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Common Content:
The verdict of the Pakistan Supreme Court validating the military takeover by General Musharraf may be
on expected political lines of military justice. But we must remember that this decision, for the first time
in the history of jurisprudence, is giving constitutionality to a military takeover, setting a dangerous
precedent for parliamentary democracy as well as democracies generally. In the constitutional days, it was
the same Supreme Court which, in May 1993, declared the presidential dissolution of the National
Assembly ultra vires and restored the dissolved Parliament and recalled the dismissed Premier - Mr.
Nawaz Sharif. That was an extraordinary decision, hailed as a Watershed in Pakistan's struggle for
parliamentary supremacy, cautioning Presidents from acting arbitrarily.
The same Supreme Court does it again in a quite different manner. Here the court is saying that a military
takeover is constitutional as a matter of national necessity, and indirectly declaring that subverting or
sabotaging the Constitution by the military is also constitutional. We hear quite strange legal theories.
May be the Court is making a virtue of necessity validating what the Generals wanted to validate. But the
art of the possible has never been part of judicial statecraft. Courts working under military regimes and
dictators do not hide the fact that they have to work under the wishes of the executive. But what is the
nature of the present declaration? When Ayub, Yahya and Zia-ul-Haq ruled, the Supreme Court never
ventured to redefine the constitutional legitimacy of the ruler, who came to power through the power of
arms. When the military takes over, subverting the Constitution, the judiciary exists not as an independent
branch, but only as a subordinate branch. During the period of a military rule, the judiciary, as an
independent third branch, is non¬existent to exercise the power of judicial review.
In a democracy having an independent judiciary, the court alone is the continuing governmental
institution. Also in democracies, the civilian supremacy over military is the most essential principle. But
the Court says now that General Musharraf is entitled to amend the Constitution and take all measures as
would establish and lead to the realisation of the declared objectives of the Chief Executive. The Court
adds the rider that the salient features of the constitution - independence of judiciary, federalism and
parliamentary form of government - blended with Islamic provisions still remain unamendable. In this
respect the Court seems to follow the language of the basic structure theory of the Supreme Court of
India. Is it a laudable objective for the Court to window-dress the unconstitutionality of a military coup in
such fine legal phraseology? Or is it that the Court does this only to keep alive the rights of the people
even under a General?
The Court reasons to say that there was no democracy in the country prior to the coup, and even
Parliament and the State Assemblies had been closely associated with illegalities such as corruption,
attack on judiciary, destruction of institutions and undermining of the economy. Also the previous
government of Mr. Nawaz Sharif is accused of politicising the army, destabilising it and creating
dissensions within its ranks. These are the reasons that weighed with the court in legalising the military
The Pakistan Constitution does not contain a provision for a military takeover by throwing out elected
governments. If there is an emergency, the government in power (the elected civilian government) can
assume emergency powers which necessitate the suspension of constitutional rights. Emergency can be
the result of the existence of an extraordinary situation due to war, revolt or national calamity; even
without a specific constitutional provision for declaring as state of emergency, it can be declared by the
executive or legislature, as a matter of necessity When there is war or internal revolt and the existence of
the state is in danger, to preserve the state, all rights of the individual and society are to be surrendered to
the state.
But this contingency presupposes the existence of an elected civilian government in power, and it is to
that government that such powers are to be surrendered. Without the state, there is no existence for
individual rights, and therefore the state must be protected from destruction by anti-national forces. This
is the situation which permits a democratic Constitution to declare an emergency. But under what
category comes this legalisation of military coup in Pakistan?
True, democracies have stumbled into dictatorships like Hitler's Germany, Mussolini's Italy and many
Latin American and Afro-Asian states, but there had never been a judicial attempt to invent constitutional
legitimacy for military takeovers and coups. When there is a military takeover, the Court also comes
under the thumb of the executive, the judiciary then has to give interpretations which are conformist and
comfortable to the ruler, as it is no longer the independent branch. In that situation of non-independence,
the proper stand for the court ought to have been not to enter into judicial rhetorics the way an
independent judiciary does
The duty of an independent court ought to be to declare the military takeover as constitutionally
illegitimate and illegal. Under a democratic Constitution, which defines majoritariam election and the
establishment of three branches of government as part of the democratic process, there is no legal
philosophy enabling the declaration that a military coup is necessary and legal. A military coup throws
away the constitutional order in existence, and after the coup what exists as right and liberty is what is
allowed to exist by the military.
A non-independent judiciary cannot contend that only after three years its real power need be tested Are
we sure that this post-dated cheque is going to be encashed? The court could have declared that no longer
it is a co-equal branch, and under the military rule there is no such power in existence as the power of
judicial review. That would have been the proper approach the court should have adopted.
But this pronouncement contains a serious threat to democracy. Now militarists can contend that military
coups are constitutionally valid, and they can be part of the constitutional order in a democracy. It will
also be claimed that whenever there is a democratic government elected, the situation inherently justifies
a military takeover to restore law and order restablise the economy and prevent corruption - quite ordinary
policy questions always existing in any system.
The Court also directs that the parliamentary democracy, independence of judiciary, federalism, etc.. are
the salient features of the Constitution, and these features cannot be affected by a military order. But
when the military takes over everything called salient feature stands abrogated, and as far as people's
rights are concerned, there is no Constitution in existence. For the world, it supplies very strange law
when the Court declares that a military coup is at times a constitutional necessity and intra vires. If this is
a lesson to be learnt by the judiciary in world democracies it sets up an outrageous precedent.
1. Ideally, the Supreme Court of Pakistan should have
a) done all of the above.
b) reserved its verdict of legalizing the military coup.
c) said that judicial review had no meaning under a military rule.
d) declared that it was no longer an independent branch.
2. The author, as understood from the passage,
a) feels that the present economic situation demands a military rule.
b) opines that the declaration of emergency would have been a better option to a military coup.
c) is worried that the military-coup in Pakistan will lead to the same in other democratic countries.
d) criticises the Supreme Court's timid stand in legalising the military takeover.
3. It is necessary to shield the state from forces that go against the nation's interests because
a) they are harmful to the Constitution
b) the rights of the individuals depend upon the well-being of state
c) it may set a dangerous trend elsewhere in the world.
d) they may harm the proper functioning of the judiciary.
4. In a situation where the military has taken over the administration of the country forcibly, there
may be
a) All the above
b) an annulment of the salient features of the Constitution.
c) a complete change in the functioning of the judiciary.
d) a threat to democracies all over the world.
5. The validation of the military coup in Pakistan
a) has forced its citizens to give up their constitutional rights.
b) heralds the beginning of a new era.
c) can provoke antinational forces of other countries to take over their respective democracies.
d) has gone against its constitution in the country.
6. The tone of the passage is
a) non-committal.
b) that of censure.
c) informative.
d) laudatory.
7. What is the additional clause that the Supreme Court has added to its verdict?
a) The salient features of the Constitution of Pakistan cannot be amended even under a military
b) The court reserves its right to pass judgements.
c) The military coup is valid when the economy is in down turn.
d) In case there is no democracy at the time of a coup, then the new government will be automatically
recognized as legal.
8. Which of the following is/are considered as the important features of a democracy?
a) All the above
b) The supremacy of civilian over the military
c) An independent judiciary
d) Supremacy of the Constitution
9. The Supreme Court of Pakistan says that the government that was overthrown
a) could not take care of the country's international relations.
b) had been involved in corruption to a very great extent.
c) had always undermined the role of the Court.
d) was not capable enough to rule the country.
10. Which of the following happens under Emergency as laid down in the Constitution of Pakistan?
a) Formation of executive legislature
b) Suspension of constitutional rights
c) Suspension of the elected government
d) Amendments to the Constitution
Common Content:
There are many pleasant stories, probably unhistorical, showing what practical problems stimulated
mathematical investigations. The earliest and simplest relates to Thales, who, when in Egypt, was asked
by the king to find out the height of a pyramid. He waited for the time of day when his shadow was as
long as he was; he then measured the shadow of the pyramid, which was of course equal to its height. It is
said that the laws of perspective were first studied by the geometer Agatharcus, in order to paint scenery
for the plays of Aescylus. The problem of finding the distance of a ship at sea, which was said to have
been studied by Thales, was correctly solved at an early stage.
One of the great problems that occupied Greek geometers that of the duplication of the cube, originated,
we are told, with the priests of a certain temple, who were informed by the Oracle that the god wanted a
statue twice as large as the one they had. At first they thought simply of doubling all the dimensions of
the statue, but then they realized that the result would be eight times as large as the original, which would
involve more expense than the god had demanded. So they sent a deputation to Plato to ask whether
anybody in the Academy could solve their problem. The geometers took it up, and worked at it for
centuries, producing, incidentally, much admirable work. The problem is, of course, that of determining
the cube root of 2.
11. The duplication of the cube originated with
a) Agatharcus.
b) the temple priests
c) Greek geometers.
d) Thales.
12. The solution for the duplication of the cube can be found by
a) measuring the shadow of a pyramid
b) deciding the cube root of 2.
c) All the above
d) doubling all the dimensions.
13. We know that Plato was held in high esteem because
a) he produced much admirable work.
b) he headed an Academy.
c) he made the laws of Geometry.
d) a deputation was sent to him to solve a problem.
14. The main reason for the study of the laws of perspective was
a) to paint scenery for the plays of Aeschylus.
b) to find out the dimensions of a statue.
c) All the above
d) to find out the distance of a ship at sea.
15. We infer from the passage that
a) the priests mentioned here believed in the Oracle
b) by doubling the dimensions of a statue, we get a statue twice as big as the original.
c) Plato was sent out on a journey by the Kings to investigate certain mathematical facts.
d) there are many true stories to show that practical problems stimulated mathematical investigations.
Common Content:
It is not everyday that well-maintained 28acre palaces are disposed of for a mere 10 lakh. Many eyebrows
were raised in Srinagar when the picturesque palace of the former maharaja of Jammu and Kashimir, Hari
Singh, on the up market Boulevard along the Dal Lake, was sold for a throwaway price which would not
have fetched even a three-bed-room house anywhere in Srinagar.
The sale deed was executed by the heirs of Hari Singh, including former Sardar-I-Riyasat and Rajya
Sabha member Dr. Karan Singh and his family. The palace has been sold to Narinder Kumar Batra,
younger son of the influential Kashmiri business magnate Dharam Veer Batra. However, it is alleged that
the 'sale' was carried out to provide a legal cover to the real owner, Lalit Suri of Bharat Hotels, who being
a non-Kashmiri cannot, by law, purchase immovable property in Jammu & Kashmir.
Businessmen as well as local citizens in Srinagar are aghast over the silence of the state government and
other agencies concerned on the sale of a historical site. Infact, the former chief minister was present at
the bhoomi puja held by Suri at the hotel complex early last month. Interestingly, the state government
had already put in place some norms on the sale of property to put a check on the practice of undervaluing
it for evading taxes and stamp duty. The buyer has to approach the deputy commissioner concerned who
directs the engineering department for valuation of the property and in case the value is higher than what
is stated in the papers, the sale deed is not registered. But, in this case, this provision was ignored.
The sale is the envy of other hoteliers in Srinagar. Says Bashir Ahmed, who is also in the hotel business:
"I am prepared to pay 20 crore for the same property. Let Suri or his front man Narinder Batra come
forward. They are good businessmen looking for profits and this should be an attractive proposition -
20crore for what they purchased for 10 lakh".
16. Why did Lalit Suri not purchase the palace from the real heirs?
a) His relationship with the real heirs was not good.
b) He did not want to be in the lime-light by purchasing a historical property.
c) His close association with Narinder Kumar Batra led to a partnership.
d) He could not purchase any property in Kashmir as he was a non-Kashmiri.
17. The sale of the palace is the envy of other hoteliers because
a) a non-Kashmiri bought it.
b) it has historical significance.
c) it is the only sale of a palace in Kashmir.
d) it is a valuable property
18. What caused many an eyebrow to rise in Srinagar was
a) the purchase of the palace by a non-Kashmiri.
b) the political controversy involved in the sale of the palace
c) the sale of a grand palace for a throwaway price.
d) the sale of the palace of the former Maharaja for a whooping sum.
Common Content:
For a brand to be successful, there are three routes possible: Innovation, price leadership, or emotional
leadership. These three routes are by no means mutually exclusive. The innovation approach hinges on
making a proposition to the consumer that the competitor either cannot or does not offer, In the tea
market, its relevance is miniscule, given that technological differentials are negligible. Not only are entry
barriers low, but in most cases, the consumer, habituated to tea, is unwilling to experiment. Price
competition in the FMCG business is a mug's game. Cutting price is not only disastrous to profitability,
but also self-defeating. The fact that any such price cut can be easily matched by competitors makes
matters worse. There's little to be gained in terms of long-term consumer loyalty from such a behaviour
The only way to get the value equation right in the tea market is to connect with the consumer. Turn
advertising into an investment. Understanding how the consumer thinks is the only sustainable source of
competitive advantage. If you do this better than your competitor and then use it to build your
relationship, you win. That is what one means by "emotional leader". For Longenuff, however, it would
require a paradigm shift. Not only must it invest in consumer insights, but also in bonding with them on
the new platform shortlisted. This is easier said than done; for a well established brand, the task of
repositioning would require heavy media investment. Assuming that 90 crore is the basic requirement for
sustaining current volumes and market share, the only option for growth would be to invest the extra sum
19. One thing not mentioned by the author for a brand to be successful is
a) spiritual leadership.
b) price leadership.
c) emotional leadership
d) innovation.
20. One thing that does not work out well in" the tea market ", is
a) price leadership.
b) Increasing the price
c) innovative approach.
d) Understanding how the consumer thinks
21. What does the author suggest to stay ahead in competition?
a) Pricing the brand keeping the prices of the competitors in view
b) Increasing the price
c) Decreasing the price
d) Understanding how the consumer thinks
22. With whom does the author suggest building a relationship?
a) With a person having leadership qualities
b) With the consumer
c) With the tea market
d) With the competitor
23. Select the correct alternative from the given choices.
Country Y has sought the help of country X, to catch the notorious don. Because of this request,
country X is caught between the devil and the deep sea.
Which of the following can be inferred from the above statement?
a) The don is in country X.
b) The don is involved in illegal activities.
c) Country X can find out the whereabouts of the don.
d) Country X does not want to antagonize Country Y or the don.
24. In the question below is given a statement followed by several assumptions. An assumption is
something supposed or taken for granted. You have to consider the statement along with the
assumptions and then decide as to which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement.
Statement : "Watching television for a long time leads to damage of the eyesight." - A mother informs
her daughter.
Assumptions :
I. The eyesight of mother is normal.
II. The daughter finds television programmes interesting.
III. The eyesight of daughter is normal.
a) All I, II and III are implicit
b) Only I and II are implicit
c) Only II is implicit
d) Only II and III are implicit
25. In the question below is given a statement followed by several assumptions. An assumption is
something supposed or taken for granted. You have to consider the statement along with the
assumptions and then decide as to which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement.
Statement : "It is desirable to keep common medicines with you when you go on a long journey". A
advises B.
Assumptions :
I. B's health is poor.
II. A is a medical representative.
III. One's health is likely to get affected by the changes in weather, water etc., while on a long journey.
a) Only I is implicit
b) Only III is implicit
c) Only I and II are implicit
d) Only I and III are implicit
26. Select the correct alternative from the given choices.
Now-a-days, many sky scrapers are coming up, leaving no place for children to play. The children are
forced to play on the roads, sometimes causing accidents. Some parents do not allow their children to
play, leading to lack of physical exercise.
Which of the following would be the most appropriate course of action to solve the problem?
a) The authorities should not allow building of skyscrapers so that the children will get a playground at
convenient distances.
b) None of these.
c) Parents should set up a gym in the house for the physical exercise of the children.
d) Children should play in school playgrounds.
27. A statement is given followed by several assumptions. An assumption is something assumed or
taken for granted. Read the statement carefully and decide which of the assumptions are implicit in
the statement.
Statement : "Nokia introduces the world's easiest-to-use cellular phone. Small in size, huge in
performance." - an advertisement.
Assumptions :
I. People want convenience while using a cellular phone.
II. People want small-sized cellular phones.
III. Cellular phones were not available before.
a) I and II are implicit
b) Only I is implicit
c) Only II is implicit
d) Only III is implicit
Read each question and answer the question given below each accordingly.
In the past, most children who went sledding in the winter snow in Verland used wooden sleds with
runners and steering bars. Ten years ago, smooth plastic sleds became popular; they go faster than
wooden sleds but are harder to steer and slow. The concern that plastic sleds are more dangerous is
clearly borne out by the fact that the number of children injured while sledding was much higher last
winter than it was 10 years ago.
28. Which of the following, if true in Verland, most seriously undermines the force of the evidence
a) Very few children wear any kind of protective gear, such as helmets, while sledding.
b) Most sledding injuries occur when a sled collides with a tree, a rock, or another sled.
c) A few children still use traditional wooden sleds.
d) Plastic sleds can be used in a much wider variety of snow conditions than wooden sleds can.
29. In the following question a statement is given followed by two conclusions I and II. Mark your
The General Manager, Operations, has proposed to replace the present training programme with a new
one, which would bring the true caliber of managers to the fore.
I. It is desirable to bring out the true caliber of managers.
II. The earlier training programme was not effective in bringing out the true caliber.
a) If only conclusion II follows.
b) If neither I nor II follows.
c) If both I and II follow.
d) If only conclusion I follows.
Select the correct alternative from the given choices.
30. Veerappan struck at will, demoralizing STF personnel who believed he had magical powers that
made him invisible. Officers dread a posting in STF.
Which of the following can be inferred from the above statement?
a) STF personnel had to face Veerappan as part of the their duty.
b) STF personnel were unable to assess when Veerappan would strike
c) Veerappan employed more sophisticated war tactics compared to the STF personnel
d) One can become invisible with magical powers.
31. A statement is given followed by several assumptions. An assumption is something assumed or
taken for granted. Read the statement carefully and decide which of the assumptions are implicit in
the statement.
Statement : "The Samba spying case has blown away the myth that the Indian army is disciplined and
impartial." - an editorial.
Assumptions :
I. Samba is the name of the file that was smuggled to another country.
II. It was believed that Indian army is disciplined.
III. Spying scandals are not welcome in an army.
a) Only III is implicit
b) Only II is implicit
c) II and III are implicit
d) I and II are implicit
Answer the below questions based on the instructions given in each.
32. When India pointed out the Mc Mahon line, the Chinese response was that it did not recognize lines
drawn by colonial powers.
Which of the following is conclusion which can be drawn from the above statement?
a) The line was drawn by a Britisher by name Mc Mahon.
b) The Mc Mahon line is not to the advantage of the Chinese.
c) Indians recognized the border drawn by colonial powers.
d) The Indians are not in good terms with the colonial powers.
33. Select the correct alternative from the given choices.
A feud between two communities has created a rift among school children on caste lines in a remote
village. Children belonging to a particular caste are now skipping the mid-day meal because the cook
belongs to a different caste. A boy revealed that his parents had advised him to come home for lunch by
skipping the mid-day meal served at school.
Which of the following would be the most appropriate course of action to solve the problem?
a) The children should be made aware of the caste system and tell them that the people of all castes are
human beings and caste makes no difference.
b) Stop the mid day meal scheme.
c) Close the main gate of the school and force the students to have mid-day meal in the school.
d) Change the cook.
34. Select the correct alternative from the given choices.
A five-year-old boy, Sakti, was washed away in on overflowing Nala following a downpour. This is third
such tragic death in the past three months. A 10 year old boy died after slipping into the Nala in the same
locality after heavy rains. The Nala is also a source of diseases.
Which of the following would be the most appropriate course of action to solve the problem?
a) Divert the excess water to a different Nala.
b) Cover the entire Nala.
c) Make the place prohibited for the children during rainy season.
d) Construct a sidewall beside the Nala in that locality so that the children cannot reach the Nala.
35. A statement is given followed by several assumptions. An assumption is something assumed or
taken for granted. Read the statement carefully and decide which of the assumptions are implicit in
the statement.
Statement : "Hungry stomachs do not understand high values and economic ethics. They will vote a man
who gives them rice." - A political analyst on why a particular party won the election.
Assumptions :
I. A lot of people are hungry.
II. Rice was not available previously.
III. Rice was available only in limited quantity.
a) I is implicit
b) Either II or III is implicit
c) I and III are implicit
d) I and II are implicit
36. In the question below is given a statement followed by several assumptions. An assumption is
something supposed or taken for granted. You have to consider the statement along with the
assumptions and then decide as to which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement.
Statement : “Do not allow any candidate to leave the examination hall until the examination is over,
except when an emergency calls for." - An instruction to the supervisor.
Assumption :
I. The supervisor himself is not supposed to leave the examination hall unattended.
II. The supervisor has the authority to determine the extent of emergency.
III. The examination is for less than two hours.
a) I and II are implicit
b) None is implicit
c) Only I is implicit
d) Only II is implicit
37. In the following question a statement is given followed by two conclusions I and II. Mark your
The pigeon was one of the agents of mail in the past, still in some parts of Orissa pigeon mail is used by
the Police department.
I. The Department of Post and Telegraph has not made any progress in the last century.
II. The Police must be finding the pigeons more convenient as compared to the other sources of postal
a) If both I and II follow.
b) If only conclusion I follows.
c) If only conclusion II follows.
d) If neither I nor II follows.