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Quality Assurance of Stainless

Steel components

Kuppusamy Masi Varadharajulu

Quality Assurance Division


Radiological Safety & Environmental Group
IGCAR, Kalpakkam
Email: masikuppu@igcar.gov.in
Outline of presentation
• Introduction
• Quality Assurance
• Product Life Cycle
• Quality Assurance Plan
• Need for codes & standards
• ASS – Areas to watch
• QA during
– Raw Material Procurement – Plates, Pipes, Forgings &
Tubes
– Fabrication
– Welding Qualification
– Integrity Testing
• Conclusions
2/27/2015 MVK COSS 2015
Quality management elements

Quality Control
Quality
Part of quality management
Degree to which a set of focused on fulfilling quality
inherent characteristics requirements [prevention of
fulfills requirements production of defectives
economically]

Quality Assurance
Systematic & planned activities focused
on providing confidence that quality
requirements will be fulfilled.
Part of QMS.

2/27/2015 MVK COSS 2015


Fabrication Life Cycle
Review of
Storage of Finished
Tender
Equipments
Specifications
and drawing
Control, review
and disposition of Assessment of
non conformities Manufacturers
And contractors

Integrity testing Quality


Assurance
Quality system Plan
elements
Stage inspection
Review and
including NDE
Approval of
Procedures

Performance Review and


Qualification Approval of
Procedure Report formats
Qualification

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Quality Assurance Plan
Inspection Parties & stages
S.no Description Ref Standard Acceptance criteria Frequency of test
Manufacturer IGCAR - QAD
ASTM A 240 / ASTM A
1 Manufacture of steel Shall be by EAF / equivalent ALL P R
480
Review of HT Chart, Furnace
ASTM A 240 / ASTM A
2 Heat Treatment of plates calibration record & ALL P W
480
Thermocouples
ASTM A 240 / ASTM A
3 Product analysis as per Clause 8.3 of P.O 1 SAMPLE / LOT P W
480
as per Clause 8.2.1 of P.O
ASTM A 240 / ASTM A
4 Tensile test UTS = 485MPa, YS = 170 Mpa, 1 SAMPLE / LOT P W
480 / ASTM E8
% of Elong= 30 % & RA = 40 %
5 Inclusion Content test ASTM A 240 / ASTM E 45 as per Clause 8.4 of P.O 6 readings / plate P W
ASTM A 240 / ASTM E
6 Grain size measurement as per Clause 8.5of P.O 1 SAMPLE / LOT P W
112

7 IGC Pr C TEST ASTM A262 as per Clause 8.6.1 of P.O 2 SAMPLES / LOT P W

8 IGC Pr A/ E TEST ASTM A262 as per Clause 8.6.2 of P.O 2 SAMPLES / LOT P W

UT of plates ( Both Normal


9 ASTM A 577 & 578 as per Clause 9 of P.O All plates P W
& Angle beam)

ASTM A 240 / ASTM


10 Surface Treatment of plates as per Clause 4of P.O All plates P R
A380
Dimensional Inspection a)
Length b)
Width ASTM A 240 / ASTM A
11 ASTM A 240 / ASTM A 480 All plates P W
c)Thickness 480
d) Staringhtness
e) Camber
Visual inspection
ASTM A 240 / ASTM A
12 a) Surface finish as per Clause 4 & 6 of P.O All plates P W
480
b)Edge inspection for cracks
ASTM A 240 / ASTM A
13 Marking & packing as per Clause 10 & 11 of P.O All plates P W
480

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Boiler Explosions

Between 1882 - 1893

More than 660 boiler


explosions

More than 10000 casuality

Huge economic setback

NEED FOR CODES & STANDRADS

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Explosions

450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
AFTER IMPLEMENTING
50
UNIVERSAL CODES & STANDRDS
0
1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000

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CODE + STANDARD
(ASME) (ASTM)

SPECIFICATION
(Purchaser/
Manufacturer)

PROCEDURE
(Manufacturer)
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ASME - Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code

• 12 volume or code sections:


I. Power Boilers
II. Materials
III. Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components
IV. Heating Boilers
V. Nondestructive Examination
VI. Recommended Rules for the Care and Operation of Heating Boilers
VII. Recommended Guidelines for the Care of Power Boilers
VIII. Unfired Pressure Vessels
IX. Welding and Brazing Qualifications
X. Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels
XI. Rules for In-service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components
XII. Rules for Construction and Continued Service of Transport Tanks

I, III IV, VIII & X – Reference Codes


Rest - Referenced Codes

2/27/2015 MVK COSS 2015


ASME Pressure Piping Code (B31)

• B31.1 - Power Piping


• B31.2 – Fuels Gas Piping
• B31.3 - Process Piping
• B31.4 - Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and
Other Liquids
• B31.5 - Refrigeration Piping
• B31.8 - Gas Transportation and Distribution Piping
• B31.9 - Building Services Piping
• B31.11 - Slurry Transportation Piping Systems
• B31.12 - hydrogen piping
• B31G - Manual for Determining Remaining Strength of Corroded
Pipelines

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Pros & cons of ASS
Pros:
 Excellent weldability
 Good corrosion resistance
 Good Machinability
 Excellent formability

Cons:
 High degree of cleanliness ( low tolerance to contamination)
 Poor corrosion resistance under Chloride environment
 Higher coefficient of Thermal expansion
 Lower Thermal Conductivity

2/27/2015 MVK COSS 2015


Raw material Product Forms of ASS
Plates

ASTM A 240 ( ASTM A480)

Pipes (Seamless & Welded)

ASTM A 312 ( ASTM A999)

Tubes (Seamless & welded)

ASTM A213 & ASTM A 249 (ASTM A1016)

Forgings

ASTM A 479 & A 276 ( ASTM A 484)

Fittings

ASTM A 403(ASTM A 960), ASTM A 182 (ASTM A961)

Castings ASTM A351 (ASTM A703)

Bolts & Nuts ASTM A193 & A 194 ( ASTM A MVK


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962) COSS 2015
Visual & dimensional inspection
Table III

DIMENSIONAL INSPECTION TOLERANCES FOR ASS PLATES & SHEETS

•Width REF. STANDARD: ASTM A 480 EDITION 2013

•Length PARAMETERS TO BE CHECKED

•Thickness Length Width Thickness Flatness Camber

•Diagonal Plate & Sheet size Over Under Over Under Over Under Max. Max.

•Flatness Cold rolled, wide coil processed product

•Camber Table A 2.8 Table A 2.7 Table A 2.6 Table A 2.9 NA

3 mm 7.5 0 3.2 0 0.15 0.15 10 NA


•Surface Hot rolled wide coil processed
roughness Table A 2.16 Table A 2.15 Table A 2.14 Table A 2.17 Table A 2.31

6 X 3000 12.7 0 9.5 0 0.5 0.25 23 3.18

6 X 4000 15.9 0 9.5 0 0.5 0.25 23 3.18

6 X 5000 15.9 0 9.5 0 0.5 0.25 23 3.18

6 X 6000 15.9 0 9.5 0 0.5 0.25 23 3.18


6 X 7000 15.9 0 9.5 0 0.5 0.25 23 3.18

8X 4000 15.9 0 9.5 0 0.75 0.25 23 3.18


8 X 5000 15.9 0 9.5 0 0.75 0.25 23 3.18

8 X 6000 15.9 0 9.5 0 0.75 0.25 23 3.18

10 X 3000 12.7 0 11.1 0 0.75 0.25 23 3.18

10X 4000 15.9 0 11.1 0 0.75 0.25 23 3.18


Edges (Trimmed) 10 X 5000 15.9 0 11.1 0 0.75 0.25 23 3.18
Pits 10X 6000 15.9 0 11.1 0 0.75 0.25 23 3.18

Cut & dent marks 10X 7000 15.9 0 11.1 0 0.75 0.25 23 3.18

Hot Rolled Quarto Mill plate (HR plate without coiling)


White bright spots & Table A 2.20 Table A 2.19 Table A 2.18 Table A 2.21 Table A 2.31
patches due to surface 12 X 3000 19.1 6.35 15.9 6.35 1.4 0.25 7.9 3.18

treatment 12 X 4000 19.1 6.35 15.9 6.35 1.4 0.25 7.9 3.18

Yellowish acid stain 12 X 5000 31.8 6.35 15.9 6.35 1.4 0.25 7.9 3.18

12 X 6000 41.3 6.35 15.9 6.35 1.4 0.25 7.9 3.18


marks 12 X 7000 41.3 6.35 15.9 6.35 1.4 0.25 7.9 3.18
Shot blasting marks 12 X 8000 50.8 6.35 15.9 6.35 1.4 0.25 7.9 3.18

Handling scratches 14 X 3000 19.1 6.35 15.9 6.35 1.4 0.25 7.9 3.18

Seam lines 14 X 4000 19.1 6.35 15.9 6.35 1.4 0.25 7.9 3.18

16 X 2500 19.1 6.35 15.9 6.35 1.4 0.25 7.9 3.18


Sliver 20 X 3000 19.1 6.35 15.9 6.35 1.52 0.25 7.9 3.18
Roller marks 25 X 2500 19.1 6.35 15.9 6.35 1.52 0.25 7.9 3.18

Hard scales 32 X 3000 19.1 6.35 15.9 6.35 1.78 0.25 6.4 3.18

38 X 3000 19.1 6.35 15.9 6.35 1.78 0.25 6.4 3.18


Surface cracks etc.,
48 X 2500 19.1 6.35 15.9 6.35 1.78 0.25 6.4 3.18

*ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN MM

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Testing requirements

• Product chemical • Grain size measurement


ASTM E 112
Analysis (ASTM A 751)
• Inclusion rating ASTM E 45
• Tensile testing (ASTM A • Microstructure –ASTM A 262
370) Pr A

• Hardness test
Tubular Product:
• Flattening test
• Flaring test Hydrostatic test

Any electric NDE such as Eddy


current testing, Ultrasonic testing

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Testing requirements

• Supplementary tests:
1. Impact testing
2. Ultrasonic testing Type
Number &
3. IGC test Location of
a) Pr E test specimens
are very
b) Pr C test
important
4. Crevice corrosion test
5. Pitting Corrosion test
6. Stress corrosion cracking test
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Nature of testing specimens

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Tension Test Specimen Type ASTM BS
For Sheet specimen (Lo/sqrt Ao) 4.5 5.65

• Stress – Strain relationship(Lo & Ao must be reported with % elongation)


For Round Specimen (Lo/Do) 4.0 5.00

• As per ASTM A 370 / E8

UTS- Ultimate Tensile Strength , YS(0.2%)- Yield Strength (0.2% offset)


% Elongation =(Lf - Lo )/ Lo, %Reduction in Area (RA)= (Ao –Af)/Ao

Toughness -- Energy Absorbed before till fracture


Modulas of Elasticity: Slope of σ- ε curve in elastic limit
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Flattening Test

•A Test for Ductility & Soundness.

t
Weld 900 to
D direction of
H
applied
force

• Test in two Steps : 2 nd Step :Test for Soundness


•1st Step : Test for Ductility
: Flattening upto ‘H’ = (1+e)t/ e + t/D) Flattening till Sp.. Cracks or opp. walls meet
--- no Cracks No lamination
No unsound material
No LOF in weld
Flaring Test
A Test for Ductility of Tubes for HEx , Condensers, SGs .
Flaring Tool

600

Specimen

Flaring Test Requirements


Ratio, Min. Exp. Of ID, %
ID/OD ( Austenitic Steels )
0.9 21
0.6 30
0.3 68
Impact Testing
A Charpy or Izod test measures the
welds ability to withstand an
Impact force.

Low Charpy test readings indicate


brittleness

Higher Charpy readings indicate


the samples toughness.

Acceptance criteria may be


Absorbed energy in Joules
Lateral expansion in mils
% of Shear fracture

Ex: For ASME Section VIII Div 1


vessel, Number & location of
specimen as per UG 84.

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Inclusions
• Non-metallic or metallic phases in a metallic matrix

Two Types

Exogenous Indigenous
- Derived from external causes - Inherent in molten metal
treatment
- Slag, entrapped mould material
and refractory - Sulphides, Nitrides, Oxides
(Al2O3, SiO2)
- Macroscopic
- Microscopic
- Non-uniform distribution
- Uniformly distribution

Iron Making: Reduction Process, Fe2O3 CO/C Fe


Steel Making: Oxidation – C,S, P etc
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High O in steel: Porosity, De-oxidation by Al, Si: Inclusions (Al2O3, SiO2)
Inclusion Rating in Steel
ASTM E 45 – Method A or Method D
• Four types of non-metallic
inclusions: Thin & Heavy

• Type A: Sulphide

• Type B: Alumina

• Type C: Silicate

• Type D: Globular Oxide


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Grain Size
ASTM E112
• N = 2 n-1 , N: number of grains in an area of in2 at 100 X
n: ASTM grain size number
ASTM GS No. Grain Size (µm)
2 160 Coarse
4 80
5 56
6 40
Fine
8 20

• Effect of Grain Size on Material Property


- Hall-Petch Equation: σy = σi + k d -1/2

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- Grain size ………. Strength Toughness DBTT
Tests for Detecting Sensitization
ASTM Environment Exposure Evaluation Species
Standard Attacked
A708 16% H2SO4 + 6% One 72 hr period Macroscopic Chromium
(Strauss) CuSO4 Boiling Appearance depleted area
after bending
A262 10% H2C2O4 1.5 min. Anodic Microscopic Various carbides
Practice A at 1A/cm2. type of attack
(Oxalic Etch) Ambient temp.

A262 50% H2SO4 + 2.5% One 120 hour Weight loss per Chromium
Practice B Fe2(SO4)3 Boiling period unit area depleted area
(Streicher)
A262 65% HNO3 boiling Five 48 hour Avg. wt. loss per Chromium
Practice C periods unit area. Fresh depleted area, σ
(Huey) soln. each phase &
period carbides

A262 65% HNO3 + 3% Two, 2 hour Weight loss per Chromium


Practice D HF, 70 C periods unit area depleted area in
(Warren) Mo steels

A262 16% H2SO4 + 6% One 15 hr period Macroscopic Chromium


Practice E CuSO4 Boiling, Sp. Appearance depleted area
(Acc 2/27/2015
Strauss) in contact with Cu MVK COSS 2015 after bending
metal
Oxalic Acid Etch Test: Practice A
• Screening Test
• Specimen is electro-etched for 1,5 min at 1A/cm2
• Microscopic examination

Step

Dual

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Ditch
MVK COSS 2015
Practice E
• 15 hrs in Cu + Copper sulfate + Sulfuric Low carbon
SS shall be
acid. tested in
• Bend test @ 1T, 1800 Sensitized
condition
• No cracks on tension side.
( 675oC @ 1
hr)
Practice C
• Applicable for nitric acid service
• 48 hrs in 65 wt % Boiling Nitric Acid / 5 periods
• Corrosion rate based on Weight loss ( mpy)
• Acceptance criteria is based on client specifications
• Cannot be taken as base line data for design purpose
• Sample wt shall not cross 100 g
• Analytical reagent grads acid shall be used.
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Welding of Austenitic Stainless Steel

Carbide (Sensitization)
Ferrite (Micro fissuring & Embrittlement during service)
Sigma Phase (Embrittlement)
Distortion
Residual Stress (Stress Corrosion Cracking)

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Guidelines to Avoid Localized Corrosion
Failures in Austenitic Stainless Steels
• Material Control
 Select appropriate grade
 Ensure absence of sensitization
 Fine grain size
 Low non-metallic inclusion

• Processing Control
 Low Cold Work (LTS, Residual Stress)
 Welding parameters: Low heat input & interpass temp., Stringer bead
 Heat treatment: Removal of oil, grease
 No grinding of pipe internal surface after welding

• Environmental Control
 O2, pH, Chloride thermal insulation
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 Surface contamination (Fe, C, MVK COSS 2015
Halides)
PWHT of Stainless Steel

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Preheating Code requirements
Material Group Min. Preheat
No. Temp.(0F)
P-1 175
Carbon Steel
P-3 250
Low Alloy Steel
P-6 400
Martensitic Steel
P-7 None
Ferritic Steel
P-8 None
Austenitic Steel
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ASME Section IX

• WPS - Welding procedure specification


• PQR -Procedure qualification record

To determine that the weldment proposed for construction


is capable of having the required properties for its intended
application

• WPQ - Welder performance qualification


To determine the ability to deposit sound weld metal

• WOPQ - Welding Operator performance qualification


To determine the mechanical ability of the welding operator
to operate the equipment
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Welding Procedure Qualifications
(WPS & PQR)
• A WPS is a written qualified welding procedure prepared to provide
direction for making production welds to Code requirements.

• A PQR is a record of the welding data used to weld a test coupon and also
contains the test results of the tested specimens.

• Essential Variables
A change in a variable affects mechanical properties of weldments and calls for
requalification
Ex : P Number , Change in T, F Number, PWHT etc.,

• Non Essential Variables


A change in a variable doesn’t affect mechanical properties of weldments and no
need for requalification.
Ex : Change in groove design, Position

• Supplementary Essential Variables


A change in a variable affects notch toughness (impact) properties of weldments
and calls for requalification
Ex: PWHT T &T, Change in welding progression,
BAP G number etc., 32
Welding Positions - Groove
Groove Welds:
Welding
Test Position ISO and EN
Position

Flat 1G PA

Horizontal 2G PC
Vertical Upwards
Progressio 3G PF
n

Vertical
Downward
s 3G PG
Progressio
n

Overhead 4G PE
Pipe Fixed
Horizontal 5G PF
Pipe Fixed @ 45
degrees 6G HL045
Upwards

Pipe Fixed @ 45
degrees
Downward 6G JL045
s

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Welding Positions - Fillet

Welding Position Test Position ISO and EN

Flat (Weld flat


joint at 45 1F PA
degrees)

Horizontal 2F PB
Horizontal
2FR PB
Rotated
Vertical
Upwards 3F PF
Progression
Vertical
Downwards 3F PG
Progression

Overhead 4F PD
Pipe Fixed
5F PF
Horizontal

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Common Testing methods used in
Welding Qualification
Procedure qualification Performance qualification
Visual Examination – Mandatory
Visual Examination – Mandatory
Bend testing - Side, Root & Face
Tensile testing – Long & Transverse Mandatory Mandatory

Bend testing - Side, Root & Face Mandatory Radiographic Examination


( in lieu of bend testing for GTAW,
Impact testing – If supplementary GMAW,FCAW, SMAW & SAW)
requirements called in
Chemical Analysis – CR & HF overlay
Ultrasonic Examination ( for 13 mm &
above)
Hardness testing - if customer spec. calls in
(in lieu of radiography)
Liquid penetrant Examination – only for CR & Chemical Analysis – CR & HF overlay
HF overlay
Radiography is not mandatory for WPS Hardness testing - if customer spec. calls in
Liquid penetrant Examination – only for CR &
HF overlay

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Tension tests for welding procedure qualification
• Aim: To measure tensile strength of groove – weld
joint.

• Reduced section tension specimen (plate)


• Acceptance Criteria: UTS of weld specimen not less than
1. The specified min. UTS of base metal
2. The specified min. UTS of weaker of the two base metals
3. If2/27/2015
specimen breaks in B.M outside
MVK weld
COSS line,
2015 strength upto 5% lower than
specified min. UTS of B.M
Bend Testing
• Bend tests are conducted to determine the ductility or
strength of a material
• Bending ductility tests are more common and are
used to determine the smallest radius around which
the specimen can be bent without cracks being
observed on the outer fiber (tension ) surface.
• Variables: Bend angle & Bend radius
• Severity of bend as Bend radius & Bend angle
1. Proc. Qual.
2 F.B. + 2 R.B. or 4 S.B.
2. Perf. Qual.
1 F.B. + 1 R.B. or 2 S.B.

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Guided Bend Test :
for Welding Procedure & Performance qualification
Aim : To check the degree of Soundness & ductility of Groove weld
joints.
Specimens :

(a) Transverse Root-Bend (b) Transverse


Specimen Face-Bend
Specimen

(c) & (d) Longitudinal (e) Side-Bend


Specime Face & Root-Bend Specimens
Bend Testing Setup

Mandrel diameter depends


upon
 Thickness of component

 Material of construction

 Min specified % of elongation

 Angle of Bending : 1800

Note: Some specification calls for


angle of bending specified in
material specification
 Normally 4T is the mandrel
diameter for steel with 20 %
elongation or above
T= Thickness of the weld coupon

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Location & orientation of test coupons
Procedure – Plate & Pipe

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Non-Destructive Testing

• NDT - Test Methods that do not affect or impair the serviceability of


systems, structures & components

• ASME B&PV Code Sec. V Article 30:


‘ Standard Terminology for Non-Destructive Examinations’
(ASME SE – 1316):

• NDT- the development & application of technical methods to


examine materials or components in ways that do not impair future
usefulness & serviceability in order

- to detect, locate, measure & evaluate flaws

- to assess Integrity, Properties & Composition, and

- to
2/27/2015 measure Geometric
MVKCharacters
COSS 2015
Typical NDT Test Set-up
Eddy Magnetic
Currents Flux

Sound
X-Rays Waves
Test Block

Output
INDICATION

False Interpret Non-Relevant

Relevant

2/27/2015 Accept MVK Evaluation


COSS 2015 Reject
Classification of NDT Methods
Non-Destructive Testing

Surface Volumetric Performance


Examination Examination Test

Acoustic
Visual Radiography
Emission

Ultrasonic
Liquid Penetrant Leak Test
Testing

Magnetic
Particle

Eddy Current
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NDT Methods for different Products
Product Surface Volumetric

Casting LPT / MPT RT

Forging LPT / MPT UT

Plates - UT

Tubes - ECT / UT

Welds LPT / MPT RT / UT

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ASME Section V-NDE
Sub section A:
Methods & Procedures to carry out all NDE
activities.

Article 1: General Requirements


Article 2: Radiographic Examination
Article 4: Ultrasonic Examination methods for welds
Article 5: Ultrasonic Examination methods for Materials
Article 6: Liquid Penetrant Examination
Article 7: Magnetic Particle Examination
Article 8 : Eddy current examination of tubular products
Article 9: Visual Examination
Article 10: Leak testing

Sub Section B: Standards adopted by Section V


Ex: Article 22: Standard for radiographic examination (SE- 94)

Mandatory and Non mandatory appendices


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Visual Inspection
Three important factors to be considered during VE

• Surface lighting
• Angle of inspection
• Visual Acuity

Angle of inspection : 90 degrees to surface of inspection

Surface lighting: > 200 lux is adequate


1000 lux (Critical Inspection)

Visual acuity– Efficiency of defect detection


Personnel involved should undergo vision
acuity test at least once in year
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Fabrication
Stress relieving HT of formed components:

All shells & dished ends formed from plates & all tube & pipe bending

As per UHA 44 of ASME Section VIII Division1

< 6750C & % of strain > 20 % GOVERNING


> 6750 C & % of Strain >10 % THICKNESS

Solution annealing @ 10400 C minimum


Soaking: 2.5 minute/mm of thickness or a minimum time of 30 minutes
Quenching: Water or rapidly cooled by other means.

Rate of heating shall not exceed 220oC per hour per inch thickness

The effectiveness of solution annealing shall be ascertained for each lot


by conducting Practice ‘A’ test as per ASTM A262.
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ASS Fabrication – Dos & Don’ts
•All surfaces to be joined shall be cleaned on both sides of the weld
joint by a stainless steel wire brush and scrubbed with a clean lint
free cloth moistened with Acetone at least for a distance of 25 mm
from the joint.

•The surface of welding shall be free of scale, rust, oil, grease or


other foreign material.

•Proper sequence of welding - To avoid distortion during welding and


building up of residual stresses.

•Peening of any weld metal deposited is not permitted.

•Direct contact between carbon steel spider and shell shall be


avoided by interposing thin stainless steel sheets.
•Hammering directly on the stainless steel material not acceptable .

2/27/2015 - Aluminum Oxide MVK


•Grinding COSS wheels.
grinding 2015
Surface Treatment of ASS

Shall be carried out as per ASTM A 380

Cleaning - Pickling - Passivation

Points to ponder :

Visual Examination
Check for the assessment of chloride content on SS surface after
surface treatment. (Turbidity test)
Test for acid in wash after surface treatment (Methyl Orange
Indicator test)
Test for Iron contamination (Copper Sulfate test)

DM water shall be used for cleaning purposes with the following


attributes:
PH value shall be in between : 7.0 ± 0.2
Chloride content : less than 1ppm
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Integrity testing
General:
Pneumatic or Hydrostatic testing
Gases – Air, Inert gases may be used.
Normally as per UG 99 or UG 100
Bubble solution:
 LISSPOL NX & LISSAPOL LX
 Shall not break or dry
 House hold soap / detergents not
permitted
 Compatible with temp.
 Chloride 25 ppm & Sulfur 1 % by
WT.
 Chemically inert with Ph value of 7

Immersion bath:
- Water or compatible solution.
- Compatible with temp. of test.

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Integrity testing
Precleaning:
Test:
- Test pressure 1.1 DP (Pneumatic) & 1.3- 1.5 DP ( Hydrostatic)
- Soak time : Min 10 minutes.
- Surf. Temp: Not below 40F (4oC) & above 125F (52oC)
- Application: Spray, Brushing or flow

Evaluation:
- No continuous Bubble formation.
- No pressure drop
- Repair for leaks & retest.

Lighting & Visual aids:

 As per Article 9 T 952 & T 953


 Direct visual Examination ( 24” & <300, 1000 Lux)

Post test cleaning:


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Integrity Testing
Gauges:
- Range – Double the max. pressure.
- Not less than 1 ½ or more than 4 times.

Location :
- Remote locations – Readily visible to operator.
- Two or more gages for large components.

Calibration of gages: ( IS 3624)


- Once a year, when in use.
- Accuracy within acceptable limits.
- Each occasion when not in use.

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2/27/2015 MVK COSS 2015