Sunteți pe pagina 1din 43

SECTION 35 – HYDRAULIC SYSTEM (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 1 1

SECTION 35 – HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Chapter 1 – Hydraulic Circuit and Components

CONTENT

Section Description Page


35 000 Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Torques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Special Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Description and Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Hydraulic Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Load Sensing Flow Sharing Hydraulic System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
35 701 Loader and Backhoe Control Overhaul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

LB 85–115 / FB 90.2–200.2 604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000


2 SECTION 35 – HYDRAULIC SYSTEM (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 1

SPECIFICATIONS
HYDRAULIC OIL
Specification Ambra Multi G API GL4, ISO 32/46
Capacity Total System 137 Litres (36.3 US. gals)
Reservoir Capacity 75 Litres (19.8 US. gals)
Change Interval 1200 Hours
Oil Filter Change 600 Hours

PUMP
Tandem Gear Pump Operating Steering and Hydraulic Circuits
Rear Pump (Steering Pump)
Output
N/ASP New Pump 75.5 L/min (20 US. gals/min)
@ 2200 rev/min @175 bar (2500 psi)
Worn Pump (minimum) 63 L/min (16.6 US. gals/min)
@ 2200 rev/min @175 bar (2500 psi)
Turbo New Pump 79.5 L/min (21 US. gals/min)
@ 2070 rev/min @175 bar (2500 psi)
Worn Pump (minimum) 67 L/min (17.7 US. gals/min)
@ 2070 rev/min @175 bar (2500 psi)
Steering Circuit Relief Valve Not 4WS 136.5 – 150 bar (1980 – 2175 psi)
Steering Circuit Relief Valve 4WS 177 – 190 bar (2566 – 2755 psi)
Steering Circuit Standby Pressure 7 bar (101.5 psi)
Rear Pump Relief Valve Pressure
(Located in Stabiliser Valve Section) 196 – 202 bar (2842 – 2929 psi)
Front Pump
Output
N/ASP New Pump 75.5 L/min (20 US. gals/min)
@ 2200 rev/min @175 bar (2500 psi)
Worn Pump (minimum) 63 L/min (16.6 US. gals/min)
@ 2200 rev/min @175 bar (2500 psi)
Turbo New Pump 79.5 L/min (21 US. gals/min)
@ 2070 rev/min @175 bar (2500 psi)
Worn Pump (minimum) 67 L/min (17.7 US. gals/min)
@ 2070 rev/min @175 bar (2500 psi)
Combined Output (minimum)
N/ASP 151 L/min (40 US. gals/min) @ 2200 rev/min
Turbo 159 L/min (42 US. gals/min) @ 2070 rev/min

Loader Control Valve


Type Load Sensing Flow Sharing Sectional Valve
Incorporating Rear Pump Relief Valve in Inlet End Cover

Backhoe Control Valve


Type Load Sensing Flow Sharing Sectional Valve
Incorporating Load Sense Circuit Pressure relief valve
in inlet end cover

604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000 LB 85–115 / FB 90.2–200.2


SECTION 35 – HYDRAULIC SYSTEM (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 1 3

CIRCUIT RELIEF VALVES AND PRESSURE


SETTINGS

1
Backhoe Control Valve Assembly
1. End Plate with Sideshift Clamp Cylinder Solenoid
2. Stabiliser Valve Section
3. Stabiliser Valve Section
4. Dipperstick Valve Section
5. Bucket Valve Section
6. Swing Cylinder Valve Section
7. Boom Control Valve Section
8. Extendible Dipperstick Control Valve Section
9. Inlet Housing
10. Swing Cylinder Cushioning Circuit Relief Valve (Left Swing) 205 bar
11. Lift Cylinder (Piston end) Circuit Relief Valve 204 bar
12. Extendible Dipperstick Cylinder (Piston end) Circuit Relief Valve 240 bar
13. Load Sense Limiter (System Pressure Relief Valve) 210 bar
14. Load Sense Return to Reservoir Control Orifice
15. Pump Flow Balancer Valve
16. Lift Cylinder (Rod End) Circuit Relief Valve 315 bar
17. Swing Cylinder Cushioning Circuit Relief Valve (Right Swing) 205 bar
18. Bucket Cylinder (Rod End) Circuit Relief Valve 220 bar
19. Dipper Cylinder (Piston End) Circuit Relief Valve 240 bar

LB 85–115 / FB 90.2–200.2 604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000


4 SECTION 35 – HYDRAULIC SYSTEM (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 3

Loader Control Valve Assembly


1. End Cover
2. Loader Valve Section
3. Bucket (Crowd) Valve Section
4. Auxiliary Valve Section (Where Fitted)
5. End Plate
6. Loader Bucket Relief Valve (Rod End)
230 bar (3336 psi)
7. Loader Bucket Relief Valve (Piston End)
160 bar (2320 psi)

2
TIGHTENING TORQUES

604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000 LB 85–115 / FB 90.2–200.2


SECTION 35 – HYDRAULIC SYSTEM (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 1 5

‘O’ Ring Face Seal (ORFS) Tightening Torques


Ensure that the correct ‘O’ ring seal (2) is properly
placed in the face seal ‘O’ ring groove on the con-
nector (1). Place the tube assembly against the fit- mm
ting body so that the flat face of the sleeve comes in
full contact with the ‘O’ ring. Thread the nut by hand
and tighten to the specified torque.
Do Not Overtighten ‘0’ Ring Face Seal Connectors’

4
Steel Tube Outside Diameter
(mm) Nm lbf ft
10 36 27
12 54 40
14–16 85 63
18–20 122 90
22–25 162 120

SPECIAL TOOLS
Quick Release Coupler New Holland Part No 291924
Universal Pressure Test Kit New Holland Part No 292870
or
Pressure Test Kit PT 100–45 Procure from Webster Instruments
or
0–300 bar Pressure Gauge Procure Locally
Flowmeter 0–200 Litres/min Procure Locally

LB 85–115 / FB 90.2–200.2 604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000


6 SECTION 35 – HYDRAULIC SYSTEM (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 1

DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION

INTRODUCTION

5
Oil Pump and Loader Control Valve Installation
1. Hydraulic Pump 6. Supply to Backhoe Control Valve
2. To Steering Test Port 7. Load Sense Line to Backhoe Control Valve
3. Loader Control Valve 8. Front Pump Supply to Hydraulic Circuit
4. Rear Pump Supply to Hydraulic Circuit 9. Steering Load Sense Line
5. Return to Reservoir 10. To Steering Motor

The location of the principal components shown in hydrostatic steering system with remaining flow sup-
the hydraulic circuits in Figure 8 and Figure 13 are as plementing the output from the front pump to the
follows. loader and backhoe hydraulic circuits.
A more detailed description and operation of each
component follows the circuit diagrams. Loader Control Valve
The loader control valve is mounted on the right hand
Hydraulic Pump Assembly side of the machine adjacent to the pump.
Mounted on the rear of the transmission the pump The valve assembly consists of a maximum of three
comprises of two pumping elements. spool operated sections and provides oil flow to the
A front pump suppling oil for operation of front loader loader boom, bucket and auxiliary services where
and backhoe. fitted.
A rear pump which incorporates a load sensing flow
divider valve to direct priority flow to the load sensed

604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000 LB 85–115 / FB 90.2–200.2


SECTION 35 – HYDRAULIC SYSTEM (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 1 7

Backhoe Control Valve


The backhoe control valve is located at the rear of
the chassis.
The valve consists of a maximum of seven spool op-
erated valve sections and provides oil flow for oper-
ation of the boom, dipper, bucket, swing, stabiliser
and sideshift clamp elements of the backhoe assem-
bly.

7
Located within the inlet cover (3) of the backhoe con- cess flow back to reservoir. The valve also maintains
trol valve are the load sense limiter (system pressure a back pressure of 17 bar in the circuit when all valve
relief valve) (2) and load sense return to reservoir ori- sections are in neutral and engine speed is 1000 rev/
fice (1) which allows load sense pressure to vent to min.
reservoir when hydraulic circuits are in neutral or Back pressure will increase to 23 bar at an engine
load sense pressure exceeds the 210 bar maximum speed of 2200 rev/min
value due to a malfunction in the system.
The pump flow balancer valve, items (4–8) controls
the flow of oil from the hydraulic pump and diverts ex-

LB 85–115 / FB 90.2–200.2 604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000


8 SECTION 35 – HYDRAULIC SYSTEM (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 1

HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT leries of the loader and backhoe control valves as-
The hydraulic circuit is a load sensing flow sharing semblies.
system working in conjunction with a fixed displace- Flow from the rear section of the pump passes
ment gear type hydraulic pump. This system has the through the load sensing flow divider valve mounted
advantage that at any time the distribution of flow to on the pump and gives priority flow to the steering cir-
the services being operated is in proportion to the cuit with remaining flow directed to supplement the
openings of the control valve spools. flow from the front pump for the loader and backhoe
The flow distribution to the backhoe and loader con- circuits.
trol valves is load independent and it is therefore The centre gallery of both the loader and backhoe
possible to satisfactorily operate two or more spools control valves are blocked by the end plate. Pressure
at the same time. in the supply circuit is controlled by the pump flow ba-
The principal components of the load sensing flow lancer valve in accordance with the pressure in the
sharing system are the pressure compensator load sense line. Consequently the higher the load
valves in each control valve section, refer to Fig- sense pressure the less flow is returned to reservoir
ure 15, together with the load sense line which con- with corresponding increase in flow/pressure to the
nects all the spool sections in both the loader and hydraulic circuits.
backhoe control valve assemblies. Maximum system pressure is limited by the load
Because the hydraulic pump is a fixed displacement sense pressure relief valve which relieves pressure
gear type pump it should be noted that the load sense in the load sense line when it reaches 210 bar. Be-
line only connects the loader and backhoe control cause the pump flow balancer valve is influenced by
valve assemblies and does not have any connection load sense pressure the valve diverts sufficient flow
to the hydraulic pump. back to reservoir to maintain the maximum system
pressure of 210 bar.
The hydraulic pump draws oil from the reservoir and
flow from the front pump is directed to the centre gal-

604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000 LB 85–115 / FB 90.2–200.2


SECTION 35 – HYDRAULIC SYSTEM (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 1 9

8
Hydraulic Circuit Schematic
Hydraulic Circuit Oil Suction Oil

Steering Circuit Oil Return to Reservoir

Load Sense Oil

1. Hydraulic Reservoir 8. Backhoe Hammer


2. Hydraulic Pump 9. Backhoe Control Valve
3. Steering Motor 10. Return Line Distributor Block
4. Hand Hammer Control Valve 11. Filter
5. Hand Hammer 12. Oil Cooler By–Pass Valve
6. Loader Control Valve 13. Oil Cooler
7. Backhoe Hammer Control Valve

LB 85–115 / FB 90.2–200.2 604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000


10 SECTION 35 – HYDRAULIC SYSTEM (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 1

MAIN HYDRAULIC SYSTEM (LESS OPTIONS)


2 AND 4 WHEEL DRIVE – OUTSIDE NORTH AMERICA

1. Front Axle
2. Boom
3. Crowd
4. Boom
5. Swing
6. Bucket
7. Dipper
8. LH Stabiliser
9. RH Stabiliser
10. Clamps
11. Pump Output–
38+38 for Machine with Turbo Engine
34+34 for Machine with Normally Aspirated Engine

604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000 LB 85–115 / FB 90.2–200.2


A B A B A B B
SECTION 35 – HYDRAULIC SYSTEM (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 1 19

LOAD SENSING FLOW SHARING HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

15
Hydraulic Control Valve Section
1. Spool Cap 8. Plate
2. Centralising Spring 9. ‘O’ Ring Seal
3. Spool 10. Plug
4. Plug 11. Pressure Compensator Spool
5. Spring 12. Pressure Compensator Metering Element
6. Check Valve 13. Valve Section
7. Wiper 14. Relief Valve

Reference should be made to the above illustration ponents shown in the colour diagrams on Pages 25
to understand the location and function of the com- to 29.

LB 85–115 / FB 90.2–200.2 604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000


20 SECTION 35 – HYDRAULIC SYSTEM (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 1

All Loader/Backhoe Circuits in Neutral Because there is no load sense pressure being
Each control valve section within the backhoe or applied to the rear face of the flow balancer valve the
loader control valve assemblies contains a spool, valve will move against the spring and off its seat
two check valves and a load sensing pressure when pump pressure reaches 15 bar. Pump flow is
compensator. now diverted back to reservoir and the balancer
valve maintains a standby pressure of 15 bar while
A load sense gallery connects the compensators in
the circuits are in neutral.
each control valve section.
When all control valves are in neutral the spools
prevent the flow of oil in each circuit and pressure in
the load sense line can bleed to reservoir through the
1 litre/min load sense return to reservoir orifice in the
backhoe control valve inlet cover.

16
Flow Balancer Valve Operation – All Spools In Neutral

Return to Reservoir Pump Standby Pressure 15 bar


4. Load Sense Line
1. Load Sense Bleed Orifice 1 ltr/min 5. Pump Flow Balancer (Unload) Valve
2. Load Sense Limiter (System Relief Valve) 6. Pump Flow IN
3. Return to Reservoir 7. To Backhoe Control Valves

604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000 LB 85–115 / FB 90.2–200.2


SECTION 35 – HYDRAULIC SYSTEM (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 1 21

17
Load Sensing Flow Sharing – All Spools in Neutral
Pump Pressure Return to Reservoir

Trapped Oil

1. Load Check Valve 3. Pressure Compensating Valve


2. Load Sense Line 4. Spool

LB 85–115 / FB 90.2–200.2 604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000


22 SECTION 35 – HYDRAULIC SYSTEM (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 1

One Hydraulic Circuit Operating


When a single hydraulic circuit is operated the spool required to operate the flow balancer valve and pump
in the control valve section is moved allowing oil to pressure increase accordingly.
flow past the lands of the spool and apply pressure When pump pressure overcomes the pressure
to the metering element of the pressure behind the load check valve, the valve opens
compensating valve. allowing oil to flow into the cylinder port.
The metering element moves upwards to allow oil to Exhaust oil from the cylinder returns to reservoir
flow to the load check valve and at the same time through the other port in the control valve section.
uncovers the drilling in the spool portion of the
If the load sense pressure in a circuit reaches 195 bar
pressure compensator valve enabling operating
the load sense relief valve in the backhoe control
pressure to be sensed in the load sense gallery.
valve end cover will operate. Pump pressure is now
As pressure increases to open the load check valve, limited to 210 bar. This being the pressure required
load sense pressure is applied to the spring side of to overcome the pressure of the flow balancing valve
the flow balancer valve in the backhoe control valve spring (15 bar) plus the load sense pressure
end cover, Figure 18. A higher pressure is now controlled at 195 bar.

18
Flow Balancer Valve Operation – Hydraulic Circuits Operating

Return to Reservoir Load Sense Pressure

Pump Pressure
4. Load Sense Line
1. Load Sense Bleed Orifice – 1 ltr/min 5. Pump Flow Balancer (Unload) Valve
2. Load Sense Limiter (System Relief Valve) 6. Pump Flow IN
3. Return to Reservoir 7. To Backhoe Control Valves

604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000 LB 85–115 / FB 90.2–200.2


SECTION 35 – HYDRAULIC SYSTEM (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 1 23

19
Load Sensing Flow Sharing – One Spool Operating
Pump Pressure Return to Reservoir

Trapped Oil

1. Load Check Valve 3. Pressure Compensating Valve


2. Load Sense Line 4. Spool

LB 85–115 / FB 90.2–200.2 604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000


24 SECTION 35 – HYDRAULIC SYSTEM (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 1

Two or More Hydraulic Circuits Operating operating pressure to be sensed in the load sense
When two or more hydraulic circuits are operated gallery.
each circuit will operate at a different pressure. Pump pressure will rise until it overcomes the
If pump flow to a specific circuit is not controlled the pressure behind the load check valve of the heaviest
circuit requiring a lower operating pressure will work loaded circuit and the pressure in the load sense line
faster than that requiring the higher pressure is similarly at this high pressure.
because flow will take the path of least resistance. The pressure required to operate the lower loaded
To overcome this situation the pressure circuit is now too high and if not restricted will result
compensating valve regulates the flow of oil to the in the lower loaded circuit operating in preference to
circuit operating at a lower load. and faster than the higher loaded circuit.
When two spools are operated simultaneously pump To compensate for this condition the load sense
pressure is applied to the metering element of the pressure moves the metering element of the
pressure compensating valve in both valve sections. pressure compensating valve in the lower loaded
Both metering elements therefore move upwards circuit downwards and restricts the flow to the circuit.
allowing oil to flow to the load check valves. At the This balancing of flow and pressure according to load
same time the drilling in the spool portion of the ensures that both circuits operate simultaneously
pressure compensating valve is uncovered to allow and at a balanced flow rate.

20
Load Sense Relief Valve Operating

Return to Reservoir Load Sense Pressure @ 195 bar

Pump Pressure @210 bar


4. Load Sense Line
1. Load Sense Bleed Orifice 1 ltr/min 5. Pump Flow Balancer (Unload) Valve
2. Load Sense Limiter (System Relief Valve) 6. Pump Flow IN
3. Return to Reservoir 7. To Backhoe Control Valves

604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000 LB 85–115 / FB 90.2–200.2


SECTION 35 – HYDRAULIC SYSTEM (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 1 25

21
Load Sensing Flow Sharing – Two Spools Operating
1st Spool Operating Pressure Trapped Oil

2nd Spool Operating Pressure Return to Reservoir

1. Load Check Valve 3. Pressure Compensating Valve


2. Load Sense Line 4. Spool

LB 85–115 / FB 90.2–200.2 604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000


26 SECTION 35 – HYDRAULIC SYSTEM (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 1

NOTES PAGE

604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000 LB 85–115 / FB 90.2–200.2


SECTION 35 – HYDRAULIC SYSTEM (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 1 27

LOADER AND BACKHOE CONTROL


VALVE OVERHAUL
The overhaul procedure for both the loader and
backhoe control valve assemblies are similar.

Loader Control Valve Removal

(Op No 35 701)
1. Lower loader to ground and position the dipstick
in the vertical plane with bucket positioned firmly
on the ground.

22
2. Stop the engine and relieve any residual pres-
sure in the backhoe and loader circuits by moving
the loader and backhoe control levers through all
operating positions.

23
3. Disconnect the battery

24

LB 85–115 / FB 90.2–200.2 604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000


28 SECTION 35 – HYDRAULIC SYSTEM (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 1

25
Hydraulic Pump and Loader Control Valve Installation
1. Hydraulic Pump 6. Supply to Backhoe Control Valve
2. To Steering Test Port 7. Load Sense Line to Backhoe Control Valve
3. Loader Control Valve 8. Front Pump Supply to Hydraulic Circuit
4. Rear Pump Supply to Hydraulic Circuit 9. Steering Load Sense Line
5. Return to Reservoir 10. To Steering Motor

4. Identify and disconnect hydraulic connections


and linkage to control valve.
5. Remove valve assembly from machine.
6. For disassembly of control valve refer to
Page 34.

26
7. Installation is removal procedure in reverse.

604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000 LB 85–115 / FB 90.2–200.2


SECTION 35 – HYDRAULIC SYSTEM (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 1 29

Backhoe Control Valve Removal

(Op No 35 702)
1. Position the unit on hard level surface.
2. Lower loader to the ground
3. Lower stabilisers
4. Offset swing frame on sideshift models to the left
or right.
5. Position dipstick in the vertical plane with bucket
positioned firmly on the ground.

27
6. Stop the engine and relieve any residual pres-
sure in the backhoe and loader circuits by moving
the loader and backhoe control levers through all
operating positions.

28
7. Disconnect the battery

29

LB 85–115 / FB 90.2–200.2 604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000


30 SECTION 35 – HYDRAULIC SYSTEM (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 1

8. Clean area around control valve.


9. Tag and identify position of all hydraulic hoses.
10. Disconnect and cap hoses.
11. Disconnect control lever linkage.
12. On sideshift models disconnect connector to
sideshift clamp solenoid.

30
13. Support the weight of the valve using a suitable
lift.

31
14. Remove valve retaining bolts which are located
on the rear of the control valve mounting plate
and carefully withdraw and lower valve from ma-
chine.
15. Installation is removal procedure in reverse.

32
Control Valve Disassembly
Disassembly of the loader and backhoe control valve
assemblies are similar.
For reference the individual valve sections and relief
valves are identified as follows.
Loader Control Valve
1. End Plate
2. Loader Arm Control Valve
3. Bucket Cylinder Control Valve
4. Auxiliary Circuit Control Valve
5. End Block
6. Loader Bucket Relief Valve (Rod End)
7. Loader Bucket Relief Valve (Piston End)
33

604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000 LB 85–115 / FB 90.2–200.2


SECTION 35 – HYDRAULIC SYSTEM (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 1 31

1. Prior to disassembly the valves should be thor-


oughly cleaned using an approved degreaser.
2. Scribe a diagonal line across the valve sections
to aid re–assembly.
3. Remove tie rod nuts and separate components.

34

35
Hydraulic Control Valve Section – Typical
1. Spool Cap 8. Plate
2. Centralising Spring 9. ‘O’ Ring Seal
3. Spool 10. Plug
4. Plug 11. Pressure Compensator Spool
5. Spring 12. Pressure Compensator Collar
6. Check Valve 13. Valve Section
7. Wiper 14. Relief Valve

LB 85–115 / FB 90.2–200.2 604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000


32 SECTION 35 – HYDRAULIC SYSTEM (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 1

36
Backhoe Control Valve Inlet Housing
1. Exhaust Regulator Valve 5. ‘O’ Ring
2. Load Sense Circuit Relief Valve 200 bar 6. Spring
3. Inlet Housing 7. Spring
4. Plug 8. Flow Balancer Valve

NOTE: The items shown in Figure 36 are not


installed in the inlet housing of the loader control
valve assembly

Inspection
1. Wash all components in an approved degreaser.
2. Inspect spools and bores for scoring and dam-
age. If spool is badly scored or worn the valve
must be replaced.

Re–assembly
1. Re–assembly follows the removal procedure in
reverse.
37
2. Progressively tighten spool tie rods to a torque of
25 Nm.

604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000 LB 85–115 / FB 90.2–200.2


SECTION 35 – PRESSURE TESTING (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 2 1

SECTION 35 – HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS

Chapter 2 – Fault Finding, Pressure and Flow Testing

CONTENT

Section Description Page


35 000 Preliminary Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Fault Finding Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Pressure Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Steering Standby . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Steering Circuit Relief Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
System Pressure Relief Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Loader Bucket Relief Valve (Piston End) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Extendible Dipper Relief Valve (Piston End) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Swing System Relief Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Dipperstick Bucket and Boom Relief Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Flow Testing (Pump Performance Test) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

LB 75–115 / FB 90.2–200.2 604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000


2 SECTION 35 – PRESSURE TESTING (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 2

FAULT FINDING AND PRESSURE TESTING

Preliminary Checks
If fault finding, pressure and flow testing is carried out EXAMPLE:
in a systematic manner and the results analyzed, the Backhoe lift circuit slow to raise, all other circuits ap-
malfunction can be readily and accurately identified. pear to work normally.
If short cuts, assumptions and guesses are made,
Listed in the column under “Malfunction” in the “Fault
unnecessary strip-down or component replacement
Finding Chart”, the description would be “lift fails to
could result. Follow the step-by-step procedures out-
operate, is slow or has loss of power”.
lined below.
The column headed “Malfunction” lists the ob-
As a first step in the fault finding procedure, several
served malfunctions when the backhoe or loader
preliminary checks should be made. These checks
is operated.
are important in that once performed, they need no
longer be considered as a possible cause of the im- The column headed “Possible Cause” lists all the
mediate or reported malfunction. items in the circuit which could cause the ob-
served malfunction.
Check that the hydraulic oil is at the correct level
and of the correct specification. The column headed “Test/Repair” lists the test
which should be used to determine the item
Check the loader, backhoe or any additional ac-
causing the observed malfunction.
cessory such as hydraulic bucket, hammers etc.,
for correct assembly or installation and addition- Refer to “Test/Repair” column and perform the rec-
ally for signs of external damage that might ommended tests. Systematic and logical testing will
cause gross misalignment of structural reduce the time required in locating the cause of the
members. malfunction and provide a more accurate indication
of the malfunction. If adequate test equipment is not
Check in more detail for other mechanical dam-
available, disassembly and inspection of the items
age such as kinked, twisted, worn or decayed
listed under “Possible Causes” must be undertaken.
hoses, damaged cylinders and bent elements.
Do not forget to check underneath the unit for Before pressure testing the machine ensure the hy-
damaged steel tubes, particularly if the unit has draulic oil is at normal operating temperature of
been known to have operated in arduous condi- 75 C.
tions, been grounded, or bogged down. Pressure testing is performed using the two pressure
Ensure optimum operating temperature of the test ports on the left hand side of the machine.
hydraulic oil is achieved. The upper port tests the hydraulic system and the
The preceding preliminary checks assume that the lower port the steering system.
engine performance is not in question. Having per- Install 0–200 bar (0–3000 psi) pressure gauge in
formed these checks and failed to locate the cause this port using quick release coupler, Part No
of the malfunction, the following procedures should 291924, when pressure testing the steering system.
be adopted:
If possible, operate the backhoe and make notes
of the operating characteristics. Cycle each con-
trol lever to operate each of the cylinders to the
fully extended and retracted positions.
Compare the operating characteristics in the pre-
ceding stage with the malfunctions listed in the
“Fault Finding Chart”.

38

604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000 LB 75–115 / FB 90.2–200.2


SECTION 35 – PRESSURE TESTING (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 2 3

FAULT FINDING - GENERAL


PROBLEM POSSIBLE CAUSES CORRECTION
All circuits fail to operate. Pump drive inoperative. Investigate and repair as
necessary.
Low oil level. Check and add oil.
Restricted pump suction line. Inspect suction line and
reservoir, repair as necessary.
Slow operation or loss of power Pump worn. Perform pump performance
in all circuits. test and replace/reseal as
necessary.
Restricted pump suction line. Inspect suction line and
reservoir, repair as necessary.
Load Sense Pressure Relief Pressure test system
Valve incorrectly adjusted

FAULT FINDING - LOADER


PROBLEM POSSIBLE CAUSES CORRECTION
Lift fails to operate, is slow or Valve spool leakage. Examine lift section of loader
has loss of power. control valve assembly for wear
or scoring.
Piston seals leaking or cylinder Examine/reseal piston and
barrel damaged. gland.
Bucket fails to operate, is slow Circuit relief valves stuck open, Bucket circuit relief valve test.
or has loss of power. set too low or seat leaking.
Valve spool leakage. Examine bucket section of
loader control valve assembly
for wear or scoring.
Piston seals leaking or cylinder Examine/reseal piston and
barrel damaged. gland.
Cylinder leak down (spools in Piston barrel damaged. Examine/reseal piston and
neutral). gland.
Internal valve leakage.
Examine appropriate valve
section of loader control valve
assembly for wear or scoring.
Hesitation in loader lift or Load check valve between Disassemble and inspect.
bucket cylinders when control control valve sections
initially moved. damaged.

LB 75–115 / FB 90.2–200.2 604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000


4 SECTION 35 – PRESSURE TESTING (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 2

FAULT FINDING - BACKHOE


Refer to the following backhoe fault finding chart after first considering the preceding charts. The backhoe chart
should only be referred to if the supply circuit is performing normally, thereby confirming that the pump and hy-
draulic supply circuits are functioning to specification. See also “Fault Finding Hydraulic Pump”.

PROBLEM POSSIBLE CAUSES CORRECTION


Lift fails to operate, is slow, has Lift circuit relief valve stuck Pressure test lift circuit relief
loss of power or is not holding. open, set too low or seat is valve.
leaking.
Valve spool leakage. Examine lift section of backhoe
control valve assembly for wear
and scoring.
Piston seal leaking or cylinder Examine/reseal piston and
barrel damaged. gland.
Crowd fails to operate, is slow, Crowd circuit relief valve Pressure test crowd circuit
has loss of power. (piston end) stuck open, set too relief valve.
low or seat is leaking.
Valve spool leakage. Examine crowd section of
backhoe control valve
assembly for wear and scoring.
Piston seal leaking or cylinder Examine/reseal piston and
barrel damaged. gland.
Bucket fails to operate, is slow, Bucket circuit relief valve (rod Pressure test bucket circuit
has loss of power. end) stuck open, set too low, or relief valve.
seat is leaking.
Valve spool leakage. Examine bucket section of
backhoe control valve
assembly for wear and scoring.
Piston seal leaking or cylinder Examine/reseal piston and
barrel damaged. gland.
Extendible dipstick fails to Extendible dipperstick circuit Pressure test bucket circuit
operate, is slow, has loss of relief valve (piston end) stuck relief valve.
power or is not holding. open, set too low, or seat is
leaking.
Valve spool leakage. Examine extendible dipperstick
section of control valve
assembly for wear and scoring.
Piston seal leaking or cylinder Examine/reseal piston and
barrel damaged. gland.
Stabiliser leg leaks down Stabiliser lock valve leaking Examine/overhaul stabiliser
lock valve.
Piston seal leaking or cylinder Examine/reseal piston and
barrel damaged gland.

604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000 LB 75–115 / FB 90.2–200.2


SECTION 35 – PRESSURE TESTING (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 2 5

FAULT FINDING - BACKHOE (CONT.)


PROBLEM POSSIBLE CAUSES CORRECTION
Right or left direction swing fails Swing circuit relief valves not Swing circuit relief valve test.
to operate, is slow, or has loss seating, set too low or seat is
of power. leaking.
Valve spool leakage. Examine swing section of
backhoe control valve
assembly for wear or scoring.
Piston seal leaking or cylinder Examine/reseal piston and
barrel damaged. gland.
Swing fails to slow (cushion Integral sliding restrictor Disassemble and inspect.
arrest) at end of travel. damaged.
Piston seal leaking or cylinder Examine/reseal piston and
barrel damage. gland.
Swing continues to move when Circuit relief valve (return side) Swing circuit relief valve test.
control lever returned to neutral stuck open, set too low or seat
(one direction only). leaking.
Valve spool leakage. Examine swing section of
backhoe control valve
assembly for wear or scoring.
Cylinders leak down (spools in Internal valve leakage. Examine appropriate valve
neutral). section of backhoe control
valve assembly for wear or
scoring.
Piston seal leaking or cylinder Examine/reseal piston and
barrel damaged. gland.
Any one circuit drops Load check valves in control Disassemble and inspect.
momentarily when signalled to valve sections damaged.
raise.

LB 75–115 / FB 90.2–200.2 604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000


6 SECTION 35 – PRESSURE TESTING (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 2

FAULT FINDING - HYDRAULIC PUMP


PROBLEM POSSIBLE CAUSES CORRECTION
System noisy. Worn or damaged pump gears Hydraulic pump performance
or pressure plates. test.
Aeration: Air entering the Hydraulic pump performance
systems at: suction tube, pump test.
shaft, fittings, or cylinder
glands.
Cavitation: Restrictions in the Visual and/or hydraulic pump
system at the suction line or at performance test.
the suction screen in the
reservoir.
Water in the system. Visual.
Tubing vibration. Visual.
Cold hydraulic oil. Check hydraulic oil operating
temperature.
Wrong type oil being used. Investigate/drain and refill.
Hydraulic oil exhausts from Reservoir overfilled. Check hydraulic oil level.
breather at the reservoir.
Aeration: Air entering the Hydraulic pump performance
system at: suction tube, pump test.
shaft, fittings, or cylinder
glands.
Cavitation: Restriction in the Visual and/or hydraulic pump
system at the suction screen in performance test.
the reservoir.
Oil heating. Oil supply low. Fill reservoir.
Contaminated oil. Drain reservoir and refill with
clean oil.
Setting of relief valve too high Drain reservoir and refill with
or too low. clean oil. Test relief valves.
Oil in system too light. Drain reservoir and refill with
correct viscosity oil.
Oil cooler fins blocked. Clean oil cooler.
Shaft seal oil leakage. Worn shaft seal. Replace shaft seal and inspect
pump.
Foaming oil. Low oil level. Fill reservoir.
Air drawn into suction line. Check/tighten suction line.
Wrong oil grade. Drain and refill with correct oil.

604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000 LB 75–115 / FB 90.2–200.2


SECTION 35 – PRESSURE TESTING (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 2 7

PRESSURE TESTING

Steering Standby
3. install 0–40 bar (0–600 psi) pressure gauge into
the lower test port on left hand side of machine.
4. Set engine speed to 1000 rev/min

39
5. Ensure no turning force is being applied to the
steering wheel and observe pressure on gauge.
The pressure gauge should read approximately
17 bar (250 psi) and is the steering standby pres-
sure.
6. If pressure incorrect remove and examine flow
divider spool on end of pump

40
Steering Circuit Relief Valve
1. install 0–200 bar (0–3000 psi) pressure gauge
into the lower test port on left hand side of ma-
chine.
2. Set engine speed to 2000 rev/min and fully turn
and hold steering on either full left or right hand
turn and observe pressure gauge. The gauge re-
ading should rise to 175–183 bar
(2560–2660 psi) and is the steering circuit relief
valve setting.

41
3. If reading is not to specification stop engine, re-
move blanking plug on pump flow divider and
using screwdriver turn relief valve adjusting
screw to increase or decrease setting.
4. Retest steering and when pressure correct peen
end of adjuster to prevent movement and re–in-
stall blanking plug.

42

LB 75–115 / FB 90.2–200.2 604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000


8 SECTION 35 – PRESSURE TESTING (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 4

System Pressure Relief Valve


1. Install 0–300 bar pressure gauge into upper test
port.
2. Set engine speed to 2200 rev/min.
3. Raise loader until bucket is approximately
0.5 metres from the ground. This ensures that
self levelling device does restrict movement of
bucket during this test.

43
4. Hold the loader bucket control lever to the left
causing the bucket to roll back.

44
5. Observe the reading on the upper gauge which
will display the system pressure relief valve set-
ting.
Pressure reading should be 210 bar
(3040 psi)
6. If relief valve is away from specification adjust to
Specification.

45

604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000 LB 75–115 / FB 90.2–200.2


SECTION 35 – PRESSURE TESTING (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 2 9

Loader Bucket Relief Valve (Piston End)


1. Set engine speed to 2200 rev/min
2. Hold the loader bucket control lever to the right
causing the bucket to dump.

46
3. Observe the upper gauge which should read
160 bar (2300 psi) minimum and is the operating
pressure of the loader bucket, piston end, relief
valve. Values up to 190 bar are acceptable
4. Adjust valve if not to specification.
5. To test rod end circuit relief valve hold lever to the
left and curl in the bucket. If pressure reading is
210 bar the system relief valve is operating and
it is an indication that relief valve which is set at
230 bar is set correctly.

47
Extendible Dipper Relief Valve (Piston End)
1. Set engine speed to 2200 rev/min
2. Fully extend the extendible dipper and continue
to depress the control pedal.

48
3. Observe the reading on the gauge in the lower
test port (3).
4. Pressure recorded is the extendible dipper relief
valve setting and should read 165 bar (2375 psi)
minimum. Values up to 200 bar are acceptable
5. Adjust valve if not to specification.

49

LB 75–115 / FB 90.2–200.2 604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000


10 SECTION 35 – PRESSURE TESTING (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 2

Swing System Relief Valves


1. Set engine speed to 2200 rev/min
2. Hold dipperstick fully left until relief valve oper-
ates and blow relief valve.
3. Observe the upper gauge which should read
205 bar (3000 psi) minimum.
4. Repeat procedure with dipperstick held to the
right.
5. Adjust valve if not to specification.

50
6. Observe the reading on the gauge in the lower
test port (3).
7. Pressure recorded is the extendible dipper relief
valve setting and should read 165 bar (2375 psi)
minimum. Values up to 200 bar are acceptable
8. Adjust valve if not to specification.

51
Dipperstick Bucket and Boom Relief Valves
Valves
These relief valve are set to a higher pressure than
the main system relief valve setting of 210 bar.
To test these circuit relief valves operate each ser-
vice until the corresponding relief valve operates.
If pressure reading in each incidence is 210 bar the
system relief valve is operating and it is an indication
that relief valves are set correctly.
Dipperstick bucket circuit relief valve (rod end) seci-
fication is 220 bar.
Dipperstick boom circuit relief valve setting (piston
end) is 240 bar.
To accurately test the dipperstick bucket (rod end)
and boom (piston end) relief valves the main system
pressure can be temporarly increased to 240 bar.
Do Not increase pressure setting to higher than 240
bar and reset system relief valve to 210 bar on
completion of test.
NOTE: Dipperstick boom circuit relief valve setting
(rod end) is 315 bar and can not be checked using
this system. Replace this valve if considred faulty.

604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000 LB 75–115 / FB 90.2–200.2


SECTION 35 – PRESSURE TESTING (REXROTH) – CHAPTER 2 11

Flow Testing

Pump Performance Test


The following pump performance test must be per-
formed after pressure testing the system and rear
pump relief valves and when the hydraulic oil is at
normal operating temperature of 75 C.
1. Disconnect inlet and outlet hoses to backhoe
control valve and install 0–200L/min flowmeter
2. Open flowmeter valve.
3. Slowly turn flow control valve and increase pres-
sure to 175 bar (2550 psi) Measure pump flow
which should be 69–81 Litres/min.
Analysis
If flow recorded in step 3 is less than 69 Litres/min
the pump is worn and requires overhaul.
NOTE: If the machine has a history of poor service
intervals replace the hydraulic system filter and clean
pump intake filter in the reservoir.

52

LB 75–115 / FB 90.2–200.2 604.56.061.00 / 604.13.028 – 09/2000