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Lab Report

Synthesis of copper hydroxide

Laphisara Chokworasup No.5 (6061133)

Eumin Kim No.7 (6061007)
Natakorn Nattawut No.9 (6061144)
Thantita Simanitipong No.11 (6061015)

General chemistry 1109

Dr. Patrapron Sanguansat
Mahidol University International Demonstration School
Semester 1 Academic year 2018-2019
This experiment is about illustrating the reaction of Sodium hydroxide and
Copper sulfate pentahydrate and calculating the percent yield, theoretical yield, limiting
and excess reagent. The materials used in this experiment are those substances
mention before and the glassware that is suitable for the experiment: stirring rod,
beakers, glass funnel etc. The procedure is split into 2 days. The first day is the
preparation and the experiment while on the second day most of it is just calculation
and measuring. After the experiment has been done the result shows that the solution
AB and AC have a different result. The product of the solution AB has a light color,
smooth surface, and flow through funnel slowly. On the other hand, the product of
solution AC has a darker color, look like gel, and flow through funnel quickly. But after
we left it overnight in the oven, its appearance change. Moreover, the mass of the
products isn’t equal too. The AC solution’s product has more mass than the solution AB
product. As a result, we found out that the percent yield is over 100%. We can identify
that the limiting reagent is CuSO4 while the excess reagent is 2NaOH. The possible
errors in this experiment are time for stirring the solution, which needs to be more

Copper hydroxide or Cu(OH)2 is a product from the chemical reaction of two
reactants which are copper sulfate (CuSO4) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The
chemical equation of this chemical reaction is

CuSO4*5H2O+ 2NaOH ==> Cu(OH)2 + Na2SO4 + 5H2O

Starting with copper hydroxide, the product is an inorganic compound. Its color is
blue-green, and it is odorless. Its formula is crystalline powder. Its melting point is at 80
degrees Celsius.[1] Copper hydroxide is highly water insoluble. Its molecular weight is
97.56 gram, and it bonds by ionic bonding.
Secondly, Copper sulfate pentahydrate is a salt of cupric oxide and sulfuric acid.
It melts at 100 degrees Celsius and becomes an anhydrous crystal at 200 degrees
Celsius. Its molecular weight is 159.602 gram.[2] It is not flammable, but it is harmful to
our skins.[3]
Thirdly, Sodium hydroxide is an ionic compound. Its boiling point is 1388 degree
Celsius. And its melting point is 318 degree Celsius.[4] It is a white crystalline odorless
solid, and it is very corrosive. It has more density than water. It can make irritation when
Fourthly, Sodium Sulfate is a white crystal solid when anhydrous. [6] Its boiling
point is 1,429 degree Celsius. Its melting point is 884 degree Celsius. It is hazardous in
eye contact, skin contact, inhalation, and ingestion.[7]
Lastly, 5H2O or water can be transformed into every state which are ice, liquid
water, and steam. Its boiling point is 100 degree Celsius, and its freezing point is 0
degree Celsius. Water is a universal solvent. It has the highest surface tension due to
hydrogen bonding and also high heat of vaporization.[8]
The technique of paper filtration used to separate solids from liquids. [9] We folded
2 papers and put them in each funnel. We poured the water into the papers and filtrate
the water out. The reason that we fold the paper is that it makes less surface tension
which leads to more speed of water to comes out.
From doing experiments, our objectives are demonstrating how Sodium
hydroxide react with Copper sulfate pentahydrate and knowing how to calculate limiting
reagent, excess reagent, theoretical yield, and percent yield.

- CuSO4 solution (Solution A 2.5 g of CuSO4 in 50 ml of water)
- NaOH solution (Solution B 0.2 g of NaOH in 25 ml of water)
- NaOH solution (Solution C 0.6 g of NaOH in 25 ml of water)
- Distill water
- Ethanol

Laboratory Apparatus

- Filter paper
- Funnel
- Stirring rod
- 100ml beaker
- 250ml beaker
- 50ml graduated cylinder
- Watch glass
- Ring stand and clamp
- Spatula
- Weighing paper
Data Table

Reaction Reaction Weight of The weight of The weight of Solid product

Solution observation Filter paper filter paper the Solid observation
(chemical/ (in grams) +
 solid product (chemical/physical)
physical) product (in grams)
(in grams)

A+B -Light color 0.65g 1.04g 0.39g -Green color

-Smooth -Not coagulant
-Flow through
funnel slowly

A+C -Darker color 0.65g 1.32g 0.67g -Black and dark

-Look like gel blue color
-Flow through -Coagulant
funnel quickly
Why the color of filtrate (solution in the beaker during the filtration) of both
reactions are different?
- We think that the amount of NaOH is the reason why the color of filtrate is
different. Based on the experiment, we clearly saw that the main difference of
Solution B and C is the amount of NaOH that dissolved in water. NaOH may
cause some chemical reaction with the water that it dissolved into and that’s
affected to the color. So during the filtration, those solutions have a different

Identify the limiting and excess reagent of each reaction:

- The limiting reagent of this chemical reaction is the CuSO4 because the product
that produces by this reactant has less mass or amount that another reactant.
This can also conclude that the excess reagent of this chemical reaction is
2NaOH due to the fact that it gives more product than the CuSO4
Balanced Equation : CuSO4 + 2NaOH => Cu(OH)2 + Na2SO4
Theoretical Yield: Solution A + B = 0.2439 grams Solution A + C = 0.7317 grams
Actual Yield: Solution A + B = 1.04 grams Solution A + C = 1.32 grams
Percent Yield: Solution A+ B = 159.9% Solution A + C = 180.4%

Calculate the theoretical yield of each reaction:

- The first thing that we have to do is to calculate the theoretical yield is find the
mole of the given reactants. So we plug in the mass and molar mass into the
equation mole = mass/molar mass, and as the result, we will get the mol. After
we find the mol, we will have to compare the mole ratio with the given product, in
this case, Cu(OH)2. As the result, we get the mole of the product that produced
by the reactant that we calculated earlier. Finally, we have to convert mole into
mass by plug in the number into the mole = mass/molar mass. Now we get the
mass of the product produced by the reactant. However, we have to do this for all
of the reactants to find the limiting and excess reagent.
Explanation why you get % yield more or less than 100% :
- We get the percent yield more than 100 percent. The reason might be the water
or the leftover product that is not the product we want to get or in this case the
salt. The salt maybe left over because of the cleaning and rinsing procedure that
is not done correctly.

In conclusion, this lab report has discussed the synthesis of copper hydroxide.
The objective of this experiment is to be able to identify and understand the concept of
excess and limiting reagent and the percent yield in the reaction. The experiment
required two days. On the first day, we prepare a solution and test then left it in the
oven. The second day is weighing the product that we left in the oven. We can identify
that the limiting reagent is CuSO4 and the excess reagent is 2NaOH. We found out that
the percent yield is more than 100% Theoretical yield for solution A+C is 0.7317 grams
while solution A+B is at 0.2439 grams. For the actual yield, solution A+C is at 1.32
grams so it slightly more than solution A+B which is 1.04 grams. If there are a possible
error in this experiment, it might be about the time of stirring and how we clean the

1. The step that might make an error is when stirring solution B and C. We assigned
two different people to stir when mixed the solution so that solution B and C have
different time of stirring. We also did not start stirring at the same time and did
not time the exact time for stirring those two solutions. This may cause some
errors or effects on the result of the experiment. We should improve by start and
stop stirring the solution at the same time or define the exactly time of stirring to
avoid an error in an experiment.
2. When we cleaned the solid product of solution B and C with distilled water and
ethanol, we did not use the exact same amount of cleaning water. We also used
more ethanol with solution B because it flew slower than solution C and we
wanted it to flow quickly so we used ethanol to help make it flow faster. From this
action, it might affect the result of the experiment or caused some error to our
experimental. We can improve by using a same or similar amount of distilled
water and ethanol to clean the solid product. We also have to make sure that we
clean the solutions with equal times.

1. American Elements. (n.d.). Copper Hydroxide. Retrieved November 30, 2018,
2. Copper sulfate. (n.d.). Retrieved December 10, 2018, from
3. Owen, K. (2017, July 25). Properties of Copper Sulfate. Retrieved November 30,
2018, from
4. Chemical Information and Properties. (n.d.). Retrieved December 10, 2018, from
5. Sodium hydroxide. (n.d.). Retrieved December 10, 2018, from

6. Sodium sulfate (n.d.). Retrieved December 10, 2018, from
7. MSDS for Sodium sulfate anhydrous. (n.d.). Retrieved December 10, 2018, from
8. Libretexts (2018, November 26). Unusual Properties of Water. Retrieved
December 10, 2018, from
Retrieved December 10, 2018, from

Work log
Date Name Procedure
27/11/18 Bell, Pie, Doing an experiment about
Kim, Aj Copper hydroxide and
collecting the data.

28/11/18 Bell Starting working on Introduction

28/11/18 Pie. Working on the data table,

Laboratory Apparatus and
procedure parts.

28/11/18 Kim Working on materials part and

start working on calculation.

28/11/18 Aj Working on the result part.

29/11/18 Bell Continue working on the

introduction and finish it.

29/11/18 Pie Working on Suggestion, errors

and discussion parts

29/11/18 Kim Continue working on the


29/11/18 Aj Working on references

6/12/18 Pie Continue discussion part and

start on conclusion part.
6/12/18 Kim Continue working on the
calculation and some of the
error in the calculation

6/12/18 Bell Continue on the introduction

6/12/18 Aj Finish the references

9/12/18 Kim Working on the discussion part

9/12/18 Bell Finish the introduction

9/12/18 Pie Finish the first part of the

discussion and continue to
work on the conclusion

10/12/18 Kim Finish the discussion and

working on abstract

10/12/18 Bell Working on abstract

10/12/18 Aj Finish references part