Sunteți pe pagina 1din 20

LOAD COMBINATION FOR ULS (Foundamental combinaiton)

HK Code Code of
Load type practive for
structure use
Load combination Dead Imposed Earth and Wind of concrete.
Adverse Beneficial Adverse Beneficial water pressure (Code S.conc)
Dead, imposed
(earth/water)
1.4 1.0 1.6 0.0 1.4 -

Dead and wind 2.3.2.1


(earth/water)
1.4 1.0 - - 1.4 1.4

Dead, impose and 1.2 1.0 1.2 0.0 1.2 1.2


wind (earth/water)
BS Code BS 8110 - 1
Load type 2.4.3.1
Load combination Dead Imposed Earth and Wind
Adverse Beneficial Adverse Beneficial water pressure
Dead, imposed
(earth/water)
1.4 1.0 1.6 0.0 1.4 -

Dead and wind


(earth/water)
1.4 1.0 - - 1.4 1.4

Dead, impose and 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2


wind (earth/water)
Eurocode
EN 1990
In the language of Eurocode, "dead load" becomes "permanent action"; imposed loads,
snow loads and wind loads are collectively called "variable action", and "load
combination" becomes "combinations of actions".
There is 3 approach for foundamental combinations:

Values of ѱ factor Eq 6.10

Eq 6.10a
There is 3 ways to identify values
of factor that had explanded
clearly in A1.3 EN 1990: Eq 6.10b
Set A Set B Set C

Typical common design values of action at ULS:

Persitent or
Permanent actions (Gk) Variable actions (Qk,1)
trentient design WIND
situation
Un-favour. Favourable Un-favour. Favourable
Permanent +
Variable
1.35 1.00 1.50 1.00 --

Permanent +
Wind
1.35 1.00 -- -- 1.50

1.35 1.00 1.50 -- 0.5x1.5


Permanent +
Variable + Wind
1.35 1.00 1.50 -- 0.5x1.5
Permanent +
Variable + Wind
1.35 1.00 0.7x1.5 -- 1.50

Values of ѱ factor (EN1990 A1.2.2 )

Set A - Table A1.2 (A) EN 1990


Set B - Table A1.2 (A) EN 1990

Set C - Table A1.2 (C) EN 1990


IMPOSED LOAD FOR BUILDING (EN 1991)
Code of
practive for Residential, social, commercial and aministration area
structure use
of concrete.
(Code S.conc)

BS 8110 - 1

EN 1990

Eq 6.10

Eq 6.10a

Eq 6.10b
Area for strorage and industrial activities

Garages and vehcile traffic area


EN 1990
6.3.1
VALUE OF PARTIAL SAFETY FACTOR FOR MATERIAL
HK Code
Value of γm for ULS anf FLS (fire limit state)

Material/design conderation Value of γm for ULS Value of γm for FLS

Reinforcement (prestressing steel 1.15 1.00


included)
Concrete in flexure or axial load 1.5 1.1
Concrete shear strength without shear
reinforcement
1.25 1.1

Bond strength 1.4 1.1

BS Code
Material/design conderation Value of γm for ULS

Reinforcement (prestressing steel 1.05


included)
Concrete in flexure or axial load 1.5
Concrete shear strength without shear
reinforcement
1.25

Bond strength 1.4

EC
γs for reinforcing γs for prestressing
Design situations γc for concrete
steel steel
Persistent & transient 1.50 1.15 1.15
Accidental 1.20 1.00 1.00

DESIGN COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE


HK Code
BS Code fcd = 0.67 fcu/γm BS Code and HK Code use the charecteristic compressive of
cube strength fcu

EN 1992 fck = αcc fck / γc Eurocode uses charecteristic compressive of cylinder strength
The UK NA to EN fck
recommend that αcc should be To accommodate these differences, the strength class is
0.85 defined by both the cylinder and the cube strength (e.g:
C30/37 fck/fcu)
Code
S.concrete
2.4.3.2

BS8110 -1
2.4.4.1

EN 1992 - 1 -
1: 2004
2.4.2.4

EN 1992 - 1 -
1: 2004
3.15
EN1998
Limitation of interstorey drift 4.4.3.2
a) for buildings have non-strucutural element of brittle material attached to the structure:
dr/h < 0.5%
b) for buildings having ductile non-structure elements:
dr/h < 0.75%
c) for buildings having non-structural elements fixed in a way so as not to the interfere with structural
deformations, or without non-structural elements:
dr/h < 1%
4.4.2.2(2)
dr: is the design interstorey drift, evaluated as the difference of the average lateral displacments ds
at the top and and bottom of the storey under consideration and calculated in accordance 4.3.4

ds = qd de 4.3.4

ds : is the displacement of a point of the structural system induced by the design semic action.
Does not need to be larger than the value derived from the elastic spectrum.

qd : is the displacement behavior factoer, assumed equal to q unless otherwise specified

de : is the displacement of the same point of the structural system, as determined by a liner
analysis based on the design repsonse spectrum in accordance with 3.2.2.5

Second order effects


Second-order effects (P-D effects) need not to be taken into account if the following 4.4.2.2(2), (3),
conditions is fulfilled in all storeys (4)

q: is the interstorey drift sensitivity coefficient


Ptot: is the total gravity load at and aboce the storey considered in the seismic design situation

Vtot : is the total seismic storey shear

If 0,1 <q < 0.2 , the second-order effects may approximately be taken into account by multyplying the
relevant seismic action effects by a factor equal to 1/(1-q)
The value of the coefficient q shall not exceed 0.3

Structural Model
4.3.1(7)

(7) The elastic flexutal and shear stiffness properties are takend to be equal to one-haft of corresponding
stiffness of uncracked element, i.e the moment of inertia and shear area of the uncracked section were
multiplied by factor 0.5. Also the torsional stiffness of the element has been reduced. Torsional stiffness
of the cracked section was set equal to 10% of the torsional stiffness of the uncracked section
(7) The elastic flexutal and shear stiffness properties are takend to be equal to one-haft of corresponding
stiffness of uncracked element, i.e the moment of inertia and shear area of the uncracked section were
multiplied by factor 0.5. Also the torsional stiffness of the element has been reduced. Torsional stiffness
of the cracked section was set equal to 10% of the torsional stiffness of the uncracked section
(9) The deformability of the foundation shall be taken into account in the model, whenever it may have 4.3.1(9)
an adverse overall influence on the structural response. (NOTE: Foundation defornability (including the
soil-structure interaction) may always taken into account, including the case in which it has beneficial
effects)

CHECKING BASE SHEAR


Step 1: Total mass: i.e. 2362 ton
Step 2: Elastic periods: T (s) Meff Ux Meff Uy
Mode 1 0.92 80.20%
Mode 2 0.68 76.30%
Step 3: Storey shearforce
Shear force (kN)
Direction X Direction Y
2693 3452
Step 4: Base on spectrum analysis:
Direction X: Sd (T=0.92s) = 0.14g Spectrum: (Soil: type B)
Direction Y: Sd (T=0.92s) = 0.18g TB = 0.15s ag=0.25g
TC = 0.5s q=3.0
TD = 2s S=1.2

Base shear Lower Bound Upper Bound

Upper bound x Meff Ux =


Direction X 0.14g x 2362= 3244 kN
3244x80.2% = 2602
Upper bound x Meff Uy =
Direction Y 0.18g x 2362= 4171 kN
4171x76.3% = 3244
EN1998
4.4.3.2

4.4.2.2(2)

4.3.4

4.4.2.2(2), (3),
(4)

4.3.1(7)
4.3.1(9)
CÁC TỪ TIẾNG ANH TRONG XÂY DỰNG THƯỜNG GẶP
Tra từ
Word Meaning
conservative thận trọng
Word Meaning
accurate chính xác
adequate đầy đủ
align xếp thành hàng
analogous tương tự
approximate khoảng, tương đối
assembly tập hợp, lắp ráp
associated được liên kết
assumed giả định, giả thiết
asymmetric không đối xứng
Attract (V) Thu hút
bend cong, uốn cong
Brace (V) giằng, chống, giữ
Cantilever công xôn (mái đua, tay cần)
categorize phân loại
coincide (Adj) trùng nhau
complex (Adj) phức tạp
comprise bao gồm, gồm có
correspond tương ứng
curvature độ cong, sự uốn cong
deform (V) biến dạng, làm biến dạng
denominator mẫu số (trong phân số)
dissipation hấp thụ, tiêu tán
distinct riêng biệt
distribution phân bố, phân phối
embed đặt vào
enclose bao bọc, vây quanh
equilibrium trạng thái cân bằng
equivalent (Adj) tương đương
exceed vượt quá, vượt qua
extreme compression fiber thớ chịu nén ngoài cùng
factored moment momen tính toán
flexure uốn, sự uốn
function chức năng
geometric hình học
gross tổng cộng
hence do đó, kết quả là
hollow vật rỗng, có lỗ
impair làm giảm
incorporate kết hợp, hợp thành
incur chịu, chịu đựng
influence ảnh hưởng, tác động
initially ban đầu
interactive (Adj) tương tác, tương hỗ
intergrated lấy tích phân
measure đo, đo lường
negligible không đáng kể, có thể bỏ qua
nominal danh định
observe quan trắc, quan sát
obtain được, đạt được
occur (V) xuất hiện, xảy ra
oriented định hướng
orthogonal trực giao
Partition Vách ngăn ; ngăn cách, phân vùng
pattern kết cấu, mô hình
perpendicular thẳng góc, vuông góc
positive dương, số dương, xác thực
precise chính xác
prediction dư đoán
predominantly chủ yếu
principal chính, chủ yếu
probable có thể xảy ra
proportion tỉ lệ, tương quan
report báo cáo
represent (V) biểu diễn, miêu tả
respective tương ứng
reverse đảo chiều, đảo ngược
satisfy đáp ứng
scope phạm vi, khoảng
significant đáng kể
Simultaneous (Adj) Đồng thời
spiral sự xoắn
static ổn định
statical ổn định
strict chính xác
successive nối tiếp nhau
sufficient đầy đủ
suppress (V) ngăn chặn
susceptible nhạy, nhạy cảm
symmetrical (Adj) đối xứng
tensile (V) kéo, bị kéo, chịu kéo
term (N) giới hạn
torque momen xoắn
transition sự chuyển tiếp
translation sự dịch chuyển
typical đặc trưng
uniform đồng đều
variation (N) sự biến đổi, sự thay đổi
various khác nhau
yield chảy dẻo
lever arm cánh tay đòn
envisage dự tính
adjoining liền kề
fraction
subsequent theo sau
tangent
separate phân ra, chia ra
discrepancy sai số
refinement chọn lọc
appropriate dành riêng, thích hợp
stringent nghiêm ngặt
tolerance dung sai
relevant thích hợp
partial cục bộ, riêng rẽ
persistnent lâu dài
transient tạm thời
fatigue mỏi
individual riêng biệt
conservative thận trọng