole by means of a Reamer (reaming tool) having several

cutting edges. A reamer cannot produce a hole in a solid job

a hole by means of a Reamer (reaming tool) having several cutting edges. A reamer cannot

Boring - Boring is the operation of enlarging a hole by means of

an adjustable single point tool.

a hole by means of an adjustable single point tool. • Counter boring- Counter-boring operation differs

Counter boring- Counter-boring operation differs from boring

operation in the sense that where as boring enlarges a hole for

its full length, the counter boring does so only for a small length

to accommodate the heads of bolts, studs etc.

hole for its full length, the counter boring does so only for a small length to

Tapping- Tapping is the operation of cutting threads in a

drilled hole

is the operation of cutting threads in a drilled hole • Counter Sinking - It is

Counter Sinking- It is an operation to produce, cone

shaped enlargement at the end of hole.

in a drilled hole • Counter Sinking - It is an operation to produce, cone shaped

Milling Direction

Milling Direction • Up Milling • Starts with a small cut and finishes with a large

Up Milling

Starts with a small cut and finishes with a large cut

Pushes the material away from the

cutter

Used for rough cutting

Used for deep cuts

the cutter • Used for rough cutting • Used for deep cuts • Down/Climb Milling •

Down/Climb Milling

Starts with a large cut and finishes with a small cut Pulls the material into from the cutter Better surface finish

Uses less Power

Up and Down Milling

Up and Down Milling
Up and Down Milling

Milling machines

Two Major Classifications - Knee & Column

and Bed

Knee & Column (Bridgeport type)

Basic job shop type mill

Column mounted to the base which is the major support

frame.

Construction provides controlled motion of the worktable

in three mutual perpendicular directions.

Knee moves vertically on the ways in the front of the

machine

Table moves longitudinally on the ways on the saddle

Saddle moves transversely on the ways on the knee

Quill moves parallel in Z axis or, if head is rotated, X axis

Versatile general purpose machine

1.Face milling cutter 2.Spindle 3.Spindle head 4.Column 5.Table 6.Saddle 7.Knee 8.Base 9.Spindle switch 10.Spindle speed

1.Face milling cutter 2.Spindle 3.Spindle head 4.Column 5.Table 6.Saddle 7.Knee 8.Base

9.Spindle switch 10.Spindle speed gear lever 11.Spindle speed control lever 12.Oil tank

13.Table manual wheel 14.Table lock bar 15.Saddle automatic moving bar 16.Saddle

automatic moving control dial 17.Saddle manual wheel 18.Knee manual wheel 19.Quick button

Milling Machines

Bed

Used extensively in production milling operations

Rigid construction capable of heavy cuts

Table is mounted directly to the bed

Spindle head moves vertically to set depth of cut

Head locks into position for cut

Base of machine functions as a coolant reservoir

Horizontal Milling

Horizontal Milling

Vertical Milling M/c

Vertical Milling M/c

Machines

Machines Conventional Computer Numerical Control

Conventional

Machines Conventional Computer Numerical Control

Computer

Numerical

Control

Machines Conventional Computer Numerical Control
Machines Conventional Computer Numerical Control

Milling Machines

Milling Machines
Milling Machines

A milling machine is a machine tool that cuts metal with a

multiple-tooth cutting tool called a milling cutter. The

workpiece is fastened to the milling machine table and is fed

against the revolving milling cutter. The milling cutters can

have cutting teeth on the periphery or sidesor both. The

cutting teeth can be straight or spiral.

Milling machines can be classified under three main headings:

General Purpose machines - these are mainly the column

and knee type (horizontal & vertical machines)

High Production types with fixed beds- (horizontal types)

Special Purpose machines such as duplicating, profiling, rise

and fall , rotary table ,planetary and double end types

Milling attachments can also be fitted to other machine tools

including lathes planing machines and drill bench presses

can be used with milling cutters.

Boring

Boring

Chamfering

Chamfering

Counter Boring

Counter Boring

Countersinking

Countersinking

Drilling

Drilling

End Milling Tool

End Milling Tool

End Milling

End Milling

Face Miiling Cutter

Face Miiling Cutter

Face milling

Face milling

Pocket Milling

Pocket Milling

Reaming

Reaming

Tapping

Tapping

Plain milling

Plain milling

Workholding on a Lathe

Between centers

Live-tailstock

Dead-headstock

Face plate

Drive dog

Workholding on a Lathe • Between centers – Live-tailstock – Dead-headstock – Face plate – Drive
Workholding on a Lathe • Between centers – Live-tailstock – Dead-headstock – Face plate – Drive

Workholding on a Lathe

Chuck

3,4, or 6 jaw

Soft jaws

Workholding on a Lathe • Chuck – 3,4, or 6 jaw – Soft jaws

Workholding on a Lathe

Collect system

Workholding on a Lathe • Collect system
Workholding on a Lathe • Collect system

Workholding on a Lathe

Others

Face driver system

Sub-spindle system

Workholding on a Lathe • Others – Face driver system – Sub-spindle system

Shaping Machine

A shaping machine is used to machine

surfaces. It can cut curves, angles and

many other shapes. It is a popular machine in a workshop because its

movement is very simple although it can

produce a variety of work.

The shaping process was used in the early days of

machine tools. Shaping machines are not widely

used now. Shaping produces flat surfaces by moving

a single point cutting tool in a recprocating motion.

The forward stroke is the cutting stroke the backward

movement is completed at a faster velocity and

includes the sideways feed motion.

The shaping machine is a versitile machine able to

produce flat surfaces , grooves, T-Slots, dovetails,

and may be used to produce curved surfaces.

The size of components that may be machined is

normally limited by the length of the stroke of the

shaping machine which can vary up to a maximum of about 1500mm. (750mm is normally the maximum

stroke. The shaping machine is not generally used

as a production tool because of its slow cutting speed

and the unproductive return stroke.

The tool feed handle can be turned to slowly

feed the cutting tool into the material as the

'ram' moves forwards and backwards. The

strong machine vice holds the material

securely. A small vice would not be suitable as

the work could quite easily be pulled out of

position and be damaged. The vice rests on a

steel table which can be adjusted so that it ca

be moved up and down and then locked in position. Pulling back on the clutch handle

starts the 'ram' moving forwards and

backwards.

The tool post and the tool slide can be angled as seen

below. This allows the shaper to be used for different

types of work

DIA A: The tool post has been turned

at an angle so that side of the material

can be machined

at an angle so that side of the material can be machined • DIA B :

DIA B: The tool post is not angled

so that the tool can be used to

level a surface.

not angled so that the tool can be used to level a surface. • DIA C

DIA C: The top slide is slowly feed into the material so that a ‘rack’ can be

machined for a rack and pinion gear system.

C : The top slide is slowly feed into the material so that a ‘rack’ can

Drilling Process

The drilling machine (drill press) is a single

purpose machine for the production of

holes. Drilling is generally the best method of

producing holes. The drill is a cylinderical bar

with helical flutes and radial cutting edges at

one end. The drilling operation simply consist

of rotating the drill and feeding it into the

workpiece being drilled.

The process is simple and reasonably accurate

and the drill is easily controlled both in cutting

speed and feed rate. The drill is probably one

of the original machining processes and is the

most widely used.

Typical Drilling Processes

Typical Drilling Processes

Abrasive Machining

Abrasive machining uses hard non-

metallic particles to machine the work surface. Relevant processes include grinding, honing, superfinishing / abrasive

belt machining and honing. The first three

processes uses abrasive particles (grit),

rigidly held in a wheel, stone, or belt. Lapping is based on the abrasive

particles being retained in a fluid.

Grinding

The grinding process is used to produce a high surface finish

with a close tolerance and for machining hard materials. The

process is a variation of polishing using abrasive materials

held together by an adhesive generally in the form of a solid

wheel.

circumferential surface of the rotating wheel is brought into

contact with the material being machined.

The wheel is rotated at high speeds and the

Reasons for grinding:

Removal of surplus material

Production of high quality surface finishes

Machining very hard materials

The two main abrasives used for grinding wheels are

Aluminium Oxide (for use on materials with a high tensile

strength.

Silicon Carbide (for use on materials with a low tensile

strength

Welding

A weld occurs when pieces of metal are joined by causing the

interface to melt and blend prior to solidifying as a uniform

This process may be caused by heat, pressure

metal joint.

or a combination of both.

process

fusion welding.

When heat alone is used the

is

called

Pressure welding usually involves heating the surfaces to a

plastic state and then forcing the metal together. The

heating can be by electric current of by friction resulting from

moving one surface relative to the other.

The methods and equipment used for welding metal are also

associated with cutting metal. There are a large number of

welding and allied processes including the following.

Welding Processs

Gas Welding

Arc Welding

Brazing

Soldering

Resistance Welding

Solid State Welding

Other Welding

Arc Welding

Basically, an electric arc is used to heat base metals

and a consumable filler rod.

This is the most common form of welding and is used

in about half of all applications.

A power supply is used to create a high potential

between an electrode (guided by the welder) and a metal work piece. When moved close enough

electrodes break down the air and start to flow. The

local current of the flow is so high that it heats metals

up to 30000C or 54000F.

Material is added during this welding process.

This material can come from a consumable electrode, or from a rod of material that is fed

separately.

The electrodes/rods are often coated. This

coating serves a number of functions,

- it protects the welder from contact

- it deoxidizes and provides a gas shield

Basically, filler and base materials are heated to the point

of melting by a burning a gas.

The common type is - oxygen-acetylene

These are suited to a few applications, but they produce

by-products that can contaminate the final weld.

Typically the flame is adjusted to give a clean burn, and

this is applied to the point of the weld.

A welding rod will be fed in separately to melt and join the weld line.Flux can be used to clean the welds.

the weld. • A welding rod will be fed in separately to melt and join the

MILLING MACHINE

Milling is a process of removal of meal by feeding

the work piece against rotating multipoint cutter.

As the cutter rotates, each cutting edge removes

small amount of material from the advancing

work-piece.

The rate of metal removal is rapid as the cutter

rotates at very high speed and has many cutting

edges.

Milling Machine based on spindle position is classified into

Horizontal Milling Machine

Vertical Milling Machine.

Horizontal Milling Machine

The principal parts of a horizontal milling machine are

The principal parts of a horizontal milling machine are • Base • Column Knee • Saddle

Base

Column Knee

Saddle

Table,

Elevating Screw

Spindle

Over arm

Arbor.

Vertical Milling Machine

The principal parts of a Vertical Milling Machine are

Spindle head

Elevating screw

Base

Column

Knee

Saddle

Table

Over arm

Machine are • Spindle head • Elevating screw • Base • Column • Knee • Saddle

Milling Operations

Plain milling

Face Milling

Milling Operations • Plain milling Face Milling Gear cutting.
Milling Operations • Plain milling Face Milling Gear cutting.

Gear cutting.

Milling Operations • Plain milling Face Milling Gear cutting.

Side Milling

Side Milling • • End Milling T-Slot Milling Angular milling

End Milling

Side Milling • • End Milling T-Slot Milling Angular milling

T-Slot Milling

Side Milling • • End Milling T-Slot Milling Angular milling

Angular milling

Side Milling • • End Milling T-Slot Milling Angular milling

Up Milling and Down Milling

Up Milling

Down Milling

In Up Milling also known as conventional

Cutter rotates in same direction as that in

Milling, the cutter rotates against the

which the work is being fed .

direction in which the work is being fed .

Job - tool motion is opposite.

Job - tool motion is opposite .

Cutting forces vary from zero to maximum ie. cutting starts with zero thickness.

Cutting forces vary from maximum to minimum i . e. chip thickness is maximum at the beginning.

Cutter tends to lift the work- piece.

Cutter tends to press the work- piece firmly against the table.

Poor surface finish .

Good surface finish .

More power consumption .

Less power consumption

the table. Poor surface finish . Good surface finish . More power consumption . Less power
the table. Poor surface finish . Good surface finish . More power consumption . Less power

GRINDING MACHINE

Grinding is a process of metal removal in which

cutting tool used is an abrasive wheel.

Grinding wheels are made of abrasive particles

bonded together by some bond.

Grinding is mainly used for the following purposes

To remove small amount of metal from the work-piece

to bring its dimensions within very close tolerance of

the size desired.

To obtain better finish on the surface.

To sharpen the cutting tools.

To machine hard surfaces which are otherwise difficult

to be machined by other methods.

Types of Grinding

According to the type of surface to be ground, grinding is classified as

Cylindrical grinding

Surface grinding

Form grinding

Cylindrical grinding

Cylindrical grinding

Surface Grinding

Surface Grinding

Form Grinding

Form Grinding

MILLING MACHINE

MILLING MACHINE

MILLING MACHINE

Milling is a process of removal of metal by feeding the work piece against rotating multipoint cutter.

As the cutter rotates, each cutting edge removes small amount of material from the advancing work-piece.

The rate of metal removal is rapid as the cutter rotates at very high speed and has many cutting edges.

Milling Machine based on spindle position is classified into

Horizontal Milling Machine Vertical Milling Machine.

2
2

Fig Horizontal Milling machine

Fig Horizontal Milling machine 3
4

The principal parts of a horizontal milling machine are the

Base,

Column Knee

Saddle

Table,

Elevating Screw

Spindle

Over arm

Arbor.

5
5

Base :

It is the foundation for all other parts of the milling machine. It gives the

machine the required rigidity and strength. It also acts as a reservoir for

the coolant.

Column:

It is the main supporting frame mounted vertically on the base. The front

face of the column has vertical guide ways.

Knee

The knee is a rigid casting that slides up and down on the vertical guide

ways of the column. It has horizontal guide ways on its top surface. It

supports the saddle and table and is partially supported by the elevating

screw for adjusting the height of the knee.

Saddle:

The saddle supports and carries the table. Saddle is adjustable on guide

ways on the knee

Table The table rests

on guide ways

on the saddle

longitudinally. It supports the work piece.

6
6

and can be moved

Elevating screw

The height of the knee is adjusted by the elevating screw. It also supports the knee.

Spindle

The spindle obtains the power from the motor and transmits it to

an arbor. The spindle has a tapered socket for inserting the arbor.

Over arm The over arm is mounted on the top of the column. The over arm support provided at the free end of over arm can be moved

horizontally on the guide ways provided at the bottom surface of

the over arm

7
7

Arbor

It is the rod on which cutter is mounted. It is tapered at one end to fit into the spindle. The other end of the arbor is

mounted in a bearing provided in the over arm support.

8
8

Vertical Milling Machine

In vertical milling machine the spindle axis is kept vertical.

The principal parts of the vertical milling machines are

Base

Column

Knee

Saddle

Table

Elevating screw

Spindle head and

Over arm

9
9

Fig Vertical Milling machine

Fig Vertical Milling machine 10
11

Base

It is the foundation member for all other parts of the milling machine. It

gives the machine the required rigidity and strength.

Column

It is the main supporting frame mounted vertically on the base. The

front face of the column has vertical guide ways.

Knee

The knee is a rigid casting that slides up and down on the vertical guide

ways of the column face. It has horizontal guide ways on its top surface.

It supports the saddle and the table and is partially supported by the elevating screw which adjusts the height of the knee.

Saddle

The saddle supports and carries the table and is adjustable on guide

ways on the top of the knee.

Table

The table rests on guide ways on the saddle and can be moved

longitudinally. It supports the work piece.

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12

Elevating screw

The height of the knee is adjusted by elevating the screw. It also

supports the knee.

Spindle head

The spindle head is mounted on the top of the column. It has a

swivel base and hence the spindle head can be swiveled at an

angle for machining angular surfaces

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13

Milling Operations

Plain milling

Plain milling is also called surface milling or slab milling is the production of flat surfaces with the milling cutter axis

parallel to the surface being milled.

The work piece is generally clamped directly to the table.

Flat surfaces may be milled with a plain milling cutter

mounted on the arbor.

clamped directly to the table.  Flat surfaces may be milled with a plain milling cutter
15

Face Milling Face milling is a process by which the flat horizontal surfaces perpendicular to the axis of cutter is produced.

 Face milling is a process by which the flat horizontal surfaces perpendicular to the axis

Conventional face milling operation. The face-milling

cutter machines the entire surface. The cutter diameter is

greater than the workpart width.

17

operation. The face-milling cutter machines the entire surface. The cutter diameter is greater than the workpart

Partial face milling operation. The face milling cutter machines only one side of the work piece.

Partial face milling operation. The face milling cutter machines only one side of the work piece.

Side Milling

Side milling is the process by which flat surfaces is

produced at the side of the work piece.

 Side Milling  Side milling is the process by which flat surfaces is produced at

End Milling End milling is the process by which a flat surface which may be vertical or horizontal.

 End Milling  End milling is the process by which a flat surface which may

End milling operation used to cut a pocket in

an aluminum workpart.

End milling operation used to cut a pocket in an aluminum workpart. 21

T-Slot Milling

A T-Slot is produced using a T-Slot cutter. First of all a

plain slot is cut on the work piece using an end milling

cutter.

Then the T-Slot cutter is fed from one end of the work

piece.

The neck portion of the cutter passes through the already milled plain slot.

fed from one end of the work piece.  The neck portion of the cutter passes

Angular milling, or angle milling, is milling flat surfaces which are neither parallel nor perpendicular to the axis of the milling

cutter. A single angle milling cutter is used for angular surfaces. The usual angle of the cutter is 45 o ,50 o ,55 o , or 60 o based on designs.

for angular surfaces. The usual angle of the cutter is 45 o ,50 o ,55 o

Gear cutting.

Gear teeth are cut on the milling machine using formed milling cutters called involute gear cutters. These cutters are

manufactured in many pitch sizes and shapes for different numbers of teeth per gear.

gear cutters. These cutters are manufactured in many pitch sizes and shapes for different numbers of

Up Milling and Down Milling:

Milling can be classified as either up milling or down

milling. These operations are shown in fig below

up milling or down milling. These operations are shown in fig below Fig Up Milling Process

Fig Up Milling Process

up milling or down milling. These operations are shown in fig below Fig Up Milling Process

Fig Down Milling Process

Up Milling

Down Milling

 

In Up Milling also known as

Cutter rotates in same direction

conventional Milling, the cutter

as that in which the work is

rotates against the direction in

being fed.

which the work is being fed.

Job-tool motion is opposite.

Job-tool

motion

is

in

same

direction.

Cutting forces vary from zero to

Cutting forces vary from

maximum ie. cutting starts

with

maximum to minimum i.e. chip

zero thickness.

thickness is maximum at the

beginning.

Cutter tends to lift the work-piece.

Cutter tends to press the work-

piece firmly against the table.

Poor surface finish.

Good surface finish.

 

More power consumption.

Less power consumption

 
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28
29

SHAPING MACHINE

SHAPING MACHINE

SHAPING MACHINE

Shaping Machine or the shaper is used for the production of flat surfaces.

It uses a single point cutting tool for machining.

The work is held in a vice, fastened to a work table and the tool reciprocated over the work.

During the forward stoke of the tool it removes metal from the

work-piece.

At the end of the return stroke the feed operates to move the table and work to the desired amount.

2
2
Fig shaping machine 3

Fig shaping machine

4
5
6

Base. Base supports the whole machine and is rigidly bolted to the floor

Column: The column is mounted on the base. All the other

parts of shaper are attached to column. The top of the column

is machined to form guide ways for ram reciprocation. The

front vertical face of the column is also machined to enable the table to be raised or lowered.

Ram: It is the reciprocating part of the shaper. It reciprocates

on the guide ways provided on the top of the column. It

carries the tool head at the extreme front end. The ram is

connected to the quick return mechanism which allows the

ram to move at a slower speed during the cutting stroke and

at a faster speed during the return stroke.

7
7

Tool head: It is mounted at the front of the ram. It can be

swiveled to any angle to enable the tool to take angular

cuts.

Table: Vice is clamped on the table. Vice is a device to-

hold work on the table of the shaper.

8
8

Operations performed on a shaper

Even though shaper is primarily designed to generate a flat surface, it may also be used to perform many other

operations.

The different operations performed on a shaper are

Machining horizontal surface

Machining Vertical Surface

Machining Angular Surface

Machining Irregular surface

9
9

Machining horizontal surface

The work piece is held in the vise provided on the table of the shaper.

The bed is raised so that the work piece is just near to the

tool fitted in the tool holder.

The tool is fed on to the work by lowering the tool head.

The tool is lowered by rotating the down feed screw of the

tool head.

The tool as it moves forward removes the metal from the

work.

The work is moved laterally a little when it is ready for the cut during the forward stroke.

10
10

Fig Machining horizontal surface

Fig Machining horizontal surface 11

Machining Vertical Surface

The work is mounted in the vise.

The vertical slide is set exactly at the zero position and

the apron is swiveled in a direction away from the surface

being cut.

The down feed is given by rotating the down feed screw

of the tool head.

12
12

Fig Machining Vertical Surface

Fig Machining Vertical Surface 13

Machining Angular Surface

The work is set on the table

the vertical side

of

the tool head is swiveled

to

the

required angle from the vertical position.

The apron is further swiveled away from the work.

The down feed is given by rotating the down feed screw of the tool head

14
14
Fig Machining Angular Surface 15

Fig Machining Angular Surface

TYPES OF SHAPERS

Shapers are classified under the following headings:

According to the type of mechanism used for giving reciprocating motion to the ram

Crank type

Geared type Hydraulic type

According to the type of design of the table:

Standard shaper

Universal shaper

According to the position and travel of ram; Horizontal type Vertical type

Travelling head type

According to the type of cutting stroke:

Push type Draw type.

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