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EIS Quick Bites: NOV 2018 by Prof.

Om Trivedi
CA Intermediate – Group II (New Course)

Chapter 3: Information System Components

Data Information Process System

• Collection of raw facts • Data that have been BP is a sequence of co- A group of mutually
and figures. processed so that ordinated activities to related, cooperating
• Consists of numbers, they are transforms input into elements working
words, or images, meaningful. output which creates towards reaching a
particularly as • Organized data that some value to the common goal by taking
measurements or has been arranged customer as well as the inputs and producing
observations of a set of for better organization. outputs in organized
variables. comprehension, transformation processes.
understanding
and/or retrieval.

Information System: It refers to a system that collects, stores, analyses, processes and distributes information
in the enterprise for decision-making, co-ordination and control. It can be manual as well as computer-based
information system (CIS).

Information Technology: It refers to the applications of Computer systems – Hardware and Software,
Telecommunications and Networks, DBMS and Other Information Processing Technologies to collect, store,
transmit and manipulate data for processing of information in the enterprise.

Data Vs. Information


Data Information

• Data is raw facts and figures. • Information is facts or figures ready for
communication or use.

• Data is unorganized. • Information is meaningful and recorded by


human intellect.

Components of IS Key: (PHD IN Sw.) Why IS? Key: (OBC2)


1. People Resources (Specialists and End Users) 1. Operational excellence
2. Hardware (Machine and Media) 2. Better decision-making
3. Data (DBMS) 3. Competitive advantage
4. Information Products 4. Customer-supplier intimacy
5. Network (Devices, Media, Software and Protocols)
6. Software (Programs and Procedures)

Prof. Om Trivedi, IIM Alumnus and Faculty Member of IGP, Delhi, NIRC & WIRC of ICAI. (9958300572, omtrivedi@ymail.com)
EIS Quick Bites: NOV 2018 by Prof. Om Trivedi
CA Intermediate – Group II (New Course)

LAYERS IN INFORMATION SYSTEMS

HARDWARE

Prof. Om Trivedi, IIM Alumnus and Faculty Member of IGP, Delhi, NIRC & WIRC of ICAI. (9958300572, omtrivedi@ymail.com)
EIS Quick Bites: NOV 2018 by Prof. Om Trivedi
CA Intermediate – Group II (New Course)

PROCESSING DEVICES

Memory Unit

Primary Secondary Virtual


Memory Memory Memory

Internal External
RAM ROM CMOS
Memory Memory

CPU CU ALU Registers

• CPU is the processor • Computer’s • Carries out Internal memory within


that computes and resources are mathematical CPU, which are very fast
processes data and managed by CU. operations. and very small.
delivers the results • It is the logical • Arithmetic: Addition,
based on the hub of the subtraction, Types of Registers:
instructions that are fed computer. multiplication, division, a) Accumulators (AR)
etc. b) Data Registers (DR)
to the PC. • CPU’s
c) Instruction Registers
• Every CPU has two instructions for • Logical: Comparisons, (IR)
such as, whether one d) Memory Registers
basic parts, the Control carrying out
(MR)
Unit and the commands are number is equal to, e) Index Registers
Arithmetic Logic Unit. built into CU. greater than, or less
than another number.

Prof. Om Trivedi, IIM Alumnus and Faculty Member of IGP, Delhi, NIRC & WIRC of ICAI. (9958300572, omtrivedi@ymail.com)
EIS Quick Bites: NOV 2018 by Prof. Om Trivedi
CA Intermediate – Group II (New Course)

Cache Memory (Pronounced as ‘Cash’)

• There is a huge speed difference between Registers and Primary Memory.


• To bridge these speed differences, we have cache memory.

• Cache is a smaller, faster memory, which stores copies of the data from the most frequently used main
memory locations so that Processor/Registers can access it more rapidly than main memory.

PRIMARY MEMORY
1. Read Only Memory (ROM):
• It is only readable memory.
• The data written on it cannot be modified.
• The instructions required during booting of a system are retrieved from ROM.
2. Random Access Memory (RAM):
• RAM is temporary and is erased when computer is switched off.
• RAM is read/write type of memory, and thus, can be written by user.
3. Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Memory (CMOS):
• CMOS is used to store the system configuration, date, time and another important data.
• When computer is switched on, BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) matches the information of
CMOS with the peripheral devices and displays error in case of mismatching.
SECONDARY MEMORY
Because the storage capacity of primary memory is limited so additional memory called auxiliary memory is
used in computer systems.
Bubble Memory Flash Memory
• Made of thin crystal film - synthetic garnet. • Latest technology in semi-conductor memories.
• This crystal film contains large number of • Made of a small board. (PCB – Printed Circuit
magnetic domains (bubbles). Board).
• The presence or absence of bubbles indicates • A very high speed memory.
whether bit is on or off. • Portable memory for carrying data and
• Non-volatile Memory programmes.
• Credit or Debit card use bubble memory.
Virtual Memory

• VM is not a separate device; but an imaginary memory area


• Supported by operating systems in conjunction with the hardware.
• If a computer, that lacks RAM, needs to run a program or operation, Windows uses virtual memory to
compensate.
• Virtual memory combines computer’s RAM with temporary space on the hard disk.
• When RAM runs low, virtual memory moves data from RAM to a space called a paging file.
• Moving data to and from the paging file frees up RAM to complete its work.
• Virtual memory is an allocation of hard disk space to help RAM.

Prof. Om Trivedi, IIM Alumnus and Faculty Member of IGP, Delhi, NIRC & WIRC of ICAI. (9958300572, omtrivedi@ymail.com)
EIS Quick Bites: NOV 2018 by Prof. Om Trivedi
CA Intermediate – Group II (New Course)

SOFTWARE
System Software Application Software
A computer software designed to operate the Application software has been created to perform a
computer hardware and to provide and maintain a specific task for a user.
platform for running any application software.
Functions of OS Key: (PUsH MTNL File) Types of Application Software Key: (Content and
Media for AIEEE)
1. Performing hardware functions 1. Content Access Software
2. User Interfaces 2. Media Development Software
3. Hardware Independence 3. Application Suite
4. Memory Management 4. Information Worker Software
5. Task Management 5. Enterprise Software
6. Networking Capability 6. Enterprise Infrastructure
7. Logical access security 7. Educational Software
8. File management
Advantages and Disadvantages of Application Software Key: (User needs virus updated
to avoid cost and Malware)
Advantages Disadvantages
1. Addressing User needs 1. Development is costly
1. Less threat from virus 2. Infection from Malware
2. Regular updates

Application Areas of Computer Based Applications


1. Finance and Accounting
2. Marketing and Sales
3. Production and Manufacturing
4. Human Resource Management
5. Inventory or Stores Management

Prof. Om Trivedi, IIM Alumnus and Faculty Member of IGP, Delhi, NIRC & WIRC of ICAI. (9958300572, omtrivedi@ymail.com)
EIS Quick Bites: NOV 2018 by Prof. Om Trivedi
CA Intermediate – Group II (New Course)

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DBMS)


Database Database System DBMS Objectives of DBMS
• A collection of Computer Based Record- • A set of computer 1. To know its
interrelated data Keeping System. programs that information needs.
stored together to controls the creation, 2. To acquiring that
serve multiple maintenance, and information.
applications. utilization of the 3. To organize the
• Data is stored in such databases of an acquired information
a way that it is organization. in a meaningful way.
independent of the • A System software 4. To assure
programs which use that provides facility information quality.
the data. to create and maintain 5. To provide software
a well-organized tools so that users in
database. the enterprise can
• Example: SQL, access the information
Oracle, DB2, etc. they require.

Prof. Om Trivedi, IIM Alumnus and Faculty Member of IGP, Delhi, NIRC & WIRC of ICAI. (9958300572, omtrivedi@ymail.com)
EIS Quick Bites: NOV 2018 by Prof. Om Trivedi
CA Intermediate – Group II (New Course)

Hierarchical DBM Network DBM Relational DBM Object Oriented DBM


• Records are logically • It views all records in A relational database is • Object-oriented has its
organized into a sets. structured into a series of origins in Object
hierarchy of • Each set is composed two-dimensional tables. oriented
relationships. of an owner record programming
• In an inverted tree and one or more languages. (C++,
pattern. member records. Ruby, Python, etc.)

• Records in the • A logical data • An object typically has

hierarchy are called structure that allows two components; state

nodes. many-to-many (value) and behaviour

• Each node is related to relationships among (operations).

the others in a parent- data records. • Object oriented

child relationship. • It allows entry into a databases provide a

• Implements one-to- database at multiple Unique Object

one and one-to-many points, because any Identifier (OID) for

relationships. data element or each object.

• The top parent record record can be related


in the hierarchy is to many other data
called the root record. elements.
Advantages of DBMS Key: (SIR has CIA’s Disadvantages of DBMS
Security Data for Us.
1. Permits Data Sharing 1. Cost
2. Maintains Integrity 2. Security
3. Minimizing data Redundancy
4. Program and file Consistency
5. Achieving program/data Independence
6. Faster Application Development
7. Improved security
8. User-friendly

Big Data Data Warehouse (DW) Data Mining Knowledge Discovery


Big data is high-volume DW is a small database Data mining is a major Knowledge Discovery in
and high-velocity and/or extracted from the larger use of data warehouse Databases systems also
high-variety information database. databases and the static assist us establish, contact,
assets that demand cost- Extract data from one or data they contain. and communicate with
effective, innovative more of the The data in a data experts (knowledgeable
forms of information organization’s databases warehouse are analyzed people) on various

Prof. Om Trivedi, IIM Alumnus and Faculty Member of IGP, Delhi, NIRC & WIRC of ICAI. (9958300572, omtrivedi@ymail.com)
EIS Quick Bites: NOV 2018 by Prof. Om Trivedi
CA Intermediate – Group II (New Course)

processing that enable and load it into the data to reveal hidden patterns subjects, surrounded by
enhanced insight, warehouse for storage and trends in historical our organization, or
decision-making, and and analysis. business activity. perhaps even outside.
process automation.

Criteria to Create DW DW Design Approaches Benefits of DW Key: (CTC Trend)


A. Uses non-operational data A. Bottom-Up Approach A. Consistency in Data
B. Data is time-variant B. Top-Down Approach B. Truth Finding
C. Data is standardized C. Clear Understanding of Databases
D. Trend Analysis

Prof. Om Trivedi, IIM Alumnus and Faculty Member of IGP, Delhi, NIRC & WIRC of ICAI. (9958300572, omtrivedi@ymail.com)
EIS Quick Bites: NOV 2018 by Prof. Om Trivedi
CA Intermediate – Group II (New Course)

NETWORKING AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS


Computer Network Types of Networks Network Principles Benefits of Networks

Key: (R2BC)

A network is a set of 1. Connection Oriented 1. Routing A. Distributed nature of


devices (also known as networks 2. Resilience information
nodes, terminals or 2. Connectionless 3. Bandwidth B. Resource Sharing

stations) interconnected Networks C. Computational


4. Contention
by a communication link. Power
D. User communication
E. Reliability
F. Shared Databases
G. Remote Access
H. Fault Tolerance
I. Internet and Security

THE BUSINESS VALUE OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS Key: (GST Cost)


Overcome Geographical Overcome Structural Overcome Time Overcome Cost
Barriers Barriers Barriers Barriers

Prof. Om Trivedi, IIM Alumnus and Faculty Member of IGP, Delhi, NIRC & WIRC of ICAI. (9958300572, omtrivedi@ymail.com)
EIS Quick Bites: NOV 2018 by Prof. Om Trivedi
CA Intermediate – Group II (New Course)

NETWORK RELATED CONCEPTS


Hub:
• Hub is a port-switching communications processor.
• This allows for the sharing of the network resources
such as servers, LAN workstations, printers, etc.

Switch:
• Also called switching hub, bridging hub, officially
MAC bridge.
• The switch connects to the rest of the network.
• Number of ports on a Switch: 8 or 16.
• Switches can be connected to each other to build
larger networks.
Repeater:
• Repeater is a communications processor that boosts
or amplifies the signal before passing it to the next
section of cable in a network.
• It is needed when the total length of a single span of
network cable is larger than the maximum allowed
for your cable type.

Bridge:
• A bridge as a kind of smart repeater.
• Bridge is a communication processor that connects
number of Local Area Networks (LAN).
• Used to partition one large network into two
smaller networks for performance reasons.
• It magnifies the data transmission signal while
passing data from one LAN to another.
NIC:
• A network interface card or controller, also known
as network adapter, LAN adapter or
physical network interface is a computer hardware
component that connects a computer to a
computer network.
• NICs implement a networking standard called
Ethernet (In-built with the motherboard).
Modem:
• Modulator-demodulator
• Computers use modems to talk to each other

Prof. Om Trivedi, IIM Alumnus and Faculty Member of IGP, Delhi, NIRC & WIRC of ICAI. (9958300572, omtrivedi@ymail.com)
EIS Quick Bites: NOV 2018 by Prof. Om Trivedi
CA Intermediate – Group II (New Course)

Router:
• Router is a communications processor
• It interconnects networks based on different rules
or protocols.
• So that a telecommunications message can be
routed to its destination.

Packet:
• A packet is a message that is sent over the network from one node to another node.
• Includes the address of the node that sends the packet, the address of the node the packet is being sent to,
and the data.
Node:
• A node is a device that is connected to the network.

MAC Address:
• MAC Address is assigned by the manufacturer of a Network Interface Controller (NIC) and are stored in
its hardware, such as the card’s read-only memory or some other firmware mechanism.
• If assigned by the manufacturer, a MAC address usually encodes the manufacturer’s registered
identification number.

NETWORK TOPOLOGY
The arrangement in which the computers and other network components are connected to each other.
Bus Topology Ring Topology
• The nodes are strung together in a line. • Packets are sent around the circle from
• Commonly used for LANs. computer to computer.
• Every node on the network can see every packet that • Each computer looks at each packet to decide
is sent on the cable. whether the packet was intended for it.
• Each node looks at each packet to determine whether • If not, the packet is passed on to the next
the packet is intended for it. computer in the ring.
• If so, the node claims the packet.
• If not, the node ignores the packet.

Prof. Om Trivedi, IIM Alumnus and Faculty Member of IGP, Delhi, NIRC & WIRC of ICAI. (9958300572, omtrivedi@ymail.com)
EIS Quick Bites: NOV 2018 by Prof. Om Trivedi
CA Intermediate – Group II (New Course)

Star Topology Mesh Topology


• Each network node is connected to a central device • Multiple connections between each of the nodes
called a hub or a switch. on the network.
• Commonly used with LANs. • If one cable breaks, the network can use an
• If a cable in a star network breaks, only the node alternative route to deliver its packets.
connected to that cable is isolated from the network. • Not very practical in a LAN setting.
• Common for MAN or WAN.

Packet Switching:
• Data is communicated in the form of packets between
sender and receiver.
• Provides efficient utilization of communication channel.
• Users’ data packets can be transmitted simultaneously.
• Internet communication is based on packets switching techniques.
Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP):
A protocol called VoIP enables sounds to be converted to a digital format for transmission over the Internet
and then recreated at the other end.
Voice communication over the Internet is now available to everyone with a browser access (think Skype,
Google Hangouts, and WhatsApp calls).
IP Address:
Every device that communicates on the Internet, whether it be a personal computer, a tablet, a smartphone, or
anything else, is assigned a unique identifying number called an IP (Internet Protocol) address.
Let’s say the domain wikipedia.org has the IP address of 107.23.196.166.

Prof. Om Trivedi, IIM Alumnus and Faculty Member of IGP, Delhi, NIRC & WIRC of ICAI. (9958300572, omtrivedi@ymail.com)