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5 (de) vizualizări6 paginiAbstract—Different coding schemes (Turbo, Polar, binary and
non-binary LDPC and tail-biting convolutional codes)

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Abstract—Different coding schemes (Turbo, Polar, binary and
non-binary LDPC and tail-biting convolutional codes)

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5 (de) vizualizări

Abstract—Different coding schemes (Turbo, Polar, binary and
non-binary LDPC and tail-biting convolutional codes)

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Onurcan İşcan, Diego Lentner, Wen Xu

Huawei Technologies Duesseldorf GmbH

European Research Center, Riesstr. 25, 80992 Munich, Germany

Email: {onurcan.iscan, diego.lentner, wen.dr.xu}@huawei.com

Abstract—Different coding schemes (Turbo, Polar, binary and and compare their error correction performances, as well as

non-binary LDPC and tail-biting convolutional codes) which can their decoding complexity. The paper is structured as follows:

be potentially used in the next generation mobile communication In Section II, we briefly introduce the channel coding schemes

systems for the short message length regime (message length

𝑘 < 512) are discussed. Their error correction performances are considered in this work, and discuss their decoding complexity.

compared with finite length bounds and the complexities of the In Section III, we compare the block error rate performance

corresponding decoders are evaluated in terms of number of basic on the AWGN channel, together with theoretical bounds. We

operations. It is shown that significant performance improvement also compare the decoding complexity of the discussed codes.

can be obtained in the short message length regime by replacing Section IV presents the discussions and concludes the work.

the LTE Turbo code with other modern coding schemes, however,

at a cost of increased decoder complexity. II. C HANNEL C ODES

I. I NTRODUCTION We briefly introduce the considered channel coding schemes

In communication systems, there exists a delay between the and show their decoding complexity. As the decoder com-

generation of the message at the source and the reconstruction plexity is highly related to the used hardware, we will only

of that message at the receiver. Depending on the application, consider the number of basic operations (such as additions and

the delay can have a critical importance. For example, a multiplications) and assume a naive implementation without

delay in orders of seconds might be disturbing for a voice considering the highly optimized decoder structures.

call, whereas for downloading a file from a server, delays We use 𝑘 to denote the message length, 𝑛 to codeword

of several seconds are mostly tolerable. The fifth generation length, and 𝐼 to the number of decoder iterations.

mobile communication systems (5G) will support a multitude

of services where a low latency is required, such as machine A. Convolutional Codes

type communication (MTC) and tactile internet. Design of Convolutional codes are error correction codes that are

the physical layer components becomes critical for supporting widely adopted to many standards due to their many advan-

these highly challenging requirements. tages, like low-complexity encoding, possibility for simple

Channel coding is an important part of the physical layer rate-adaptation by puncturing, hardware-friendly decoding al-

and plays a crucial role in latency and reliability. In gen- gorithms, etc. In contrast to many modern coding schemes,

eral, channel encoders and decoders work block-wise, i.e., their bit-error performance does not improve with increasing

in order the encoder or the decoder to work, the whole message length and hence they are mostly not suitable for

sequence has to be available at the input, which inherently transmitting long messages. However, they still show compa-

causes a delay. One way to reduce this delay is to divide rable performance for short message lengths with maximum-

the messages into smaller parts and encode them separately. likelihood (ML) decoding.

However, the choice of the channel code becomes critical A convolutional code can be defined by the parameters 𝐾,

as the error correction performance degrades with decreased 𝑁 and 𝑚, which denote the input length, output length and the

message lengths. Moreover, for short message length channel number of memory elements, respectively. The convolutional

coding, many existing design and analysis tools (such as EXIT encoder can be defined with a generator polynomial, that

and Density Evolution analysis) become less accurate, as they is mostly given in octal form. Convolutional codes can be

mostly rely on asymptotic results. Also, Shannon’s channel decoded by using the Viterbi algorithm that estimates the

coding theorem becomes a not-suitable metric to evaluate the maximum likelihood sequence using the 𝑆 = 2𝑚 state trellis

performance, since it assumes infinite block lengths (hence representation of the code.

an infinite delay) and a vanishing error probability, which is The convolutional codes used in LTE standard to trans-

mostly not of practical interest. mit control information are tail-biting convolutional codes

In this work, we consider channel coding schemes that have (TBCC). TBCCs do not require a termination which may

the potential to be used in the 5G for short message communi- cause a significant rate loss for short lengths. In this work,

cations. In particular, we consider convolutional codes, Turbo we will consider only TBCC with 𝐾 = 1. In contrast to the

codes, binary and non-binary LDPC codes and Polar codes, terminated convolutional codes, TBCC can start and end at any

state which is unknown to the decoder. A common approach passing algorithm. We use 𝑑¯𝑣 and 𝑑¯𝑐 to denote the average

to solve this problem is to use circular decoding by extending variable node degree and the average check node degree,

the decoding trellis by a decoding depth 𝑡 [1], which can be respectively.

chosen as an integer multiple of the constraint length. The LDPC codes are decoded by deploying belief propagation

number of basic operations for a TBCC decoder is given in on a bipartite graph given by their parity check matrix.

Table I. Since the check node operation involves multiple non-linear

functions, one typically relies on sub-optimal approximations

B. Turbo Codes like the min-sum decoder. In this work, we use the scaled

Turbo codes are powerful error correction codes invented min-sum decoder from [7] with the constant scaling factor 0.8.

in the 1990s that are built by parallel concatenating two Similar to the scaled-max-log-MAP decoder for Turbo codes,

convolutional codes, connected via an interleaver, and decoded the scaled-min-sum decoder can reduce the approximation

iteratively by using two soft-in-soft-out (SISO) decoders that error due to min-sum decoding by scaling the outgoing check

exchange extrinsic information during each iteration. Their node messages by a constant factor.

favorable properties such as low complexity encoders, suit- Non-binary LDPC codes can be regarded as an extension

ability to simple rate adaptation, and low complexity iterative of the binary LDPC codes, where the parity check matrix is

decoding schemes made them the channel coding schemes for not binary and has the size 𝑀𝑞 × 𝑁𝑞 , where 𝑁𝑞 = 𝑛/𝑝 and

the 3G and 4G mobile communication standards. Besides, their 𝑀𝑞 = (𝑛 − 𝑘)/𝑝 if defined over the Galois field GF(2𝑝 ).

close-to-capacity error correction performance makes them a The degrees of the variable nodes and the check nodes are

very good choice for many applications. described as 𝑑𝑣 and 𝑑𝑐 .

The iterative decoders of Turbo codes rely on exchanging Non-binary LDPC codes can be decoded using a message

extrinsic information between two constituent decoders that passing decoder, however with increased complexity. In [8],

work well with long messages. Therefore, the performance it was shown that LDPC codes over non-binary Galois fields

of Turbo codes especially for long codewords can be close can perform better than their binary counterparts, especially

to the theoretical limits. Although the iterative algorithm in the short message length regime. Thus, non-binary LDPC

loses its effectiveness with decreased message lengths, their codes have recently attracted an increasing amount of research

performance for short lengths is still comparable with other efforts. In this work, we will also consider short LDPC codes

modern coding schemes. defined over higher order Galois fields decoded with a message

The computationally most challenging part of the Turbo passing decoder. The number of different operations of a non-

decoder can be regarded as the max∗ (𝑥, 𝑦) = max(𝑥, 𝑦) + binary message passing decoder (working on the probability

𝑓𝑐 (𝑥, 𝑦) function in the BCJR algorithm, where 𝑓𝑐 (𝑥, 𝑦) is domain [9]) can be seen in Table I.

a non-linear correction function. To reduce the complexity,

many different methods have been proposed. In this work, we D. Polar Codes

consider a BCJR decoder with scaled-max-log-MAP decoding

[2] with scaling factor 0.75, which gives a good compromise Polar codes are a new class of channel codes introduced by

between complexity and performance. With this method, one Arıkan in 2009 [10]. They have attracted great interest because

neglects the correction function 𝑓𝑐 (𝑥, 𝑦) and scales the ex- they can provably achieve the symmetric capacity of binary-

trinsic L-values at the input of each decoding iteration by the input discrete memoryless channels under low complexity

scaling factor to compensate the loss due to the approximation. successive cancellation (SC) decoding. Polar codes rely on

The number of different operations of a Turbo decoder by the phenomenon called channel polarization which converts

using the scaled-max-log-MAP BCJR algorithm with two the transmission channel into virtual bit channels of different

convolutional codes can be seen in Table I. capacities. As the polarization level grows to infinity, the input

channels are transformed into bit channels which are either

C. LDPC Codes completely noiseless or completely noisy under SC decoding.

LDPC codes were first introduced by R. Gallager in the The fraction of completely noiseless channels approaches the

early 1960s [3] as a class of sparse linear block codes symmetric capacity of the underlying channel [10]. Polar

that are able to approach the channel capacity (in the long encoding is done by assigning input bits to the noiseless

codeword length regime). They were considered impractical bit channels, and by freezing all other bits to known values.

at that time and were neglected for about 30 years. Soon after Extensive research has been done on optimizing polar codes

the introduction of Turbo codes in 1990s, LDPC codes were using different techniques [11], [12], [13].

rediscovered [4], [5] and it is shown that a similar performance Although the asymptotic performance of Polar codes is

to Turbo codes can be obtained [6]. Nowadays, LDPC codes optimal, the finite length performance under SC decoding is

have been adopted by several standards such as WiMAX, not comparable with other modern codes like Turbo and LDPC

DVB-S2, etc. codes. However, by employing successive cancellation list

A binary LDPC code can be defined by a parity check (SCL) decoding and CRC-aided SCL decoding [14], [15] with

matrix 𝐻 of size (𝑛 − 𝑘) × 𝑛. The sparsity of the parity list size 𝐿 and CRC-size 𝑧, the performance can be improved

check matrix allows a low complexity decoder using a message significantly.

TABLE I

D ECODING C OMPLEXITY FOR C HANNEL C ODES IN T ERMS OF BASIC O PERATIONS

TBCC (𝑘 + 2𝑡)𝑆(2𝑁 + 2) - - -

(2𝐼 − 1)

Turbo [(𝑘 + 𝑚)(2𝑆)(2 + 𝑁 ) 2(𝐼 − 1)𝑘 - -

+𝑘(4𝑆 + 1)] + 4(𝐼 − 1)𝑘

LDPC 𝐼𝑛𝑑¯2 𝑣 𝐼(𝑛 − 𝑘)(2𝑑¯𝑐 + 3) - -

𝐼 [𝑁𝑞 𝑑𝑣 (𝑑𝑣 − 1)𝑞

NB-LDPC GF(𝑞 = 2𝑝 ) 𝐼 [𝑁𝑞 𝑑𝑣 (𝑞 − 1) + 𝑀𝑞 𝑑𝑐 𝑞𝑝] +3𝑀𝑞 (𝑑𝑐 − 2)𝑞] 𝐼𝑁𝑞 𝑑𝑣 𝑞 -

+𝑁𝑞 𝑑𝑣 𝑞

3𝐿𝑛 log 𝑛

Polar + CRC 𝐿𝑛/2 log 𝑛 + 𝐿(𝑘 + 𝑛) 𝐿𝑛 log 𝑛 - +𝐿(𝑘 + 𝑛) + 2𝐿𝑘 log 2𝐿

+(𝑘 + 𝑧)𝐿

In this work, we consider Polar codes concatenated with LDPC Codes: We use protograph based AR3A codes [18]

a CRC code, which are decoded with a SCL decoder and which are lifted by using progressive edge growth algorithm to

the CRC is used to select the correct codeword from the list obtain the desired lengths. We decode with a message passing

of codewords at the output of the decoder. The number of decoder using scaled min-sum algorithm where the outgoing

different operations for the CRC-aided SCL decoder can be messages from each check node are scaled by the factor 0.8.

found in Table I. Note that the protograph contains punctured variable nodes

and hence decoding occurs over a larger parity check matrix,

III. E RROR C ORRECTION P ERFORMANCE AND which is also considered during the calculation of the decoder

C OMPUTATIONAL C OMPLEXITY E VALUATION complexity.

Non-Binary LDPC Codes: We use regular Non-binary

In this section, we evaluate the performances of different

LDPC codes in GF(256) with variable node degree 2 and check

coding schemes for short message lengths. In order to simplify

node degree 4, where the non-binary coefficients of the parity

the evaluation, we set the code rate to 𝑅 = 1/2 and evaluate

check matrix is selected randomly from the set of optimized

the block error rate (BLER) performance of different codes

coefficients in [8]. We decode with a message passing decoder

with message length 𝑘 ≤ 512 on an AWGN channel with

in probability domain [9] with 100 iterations.

BPSK modulation by means of Monte Carlo simulation at

different SNR levels, where the simulation is stopped after at Polar Codes: We use Polar+CRC codes where the set of

least 100 block errors. frozen bits are obtained numerically by using density evolution

Since the codes investigated here are of short length, Shan- [11]. CRC of length 8 is used for 𝑘 < 128 bits and CRC of

non’s capacity is not a suitable theoretical bound, because it length 16 is used for 𝑘 ≥ 128 bits. We decode with a SCL

relies on infinite length codewords. Instead, we compare our decoder with 𝐿 = 32 and 𝐿 = 1024.

results with the recently developed finite length performance

bounds of Polyanskiy et al [16], where tight bounds on the A. Error Correction Performance

block error rate performance depending on the message length Fig. 1 to 4 show the block error rate (BLER) performance

are given. Specifically, we use the Gaussian approximation of of the studied codes for message lengths 𝑘 = 64, 128, 256 and

the bounds (also given in [16]) for BPSK modulated AWGN 512, together with the finite length bounds. One can observe

channel. The details of the studied codes are as follows: that except for the TBCC 1, all the other coding schemes

Convolutional Codes: We use two different tail-biting con- outperform LTE Turbo codes and LDPC codes in terms of

volutional codes. TBCC 1 has memory 𝑚 = 6 and has the BLER performance for all lengths. TBCC 2 outperforms LTE

generators 133 and 171, both in octal as in the LTE standard. Turbo code for lengths 𝑘 ≤ 128, and Polar codes with 𝐿 =

TBCC 2 has memory 𝑚 = 10 and has the generators 4672 1024 and NB-LDPC codes perform close to the finite length

and 7542 in octal representation. Both TBCC 1 and TBCC 2 bounds.

are decoded with a decoding depth 𝑡 = 6 ⋅ (𝑚 + 1). Fig. 5 shows the required 𝐸𝑏 /𝑁0 to achieve a target BLER

Turbo Codes: We use the Turbo codes from the LTE of 0.001 for different choices of message lengths and coding

standard with two identical constituent convolutional codes schemes. One observes that performance improvement of the

with the feedforward and feedback generators 15 and 13 in modern codes compared to LTE Turbo code reduces as the

octal, respectively. We puncture the code to obtain the code- message length increases. One can conclude that especially for

rate 𝑅 = 1/2 according to the rate matching method specified very short message lengths (𝑘 ≤ 128), significant improvement

in the LTE standard [17] and decode with 10 iterations of can be obtained by replacing the LTE Turbo code by other

scaled-max-log-map decoding with scaling factor 0.75. modern codes.

100 100

10−1 10−1

10−2 10−2

BLER

BLER

TBCC 1 TBCC 1

TBCC 2 TBCC 2

10−3 LTE Turbo 10−3 LTE Turbo

Polar+CRC 𝐿 = 32 Polar+CRC 𝐿 = 32

Polar+CRC 𝐿 = 1024 Polar+CRC 𝐿 = 1024

10−4 LDPC 10−4 LDPC

NB-LDPC GF(256) NB-LDPC GF(256)

Polyanskiy Approx. Polyanskiy Approx.

10−5 10−5

−2 0 2 4 −2 0 2 4

𝐸𝑏 /𝑁0 [dB] 𝐸𝑏 /𝑁0 [dB]

Fig. 1. Block error rate for different channel codes of rate 𝑅 = 1/2 and Fig. 3. Block error rate for different channel codes of rate 𝑅 = 1/2 and with

with 𝑘 = 64 on AWGN channel with BPSK modulation. message length 𝑘 = 256 bits on AWGN channel with BPSK modulation.

100 100

10−1 10−1

10−2 10−2

BLER

BLER

TBCC 1 TBCC 1

TBCC 2 TBCC 2

10−3 LTE Turbo 10−3 LTE Turbo

Polar+CRC 𝐿 = 32 Polar+CRC 𝐿=32

Polar+CRC 𝐿 = 1024 Polar+CRC 𝐿=1024

10−4 LDPC 10−4 LDPC

NB-LDPC GF(256) NB-LDPC GF(256)

Polyanskiy Approx. Polyanskiy Approx.

10−5 10−5

−2 0 2 4 −2 0 2 4

𝐸𝑏 /𝑁0 [dB] 𝐸𝑏 /𝑁0 [dB]

Fig. 2. Block error rate for different channel codes of rate 𝑅 = 1/2 and with Fig. 4. Block error rate for different channel codes of rate 𝑅 = 1/2 and with

message length 𝑘 = 128 bits on AWGN channel with BPSK modulation. message length 𝑘 = 512 bits on AWGN channel with BPSK modulation.

The decoder complexity for different classes of codes de- Except for division, all other basic operations can be real-

pends on many factors, such as the used hardware technol- ized within one cycle, and therefore they can be summed up

ogy and implementation details. Moreover, if implemented in to give a rough complexity figure of merit (FOM). For a small

hardware optimizations can be done individually for each of number of divisions, this operation can usually be replaced by

the decoding methods, which would make a fair comparison look-up tables and multiplications. For this reason, we also

difficult. Note that lots of work has been done in reducing sum up the divisions and include them into the complexity

the decoder complexity of the discussed codes. In this work FOM.

we assume a naive implementation of the decoders and use Fig. 6 shows the number of basic operations for different de-

the number of basic operations (additions, subtractions, mul- coders and message lengths. One can observe that NB-LDPC

tiplications, divisions and binary additions) as our complexity codes in GF(256) and Polar+CRC codes with 𝐿 = 1024 show

metric, as given in Table I. We do not consider complexity in the highest decoder complexity, with significant performance

BPSK Constr. Cap. 108

5 Poly. Apr. for BPSK

TBCC 1

TBCC 2 107

𝐸𝑏 /𝑁0 [dB] @ BLER = 0.001

4 LTE Turbo

Polar+CRC 𝐿=32

Number of Operations

Polar+CRC 𝐿=1024 106

LDPC

3

NB-LDPC GF(256)

105

TBCC 1

2 TBCC 2

104 LTE Turbo

Polar+CRC 𝐿 = 32

1 Polar+CRC 𝐿 = 1024

103

LDPC

NB-LDPC GF(256)

0 102

0 100 200 300 400 500 100 200 300 400 500

Message Length 𝑘 [bits] Message Length 𝑘 [bits]

Fig. 5. Required 𝐸𝑏 /𝑁0 to achieve a target BLER with channel codes of rate Fig. 6. Decoder complexity in terms of number of basic operations for

𝑅 = 1/2 on AWGN channel with BPSK modulation for different message different message lengths.

lengths 𝑘 ≤ 512, together with Shannon’s BPSK constrained capacity, and

the Gaussian approximation of Polynaskiy’s finite length bound [16].

gains in terms of BLER, whereas LTE Turbo codes, LDPC ered as a good alternative for the very short messages.

codes, and Polar+CRC with 𝐿 = 32 show similar decoding ∙ Polar+CRC codes with list decoding performs especially

complexity. The complexity of the tail-biting convolutional well with large list sizes, which usually also have a high

codes scales with the number of states. The complexity of decoding complexity. One advantage of the list decoding

TBCC 1 with 𝑚 = 6 is lower than other candidates, whereas is that the receiver can adjust the list size according to its

the TBCC 2 with 𝑚 = 10 has complexity higher than the LTE computational power, which makes SCL flexible in terms

Turbo code. of decoding complexity.

∙ NB-LDPC codes also show promising performance.

However, similar to Polar codes with large list sizes, their

IV. D ISCUSSIONS AND C ONCLUSION

decoding complexity is very high.

According to our simulation results, one can make the Note that the decoding performance of the discussed codes

following interpretations: mainly depend on two aspects: code properties and decoder

∙ LTE Turbo codes and LDPC codes show a similar error- properties. As one increases the list size of a Polar decoder,

correction performance at comparable decoder complex- one obtains a close-to-ML decoder. Therefore for very large

ities. Across all considered message lengths, both codes list sizes, code properties (such as the minimum distance)

have a gap of 1 ∼ 2.5dB to the finite length bounds which have an important role. Similarly, NB-LDPC decoders process

can be especially important for short message lengths. block of bits jointly (instead of bitwise like the binary LDPC

By using other modern channel coding schemes such codes). As the field order grows, more bits are processed

as NB-LDPC codes over higher order Galois fields or jointly, which improves the decoding performance.

Polar+CRC codes with SCL decoding, one can reduce The relatively poor performance of LTE Turbo codes and

this gap and improve the error correction performance binary LDPC codes in the short message length regime is

by up to 1dB. However, this performance improvement partly due to the suboptimal iterative decoding method. By

would come at a cost of increased decoder complexity. decoding the Turbo or LDPC code with an ML decoder,

∙ Tail-biting convolutional codes with medium size mem- one can also improve the performance, at a cost of higher

ory elements perform well for very short message lengths computational complexity. Some simulation results on ML

(such as 64 bits), and have decoders with lower complex- decoding of Turbo codes and LPDC codes can be found in

ity. However, their error correction performance is not [19], [20].

well suited for longer messages. For very short message To sum up, the short message length channel coding per-

lengths, one can obtain further improvement by utilizing formance of the next generation systems can be significantly

codes with higher memory such that the performance improved by using better codes (e.g. with better distance prop-

becomes comparable to other modern channel codes. The erties), or more importantly by allowing higher computational

complexity can still be kept lower than Polar codes and complexity at the receivers. How to enhance existing codes to

have better code properties (e.g. minimum distance) and how

to lower the decoding complexities of modern codes remain

as interesting future work.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This work has partly been performed in the framework

of the Horizon 2020 project FANTASTIC-5G (ICT-671660)

receiving funds from the European Union. The authors would

like to acknowledge the contributions of their colleagues in the

project, although the views expressed in this work are those

of the authors and do not necessarily represent the project.

The authors also thank Giuliano Garrammone for his help on

designing NB-LDPC codes.

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