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# Fayoum University First semester 2018/2019

Faculty of Engineering
Dr. Gihan Naguib
Department of Electrical Engineering
Computer engineering systems ECE 404
Sheet No.1

1. Assume six devices are arranged in a mesh topology. How many cables are
needed? How many ports are needed for each device?
Solution:
Cable links: n (n – 1) / 2 = (6 × 5) / 2 = 15
Number of ports: (n – 1) = 5 ports needed per device.
2. For each of the following four networks, discuss the consequences if a
connection fails:
a. Five devices arranged in a mesh topology
Mesh topology: If one connection fails, the other connections will still be
working.
b. Five devices arranged in a star topology (not counting the hub)
Star topology: The other devices will still be able to send data through the
hub; there will be no access to the device which has the failed connection to
the hub.
c. Five devices arranged in a bus topology
Bus Topology: All transmission stops if the failure is in the bus. If the drop-
line fails, only the corresponding device cannot operate.
d. Five devices arranged in a ring topology
Ring Topology: The failed connection may disable the whole network unless
it is a dual ring or there is a by-pass mechanism.
3. You have two computers connected by an Ethernet hub at home. Is this a LAN,
a MAN, or a WAN? Explain your reason.
This is a LAN. The Ethernet hub creates a LAN.
4. In the ring topology in Figure, what happens if one of the stations is
unplugged?

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Solution:
Theoretically, in a ring topology, unplugging one station, interrupts the ring.
However, most ring networks use a mechanism that bypasses the station; the
ring can continue its operation.
5. In the bus topology in Figure, what happens if one of the stations is unplugged?

Solution:
In a bus topology, no station is in the path of the signal. Unplugging a station
has no effect on the operation of the rest of the network.
6. Performance is inversely related to delay. When you use the Internet, which of
the following applications are more sensitive to delay?
a. Sending an e-mail
E-mail is not an interactive application. Even if it is delivered immediately, it
may stay in the mail-box of the receiver for a while. It is not sensitive to
delay.
b. Copying a file
We normally do not expect a file to be copied immediately. It is not very
sensitive to delay.
c. Surfing the Internet
Surfing the Internet is the application very sensitive to delay. We except to
7. When a party makes a local telephone call to another party, is this a point-to-
In this case, the communication is only between a caller and the callee. A
dedicated line is established between them. The connection is point-to-point.
8. Compare the telephone network and the Internet. What are the similarities?
What are the differences?
The telephone network was originally designed for voice communication; the
Internet was originally designed for data communication. The two networks
are similar in the fact that both are made of interconnections of small
networks. The telephone network, as we will see in future chapters, is mostly a
circuit-switched network; the Internet is mostly a packet-switched network.
9. Name the four basic network topologies, and cite an advantage of each type.
Mesh: secure
Bus: easy installation

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Star: robust
Ring: easy fault isolation
10. What are the advantages of a multipoint connection over a point-to-point
connection?
Advantages of a multipoint over a point-to-point configuration (type of
connection) include ease of installation and low cost.
11. What are the two types of line configuration?
Line configurations (or types of connections) are point-to-point and multipoint.
12. Categorize the four basic topologies in terms of line configuration.
Point-to-point: mesh, star, and ring.
Multipoint: bus.

13. A Hosts A and B are connected to each other via router R. R is a store-and-
forward router. The bandwidth from A to R is 10Mbps, and the bandwidth
from R to B is 5Mbps. The one-way latency of each link is 22ms. Assume host A
sends a 30KB file to host B.
a) Assume the file is divided into two packets, p1 and p2, where p1 has a
length of 10KB, and assume the packets are sent back-to-back. What is the
difference between the arrival times of the first and the second packet at
host B?
Time= size/bw= 8*20/5000 = 160/5000 = 32ms
b) What is the effective throughput between A and B in part (a)? (The
transmission time is the time interval from the time the first bit is sent at A
until the final bit is received at B).
Total transfer-time: calculate how long the second packet takes and add
the wait for the first packet over link A-R. A-R wait is: 8*10/10000 = 8ms
Now time to send B is 8*20/10000 + 8*20/5000 + 44ms = 16ms + 32ms +
44ms=92ms
Total time: 100ms
THROUGHPUT: 30k/100ms = 0.3MBps or 2.4 Mbits/s

14. What is the total delay (latency) for a frame of size 5 million bits that is being
sent on a link with 10 routers each having a queuing time of 2 us and a
processing time of 1 us. The length of the link is 2000 Km. the speed of light
inside the link is 2 x108 m/s. The link has a bandwidth of 5 Mbps. Which
component of the total delay is dominant? Which one is negligible?
We have
Latency = processing time + queuing time + transmission time + propagation
time

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Processing time = 10 × 1 μs = 10 μs = 0.000010 s
Queuing time = 10 × 2 μs = 20 μs = 0.000020 s
Transmission time = 5,000,000 / (5 Mbps) = 1 s
Propagation time = (2000 Km) / (2 × 108) = 0.01 s
Latency = 0.000010 + 0.000020 + 1 + 0.01 = 1.01000030 s
The transmission time is dominant here because the packet size is huge.

15. How many bits can fit on a link with a 2 ms delay if the bandwidth of the link is
a. 1 Mbps?
b. 10 Mbps?
c. 100 Mbps?
a. Number of bits = bandwidth × delay = 1 Mbps × 2 ms = 2000 bits
b. Number of bits = bandwidth × delay = 10 Mbps × 2 ms = 20,000 bits
c. Number of bits = bandwidth × delay = 100 Mbps × 2 ms = 200,000 bits

16. What is the length of a bit in a channel with a propagation speed of 2 x 10 8 m/s
if the channel bandwidth is
a. 1 Mbps?
b. 10 Mbps?
c. 100 Mbps?
(Bit length) = (propagation speed) × (bit duration)
The bit duration is the inverse of the bandwidth.
a. Bit length = (2 ×108 m) × [(1 / (1 Mbps)] = 200 m. This means a bit occupies
200 meters on a transmission medium.
b. Bit length = (2 ×108 m) × [(1 / (10 Mbps)] = 20 m. This means a bit occupies
20 meters on a transmission medium.
c. Bit length = (2 ×108 m) × [(1 / (100 Mbps)] = 2 m. This means a bit occupies 2
meters on a transmission medium.

17. Match the following to one or more layers of the OSI model:
a. Route determination
Network layer
b. Flow control
c. Interface to transmission media
Physical layer
d. Provides access for the end user
Application layer

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18. Match the following to one or more layers of the OSI model:
a. Reliable process-to-process message delivery
Transport layer
b. Route selection
Network layer
c. Defines frames
d. Provides user services such as e-mail and file transfer
Application layer
e. Transmission of bit stream across physical medium
Physical layer
19. Match the following to one or more layers of the OSI model:
a. Communicates directly with user's application program
Application layer
b. Error correction and retransmission
c. Mechanical, electrical, and functional interface
Physical layer
d. Responsibility for carrying frames between adjacent nodes
20. Match the following to one or more layers of the OSI model:
a. Format and code conversion services
Presentation layer
b. Establishes, manages, and terminates sessions
Session layer
c. Ensures reliable transmission of data
d. Log-in and log-out procedures
Session layer
e. Provides independence from differences in data representation
Presentation layer

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21. In the following figure, computer A sends a message to computer D via LAN1,
router R1, and LAN2. Show the contents of the packets and frames at the
network and data link layer for each hop interface.

Solution:

22. In the previous figure, assume that the communication is between a process
running at computer A with port address i and a process running at computer D
with port address j. Show the contents of packets and frames at the network,
data link, and transport layer for each hop.

Solution:

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23. Suppose a computer sends a frame to another computer on a bus topology
LAN. The physical destination address of the frame is corrupted during the
transmission. What happens to the frame? How can the sender be informed
If the corrupted destination address does not match any station address in the
network, the packet is lost. If the corrupted destination address matches one
of the stations, the frame is delivered to the wrong station. In this case,
however, the error detection mechanism, available in most data link protocols,
will find the error and discard the frame. In both cases, the source will
somehow be informed using one of the data link control mechanisms.
24. Suppose a computer sends a packet at the network layer to another computer
somewhere in the Internet. The logical destination address of the packet is
corrupted. What happens to the packet? How can the source computer be
informed of the situation?
Before using the destination address in an intermediate or the destination
node, the packet goes through error checking that may help the node find the
corruption (with a high probability) and discard the packet. Normally the upper
layer protocol will inform the source to resend the packet.
25. Suppose a computer sends a packet at the transport layer to another computer
somewhere in the Internet. There is no process with the destination port
address running at the destination computer. What will happen?
Most protocols issue a special error message that is sent back to the source in
this case.
26. If the data link layer can detect errors between hops, why do you think we
need another checking mechanism at the transport layer?
The errors between the nodes can be detected by the data link layer control,
but the error at the node (between input port and output port) of the node
cannot be detected by the data link layer.
27. How does information gets passed from one layer to the next in the internet
model?
Each layer calls upon the services of the layer just below it using interface
between each pair of adjacent layers.