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UNIVERSITY OF GAZIANTEP

THE GRADUTE SCHOOL OF


NATURAL AND APPLIED SCIENCE

POWER TRANSMISSION
ELEMENTS
BEARINGS
Presenter: Hazim Al-Sadoon

2015-2016
Contents

- Introduction

- Function of Bearing

- Bearing Classification

- Bearings Design

- Selection of Bearing

- Types and Application

- Materials

- Bearing Specification

- Classes of Fit

- Mounting of Bearing

- Dismounting of Bearing

- Bearing damage

- How it made
Introduction

The word "bearing" incorporates the meaning of "to bear," in the sense of
"to support," and "to carry a burden." This refers to the fact that bearings
support and carry the burden of revolving or rotating axles and shafts.
Therefore the support for the shaft or power transmission elements called
the bearing.
The main function of a rotating shaft is to transmit power from one end of
the line to the other. So it needs the bearing where is a good supports to
ensure stability and frictionless rotation.
So Bearings are machine elements that allow components to move with
respect to each other. Bearings are used to support large skyscrapers to
allow them to move during earthquakes, and bearings enable the finest of
watches to tick away happily. Without bearings, everything would grind to a
halt, including people, whose joints are comprised of sliding contact
bearings!
Therefore from small and large motors to car axles to electric fans, hard disc
drives (HDDs), trains, ships airplanes, and satellites. Bearings are used in a
wide array of machines for rotary motion and linear motion. It support
rotary parts and reduce friction to facilitate the smooth operation of
machines.

The size of bearings can range from smaller than a grain of rice — small
enough to fit inside a wristwatch—to over one meter in diameter for
factories, bridges and power plant applications. Thus bearings are used in a
lot of different mechanical devices and are very important to make different
applications durable, noiseless, efficient. And enhance the functionality of
machinery and help to save energy.
Bearings do their work silently, in tough environments, hidden in machinery
where we can't see them. Even so, bearings are crucial for the stable
operation of machinery and for ensuring its top performance.

Bearing concept

The concept behind the bearings is very simple since rolling friction is far
less than sliding friction therefore things roll well than they slide hence the
invention of wheel. And Bearings reduce friction by providing smooth
metal balls or rollers, and a smooth inner and outer metal surface for the
balls to roll against. These balls or rollers "bear" the load, allowing the
device to spin smoothly.

Bearings Classification

Bearings may be classified broadly according to the motions they allow and
according to their principle of operation. Where Common motions are
include linear and rotary. A linear bearing allows motion along a straight
line, for example a drawer being pulled out and pushed in. A rotary bearing
allows motion about a center, such as a wheel on a shaft or a shaft through
housing. Common kinds of rotary motion include both one-direction
rotation and oscillation where the motion only goes through part of a
revolution.

The Bearings are classified under two main categories, each used for different
purposes and different conditions. Two major types of bearings are contact bearings
and noncontact bearings.

 Contact bearings – They have mechanical contact between elements, and they
include sliding, rolling, and flexural bearings. Mechanical contact means that
stiffness normal to the direction of motion can be very high, but wear or fatigue can
limit their life. Fig 1 shows different types of sliding and rolling bearings.
 Non-contact bearings – They include fluid bearings and magnetic bearings. The lack
of mechanical contact means that static friction can be eliminated, although viscous
drag occurs when fluids are present; however, life can be virtually infinite if the
external power units required to operate them do not fail.

Fig 1

There are many types of bearings available where classified according to


application and shape requirement
 Plain and Bushing Bearings (Sliding contact Bearing)
 Ball or Roller Bearings
 Magnetic Bearings
 Jewel Bearings
 Fluid Hydrodynamic Bearings
 Flexure Bearing
 Other Types of Bearings(special bearings)
 Plain Bearing

A plain bearing a support or a guide in which only sliding friction takes


place. (Sometimes called a solid bearing, sliding bearing and Bushing
Bearing), it is a simplest type of bearing, comprising just a bearing surface
and no rolling elements. Therefore the journal slides over the bearing
surface. The simplest example of a plain bearing is a shaft rotating in a hole.
A simple linear bearing can be a pair of flat surfaces designed to allow
motion, such the ways on the bed of a lathe.

Plain bearings, in general, are the least expensive type of bearing. They are
also compact and lightweight, and they have a high load-carrying capacity.
In plain bearings, the moving parts are in direct line contact with one
another. They can absorb more force than rolling bearings, but due to higher
friction, plain bearings are subject to higher wear. The lubricant must match
your operational and design requirements to ensure your plain bearings run
smoothly without re-lubrication for a long time. For example, plain bearings
used in the cement industry are subject to completely different requirements
to those used on ships, in the automotive industry or in food processing.

Plain Bearings also known as “Bushings” are designed for use in numerous
applications and offer features and benefits unavailable with many rolling-
element bearings. Bushings are distinguished from rolling-element bearings
primarily by the fact that they consist of only one part. That one part may be
built up of different materials, layered and combined into a load carrying
system. Depending on the application, bushings are available for operation
with supplemental lubrication or to run “dry”, with no additional
lubrication. Bushings are available impregnated with lubricant, with
lubricant “plug” inserts, or with inherently low coefficients of friction.
Bushing materials include cast or machined metals, stabilized polymers
(“plastics”), fiber-wound composites, and combinations of different types of
materials. Selecting the right bushing for each project requires detailed
knowledge of the application requirements and experience with bushing
technology.
There are a several types of plain bearing can be classified:-

1. According to the direction of the supported load :


a) Journal bearing,
b) Thrust bearing, and
c) Thrust-journal plain bearing.
2. According to the type of lubrication :
a) Aerodynamic bearing,
b) Aerostatic bearing,
c) Hydrodynamic bearing,
d) Hydrostatic bearing,
e) Bearing with solid lubricant, and
f) Unlubricated bearing.
3. According to the design :
a) Plain self-aligning bearing,
b) Tilting pad journal bearing,
c) Pad thrust bearing,
d) Pad journal bearing,
e) Tilting pad thrust bearing.
f) Lobed plain bearing,
g) Self-lubricating bearing,
h) Porous bearing, and
j) Porous self-lubricating bearing.
 Ball or Roller Bearings

 Magnetic Bearings
 Jewel Bearings

 Fluid Hydrodynamic Bearings

 Flexure Bearing

A flexure bearing is a bearing which allows motion by bending a load element.

A typical flexure bearing is just one part, joining two other parts. For example, a
hinge may be made by attaching a long strip of a flexible element to a door and to
the door frame. Another example is a rope swing, where the rope is tied to a tree
branch.

A living hinge (a type of flexure bearing), on the lid of a Tic Tac box.

Flexure bearings have the advantage over most other bearings that they are simple
and thus inexpensive. They are also often compact, lightweight, have very low
friction, and are easier to repair without specialized equipment. Flexure bearings
have the disadvantages that the range of motion is limited, and often very limited
for bearings that support high loads.

A flexure bearing relies on the bearing element being made of a material which can
be repeatedly flexed without disintegrating. However, most materials fall apart if
flexed a lot. For example, most metals will fatigue with repeated flexing, and will
eventually snap. Thus, one part of flexure bearing design is avoiding fatigue. Note,
however, that fatigue is important in other bearings. For example, the rollers and
races in a rolling-element bearing fatigue as they flatten against each other.

Flexure bearings can give very low friction and also give very predictable friction.
Many other bearings rely on sliding or rolling motions, which are necessarily
uneven because the bearing surfaces are never perfectly flat. A flexure bearing
operates by bending of materials, which causes motion at microscopic level, so
friction is very uniform. For this reason, flexure bearings are often used in sensitive
precision measuring equipment.

Flexure bearings are not limited to low loads, however. For example, the drive
shafts of some sports cars replace cardan universal joints with an equivalent joint
called a rag joint which works by bending rubberized fabric. The resulting joint is
lighter yet is capable of carrying hundreds of kilowatts, with adequate durability
for a sports car.

Many flexure bearings are combined with other elements. For example, many
motor vehicles use leaf springs. The spring both holds the position of the axle as
the axle moves (flexure bearing) and provides force to support the vehicle
(springing). In many cases it is not clear where flexure bearing leaves off and
something else takes up. For example, turbines are often supported on flexible
shafts so an imperfectly balanced turbine can find its own center and run with
reduced vibration. Seen one way, the flexible shaft includes the function of a
flexure bearing; seen another, the shaft is not a "bearing".

The motion of more than one flexure bearing can be combined to create a desired
motion. In the early 1980s work began on a cryogenic cooler for use in satellites
which supported the pistons in bores using spiral flexure bearings. These flexures
produce motion in a precise axis which allowed the fit between the pistons and
bores to be very close but without metal to metal sliding contact.[1] Derivatives of
this cooler design are still in use in satellites to this day
 Other Types of Bearings (special bearings)

Elastomeric Bearings
How it’s made

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eGyoMuE4gDQ
2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k8SHKy5tXbI&feature=related
References:
 IS:l0260(Part l)-1982 IS : 10260 ( Part I ) - 1982 Terms, definitions and
classifications of plain bearing : Part I Construction.
 IS: 10260 (Part II) - 1982 Terms, definitions and classifications of plain
bearing: Part If Friction.
 http://www.klueber.com/en/applications/components/plain-
bearings/#21395
 http://science.howstuffworks.com/bearing3.htm
 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bearings
 http://www.nsk.com/services/basicknowledge/introduction.html
 NASA Tech Brief
 http://www-personal.umich.edu/~awtar/PHD/Diaphragm.pdf
 Kinematic Models for Design Digital Library (KMODDL) - Movies and
photos of hundreds of working mechanical-systems models at Cornell
University. Also includes an e-book library of classic texts on mechanical
design and engineering.
 Weinstein, Warren D., "Flexure-Pivot Bearings", Machine Design, Part 1,
June 10, 1965, Part 2, July 8, 1965 - Spring rates, bearing types, single
and multi-strip design, material types, hysteresis and fatigue
 Weinstein, Warren D., "Micro performance of Metals". Machine Design,
September 11, 1969 - Material relaxation and rolamite
 The Bal-Tec Flexural Encyclopedia
 http://www.nmbtc.com/bearings/