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WING THEORY

Geometric Wingspan, b = the distance between tip to tip of the wing, measured

perpendicular to the airplane of wing centerline, regardless

of the geometric shape of the wing.

which is usually the chord plane.

Wing aspects, A = the ratio of the square of the span to the wing area.

b2

A

S

Tape ratio, λ = the ratio of the tip chord ct to the root chord cr

c

t

cr

2 2 1

Mean of aerodynamic chord, MAC, c = cr

3 1

and the leading edge or the quarter chordline. It is denoted

as L.E . or c 4

1

WING AEROYNAMIC FORCES AND MOMENT

L CL q S

D CD q S

M C m q Sc

CL

i

Ae

CL 2

CDi

Ae

0.85 – 0.95 for the wing alone

CL

i

Ae

CL 2

CDi

Ae

Where: e=1

2

TOTAL DRAG COEFFICIENT FOR A WING

CL 2

CD CD0

Ae

where : C D 0 is the (lift independent) sum of skin friction and pressure drag.

CL 1 1

1 2 , inradians

Ae 1 Ae 2

1 1

1 2 18.24CL , in radians

Ae 1 Ae 2

CL 1 1

2

CD1 CD2

Ae 1 Ae 2

2 = angle of attack of wing # 2

C D1 = drag coefficient of wing # 1

C D2 = drag coefficient of wing # 2

a2

a1

a2 1 1

1

Ae 1 Ae 2

a

a1

a

1

Ae

( wing #1 & wing #2, respectively)

a = slope of lift curve for finite aspect ratio

a = slope of lift curve for infinite aspect ratio

WING STALL

Wing stall is due to follow separation. How the flow separation progresses chordwise and spanwise

on a wing depends on the following items:

2. Planform Geometry and Twist

3

a). Taper Ratio

A rectangular wing – has a larger downwash angle at the tip than at the root. The effective angle of

attack at the tip is thus reduced, and therefore it will stall last. However, it is aerodynamically inefficient,

because the planform is far from elliptical so that it produces more induce drag.

To reduce the induced drag, planform tapering to approximate the ideal elliptical planform is often

used. With the tip reduced, the local Reynold’s number and the induced angle of attack are decrease in the

tip region. Therefore, the tip section will tend to stall first for a tapered wing. This is undesirable from a

standpoint of a lateral stability in stall entries and stall recoveries. It is seen that as the taper ratio is

decreased it promotes tip-stall.

b) Aspect ratio

With increasing aspect ratio wing tends to behave more like an airfoil section. For that reason it can be

expected that C L max increases with aspect ratio.

c) Sweep angle

For swept aft wings, since the wing tips are usually situated aft of the center of gravity, loss lift at the

tips causes the nose to come up. If the angle of attack is high originally, this will increase the angle of attack

further. This may result in loss of pitch control. This phenomenon is known as pitch – up.

Note that a swept forward wing would tend to exhibit pitch down.

In addition, because of the tendency toward spanwise flow, a swept –aft wing tends towards tip stall

because of boundary layer thickening. A swept forward wing for the same reason, will tend toward root-

stall.

to decrease with sweep angle (fore & aft)

If the angles of attack at various spanwise station are not equal the wing is said to have twist. If the

angle of attack at the wing tip is less than that of the root, the wing is said to have washout. With

washout, the tips will be at a lower angle of attack than the root, and thus the tip stall may be delayed

until after the stall has occurred at the root.

PROBLEMS:

1. A straight, tapered wing 30 ft. span has leading-edge and trailing-edge sweep angle of 45 o and

15o, respectively. Find the magnitudes of root chord, tip chord and the mean aerodynamic chord

if its total area is 280 ft2.

Ans. Cr = 15’ ; Ct = 4.02’ ; MAC = 10.57’

2. An airplane weighing 5, 000 lbs. has a wing area of 250ft2. If the lift-curve slope is 6.0 per

radian and the angle of attack of zero lift is –2 deg., calculate the angle of attack (in degrees) of

this airplane at a level flight speed of 200 mph under standard sea-level condition.

Ans. 0.137 deg.

(deg) C

0 0.15

9 1.2

If the airfoil is used to construct an elliptical wing of A = 7.0, determine the wing lift curve slope.

Ans. a = 0.009/deg.

4

2. The rectangular wing model of 40 in. by 5 in has the following characteristics determined from a

wind tunnel test: e = 0.87, C L = = 0.09 per deg. And o = -3o, if a full-scale rectangular

wing of 42 ft by 6 ft is constructed with the same airfoil section. What lift will it develop at =

5o and 120 mph under standard sea-level conditions? Assume e = 0.87 for the full-scale wing.

Ans. L =6,457.05 LB

AIRPLANE DRAG

CLEAN AIRPLANE

2

C

CD CD0 L

Ae

e = Oswald’s efficiency factor. A value of e = 1 would indicate are elliptical

lift distribution.

C

CD = 2CD0 at CL for C

L

D max

CL

CL = AeCD0 for C

D max

CL 1 Ae

CD

= 2 CD0

max

3

CL

CL 3AeCDO for 2

CD max

3

CL 3 Ae

2 = 16 Ae C

CD max

D 0

3

CL

CD 4CDO for 2

CD max

5

FUNDAMENTALS OF FLIGHT MECHANICS

FOR STEADY SYMMETRICAL FLIGHT

Where:

Xs, Ys, Zs, = body axes system (Ys, not shown, is pointing into the paper), with Xs,

along some airplane reference line.

Xs, Ys, Zs, = stability area system (Ys is pointing along Ys) with Xs pointing in the

direction of the velocity vector v

γ = the flight path angle, positive for ascending flight (climb) and negative

for descending flight ( glide or drive)

V = true airspeed

F XS =0

T cos T D W sin 0 6

Assume,

cos T 1.0

T – D – siny = 0

T = D + siny

F ZS =o

T cos T L W sin 0

Assume,

sin T 0

L = W cos γ

R is their resultant force

D = airplane drag

T = airplane thrust

W = airplane weight

To write Eqn. (T = D + Wsinγ) in terms of “work” multiply both sides by the airspeed V.

TV = DV + WVsinγ

since,

R.C. = Vsinγ

TV = DV + W. R. C.

where:

DV = Preqd = power required to overcome the drag at a given speed V.

W.R.C. = PCL = climb power

Note that in steady symmetrical flight the power available equals to the sum of the power required

and the climb power.

7

UNPOWERED FLIGHT OR GLIDE

Fig. 5 Airplane in Gliding Flight

Σ Fv = 0

R = W

but,

R = (L2 + D2) ½ = W

CR q S = (CL2 + CD2) ½ qS =W

F XS =0

D = Wsin

CD q S = Wsin

F ZS =0

L = Wcos

CL q S = Wcos

GUIDE ANGLE

CD 1

tan

CL CL

CD

8

AIRSPEED

W 2 1

V cos

S C L

RATE OF DESCENT

RD = V sin

CD W 2 3

cos = 3

1

RD = V cos

3

S CL CD

CL

h C

R ; R h L

tan CD

1

min tan 1

CL

C D maz

The maximum value of CL/CD for the case of an airplane with parabolic drag polar is givemLn by;

CL 1 Ae

CD 2CD0 CL

CD

2 C D0 at

CD

max

CL Ae max

W 2 1 3

RDmin 3 cos

2

S CL CD

9

For the case of an airplane with a parabotic drag polar

CL 3 3 3Ae

Ae

CD

2 16 CDO

max

3

CL

CL 3AeCDO for 2

CD max

W 2 1

Vmin Vs cos

S CL max

LEVEL FLIGHT

ΣFH = 0

T = D = CD q S

ΣFv = 0

L = CL q S = W

Note that eqn. (TV = DV + WR. C.), in the case of level flight can be written as:

T V = DV

Pav = Preq’d

W 2 1

V

S C L

C

D D W

CL

10

The power required is:

C W 2 1

Preq'd DV L W

CD S CL

W 2 CD

2

W 2

Preq'd W 3 W 3 2

1

S CL S CL CD

DRAG AND POWE REQUIRED FOR THE CASE OF PARABOLIC DRAG POLARS

2

CD

CD CDO

Ae

1

D CDV 2 S

2

D = Do + Di

1 1

D C DO V 2S C DO V 2S

2 2

2

1 CL 1

D C DO V 2S V 2S

2 Ae 2

1 W2

D C DO V 2S

2 1

Ae V 2S

2

Do = parasite drag

Di = induced drag

1 W2

Preq'd DV CDO V 3 S

2 1

Ae VS

2

\

1 W b2

Preq'd DV CDO V 3 S

2 1

e V

2

W

where: SpanLoading

b

MINIMUM DRAG

CDO

Dmin =2Do =2W 11

Ae

SPEED AT MINIMUM DRAG

W 2 1

V mindrag

S AeCDo

W 2 3CDO

Preq'dmindrag 2W

S Ae 3

MINIMUM POWER REQUIRED

4 W 2 3CDO

Preq'dmin W

3 S Ae 3

W 2 1

Vminreq'd power

S 5CDO Ae

C DO 3C DO

D at Vmin req'd power = W W

3Ae Ae

PROBLEMS:

1. The drag polar equation of an advanced light twin airplane in clean configuration can be

written as:

CD = 0.0358 = 0.405CL2

Its weight is 18, 680 N and the wing area is 14.4m2. Calculate by analytical methods its (1)

maximum lift-drag ratio (2) Minimum drag speed, (3) minimum power required with the

corresponding flight speed. Assume standard sea-level conditions.

Ans. (CL/CD)max =13.13 ; Vmindrag 47.46 m s ; Preq'dmin 59.24KW ;

VminP req'd 36.06 m s

2. A glider weighs 3, 550 N and has a wing loading of 574 N/m2. Its drag equation is:

CD = 0.010 + 0.022CL2

After being launched at 1, 500 ft in still air and (a) the greatest distance it can cover and (b)

the greatest duration of flight possible, over level ground. In both cases, find the

corresponding flight speeds. Ignore the effect of density changes of the atmosphere and use

standard sea level conditions.

Ans. R max 50,565ft ; t max 7.85minutes; VR max 37.28 m s ; Vt max 28.33 m s

POWER REQUIRED

Preq’d = DV 12

For a small γ:

C

Treq 'd D W

C

W 2

V

S

W

T HPreq "d

55 0

Below the drag-divergence Mach number, it can be assumed that the C L and CD at the same angle of

attack will remain constant.

At sea level

CL

Tre q'

do W

CD

W 2

V

O

S O

do

All attitudes

Treq'd Treq'dO

VO

V

THPreq'dO

THPreq'd

:

where

O

POWER AVAILABLE

THPav = p BHP

BHP = shaft brake horsepower

RATE OF CLIMB

R.C. X 33,000 , ft/min, W in lbs

W

From the plotted graph of power required and available to given altitudes, various performance

Maximum flight speed

The maximum speed in level flight at a given altitude is simply the speed at which the power

available and power required curves intersect.

The maximum rate of climb occurs when the excess power is maximum

The maximum climb angle occurs when the ratio (R.C.V.) is maximum. In determining the

maximum climb angle, care should be taken to make sure that the speed for maximum climb angle is

not less than the stall speed. To find the condition for maximum (R.C.V.) draw a straight line from

the origin tangent to the curve.

R.C.

max sin 1

V max

` Hs = service ceiling

R.C.o = Rate of climb at sea

RATE OF CLIMB

Absolute Ceiling - the maximum altitude above sea level at which a given airplane would be able to

maintain horizontal flight under air condition.

Service Ceiling – the altitude above sea level, under air conditions, at which a given airplane is unable to

climb faster than a small specified rate.

- the altitude where the rate of climb is 30.49 meters per minute.

H R.C.O 30.49

HS

R.C.O

h R.C.O

H

R.C.O R.C.h

R.C.h = Rate of climb at any altitude

14

Time to Climb

H H

t ln

R .C.O Hh

Where:

t = time to climb to altitude h

H = absolute ceiling

PROBLEMS:

1. An airplane is climbing at V = 90m/s, propeller-driven and with brake power delivery of 2, 250 KW.

Given also are the following data:

CD = 0.014 + 0.05CL2

W = 460, 000N.

S = 40m2

ήp = 87%

SSLC

Compute for the maximum rate of climb and the corresponding climb path angle.

Ans. Max R.C. = 7.08 m/s ; @ max R.C. 4.51 deg

2. A 22, 240 N aircraft has an excess power of 56KW at sea level and the service ceiling is 3.66km.

Determine:

(b) Rate of climb at Service ceiling

(c) Rate of climb at Absolute ceiling

Ans. R.C.@h 2.8km 58.76m / min ; R.C.HS 30.49m / min ; R.C H 0

3. A light airplane has a service ceiling of 3 km. Its rate climb at sea level is 3464.74 m/min. How

long will take to climb to 3 km and time to climb to reach service?

Ans. t = 11.94 minutes

Reference: Fundamentals of Aerodynamics Part II

1. Accelerating ground-run

2. Rotation

3. Lift-off

4. Climb out

1. Descent

2. Flare

3. Touchdown

4. Decelerating ground-run

15

SUMMARY OF CTOL TAKE-OFF RULES

ITEM MIL-C5011A FAR PART 23 FAR PART 25

(MILLITARY) (CIVIL) (COMMERCIAL)

VCL ≥ 1.2VS VCL ≥ 1.1VS VCL ≥ 1.2VS

500 fpm @ S.L. 300fpm @ S.L. ½% @ VLOF

(AEO) (AEO)

GEAR UP:

100fpm @ S.L. 3% @ VCL (OIE)

(OEI)

DEFINITION Distance Distance DISTANCE WITH AEO

OVER 50 OVER 50’ OVER 35%

NOTES:

OEI = One Engine Inoperative

Vs = one g stall speed out of ground effect

VLOF = lift off speed

VCL = climb out speed

VTD ≥ 1.2VS (L) VTD ≥ 1.15VS (L) VA ≥ 1.15VS (L)

DEFINITION DISTANCE DISTANCE DISTANCE

OVER 50’ OVER 50’ OVER 50’

Divided by 0.6

NOTES:

VA = speed over the 50 ft. obstacle (also called the approach speed)

VTD = speed at touchdown during landing

Vs (L) = stalling speed in the landing configuration

16

TAKE-OFF DISTANCE

ST/O = SO + SR + STR + SCL

Ground Distance, SG

W VLOF

2

SG

2G Fm

W VLOF

2

SG

2G kFS

FLOF

1

FS

Fm FS kFS

FS

ln F

LOF

FLOF

1

FS

k

FS

ln F

LOF

FS T W W , AT V 0

FLOF T D W L W

At V VLOF

FLOF T W C D C L qS W

C L IGE

C L C L IGE C L OGE C L IGE O

C L OGE

17

2A

C L OGE , per radian

A 2 2

tan c 2

2

2 1 4

k2 2

2A eff

C L OGE , per radian

2

A eff 2 tan 2 c 2

2 1 4

k2 2

A 2h

f , in Fig. 7

A eff b

2

2 1 M

k a / 2 /

a 2 per radian

t 1 1

3.5655 0.1177 , deg.

c h c h c 2

C D C D CORRECTED C D OGE C Di

2

C D OGE

C Di '

Ae

h

' f ' in figure 8

b

1 1.32 h b h

' , for 0.033 0.25

1.05 7.4 h b b

W VLOF VW

2

SG

2g Fmw

Where: Fmw = may be regarded as the average net force for acceleration.

F V 2

1 LOF 1 W 2

FS VLOF

Fmw FS k w FS

2

2

1 W 2 LOF2

FS V V

ln

F V V

LOF LOF W

FLOF VW 2

1 1

F V 2

S LOF

kW

FS VW VLOF 2

2

1

ln

F V 2 V 2

LOF LOF W

18

Typical values of coefficient of friction, μ

BRAKES-OFF μ

Concrete 0.02-0.03

Hard turf 0.05

Short grass 0.05

Long grass 0.10

Soft ground 0.10 – 0.30

Approximate Method II for SG

At Vw ≠ 0:

W VLOF VW

2

SG

2G Fm

At Vw = 0:

W VLOF

2

SG

2G Fm

19

where:

FS FLOF

Fm

2

FS T W W , at V 0

FLOF T W C D C L qS W at V VLOF 2

SR - tR VLOF

Where: tR ≈ 3 sec. for modern swept –wing aircraft (less for small aircraft)

STR R sin C L

Where:

2

VLOF

R

V 2

C LTR

g LOF2 1

VS C Lmax

C LTR

is frequently assumed to be 0.8

C LMAX

TD

CL , CL is in radians

W V VLOF

2

V

C LTR C LMAX S

VLOF

50 h TR

SCL

tan CL

STR

where: h TR 1 cos CL

sin CL

Approximation Method for Take-off time,

Ground-run time, tG

W VLOF VW

tG

g T W C D C L qS V VLOF 2

20

Rotation Time tR

SCL

STR

cos CL

t TR CL

VLOF

Total take-off time, tTO

Landing Distance

21

Air Distance, SA

W VA VTD

2 2

SA h

D T

F

2g

or

h F R '

SA

2

or

2

hF VF

SA

2g n 1

where: VA = 1.3 VS(L)

1

D = DA = CDA pVA 2S

2

hF = 50 ft.

R’ = VF2 /g(n-1)

VF = 0.95 VA

g = gravitational acceleration

LF

n = , load factor

W

1

LF = CLA pVA2S

2

DT C T

D , in rad.

W V VA C L W

Where: tFR ≈ 0 to 3 seconds

22

Braking Distance, SB

At Vw = 0:

WV

2

SB TD

2g Fm

FS FTD

Fm

Where : F

ln S

FTD

FS W Te W

FTD W Te C L C D qS W at V VTD

At W 0 :

V

W

SB VTD VW 2

2gFmw

VW 2

FS FTD 1 2

VTD

Where: Fmw

FS VW 2 VW 2

ln 1 2 2

FTD VTD VTD

Note that with the brakes applied, μ on concrete may be taken to be 0.4 to 0.6

PROBLEMS:

A = 2.02, h/ c = 0.329, (2hb = 0.36), to t/c = 6.05, Ac/2 = 35o

Ans. C L 1.25C L 0.026

IGE IGE

2. An aircraft weighing 56, 000 lb. has a wing area of 90 ft2. And its drag equation is C D = 0.016 +

0.04 CL2(in ground effect). It is desired to operate this aircraft on an existing runway of 3, 000 ft.

(ground rum distance) with concrete pavement (μ = 0.02) at sea level. If the lift-of speed is 1.2 V S

and CLmax = 1.8, compute the thrust required, assuming that the aircraft engines deliver a constant

thrust during the take-off run. Vw = 0 and φ = 0. CL in ground roll = 1.0.

Ans. T = 14,090 LB

3. A jet fighter for carrier operation has a landing weight of 18, 000lb and a wing area of 320ft2. C Lmax

= 2.4 and CL in ground roll is 1.80. The drag equation in landing configuration in ground effect is CD

= 0.4 + 0.085CL. The effective thrust in ground roll is limited to 700ft, how fast the carrier be

moving for the landing to be successful? Assume μB = 0.4, VTD = 1.15 and sea level standard

conditions.

Ans. Vcarrier = 35.58 fps

4. Assumed that during take-off ground run, the angle of attack is kept fixed and the airplane speed and

thrust are independent of . Show that for maximum net force for acceleration (and hence

minimum ground run distance), the airplane lift coefficient during ground run should be such that:

Ae

CL

2

23

Reference : ELEMENTS OF PRACTICAL AERODYNAMICS

By: BRADLY JONES – fourth edition

Three phases to the take-off of an airplane

PHASE I : There is a very short period during which the tail is being raised from the ground.

PHASE II : There is a comparatively long period during which the airplane is gaining speed with

the tail up so the wing is at low angle of attack

PHASE III: The stick is pulled back to put the wing at a high angle of attack so that the airplane is

lifted into the air.

BRAKES OFF

Concreter runway of wooden deck μ = 0.02

Hard turf, level field μ = 0.04

Average field, short gas μ = 0.05

Average field, long grass μ = 0.10

Soft ground μ = 0.10-0.30

BREAKS ON

Concreter runway of wooden deck μ = 0.50

Hard turf, level field μ = 0.40

Average field, short gas μ = 0.30

Average field, long grass μ = 0.50

2

V W1 1

SO t 1 ln 1 K

gFO K K

F TO W

TO

K bhp

TO

N D

FO Ft

K

FO

24

W 2 1

Vt

S 0.9C L max

Vmin

Vt

0.9

Vt 1.054Vmin

W 2 1

Vmin

S C L max

1 2

Ft Tt C D ' Vt S

2

Where:

L

CD’ = CDt at angle of attack of Dt max

C D t C D W C D pe

1.28a e

C D pe

S

TRANSITION DISTANCE, St

St = 0.011

Where:

25

DISTANCE TO CLEAR AT 50 FT. OBSTACLE, SSO

50

S50

tan

Where:

STOTAL = SO + St + S50

Example:

Find the take-off ground of a monoplane weighing 2, 000 lb., having a clark y wing 216 ft2.

Parasite, powered with an engine rated at 125 hp at 2, 200 rpm, propeller diameter 6 in having an

efficiency of 81% under design conditions. Μ = 0.02.

GIVEN:

W = 2, 000lb

S = 216ft2

ae = 3.8ft2

BHP = 125hp

N = 2, 200 rpm

D = 6ft

REQ’D:

So = ?

SOLUTION:

2

V W1 1

SO t 1 ln1 K

gFO K K

In fig. 14:

V

K TO f

ND

V 88V

ND ND

V

88125

ND 2,200 6

V

0.83, therefore K TO 48,000

ND

TO

K bhp

TO

ND

TO

48,000125

2,200 6

TO = 454.55 lb

26

Fo = To – μW

Fo = 414.55lb

From characteristics curves of clark y (Fig. 13):

L

C Lmax 1.56 and C D W 0.02 @

D max

Vt 1.054Vmin

W 2 1

Vt 1.054

S C Lmax

2,000 2 1

Vt 1.054

216 0. 002377 1.56

15

Vt 74.78ft / s x 50.78mph

22

since:

thPt Tt x Vt

thPt

Tt

Vt

In Fig. 15;

thPt V

f t

thPdes Vmax

Vt 50.78

0.406

Vmax 125

thPt

0.615

thPdes

thPt = bhp x p

thPdes = (125) (0.81)

thPdes = 101.25hp

thPt = (0.615) (101.25)

thPt = 62.27hp

27

thPt x 550

Tt

Vt

Tt

62.27 550

74.48

Tt 459.83lb.

C D ' C DW C D

pe

1.28a e

C D ' C DW

S

1.28 3.8

C D ' C DW

S

C D ' 0.043

1 2

Ft Tt C D ' Vt S

2

1

Ft 459.83 0.043 0.002377 74.48 216

2

2

Ft 398.59lb.

K

FO Ft

FO

K

414.55 398.59

414.55

K 0.038

Therefore,

SO

32.174 414.55 1 1 1

ln 1 0.038

74.48 2 2,000 0.038 0.038

1m

SO 426.75ft x

3.28ft

SO 130.11m

28

29

EFFECT OF WIND ON TAKE –OFF (UPWIND)

V

2

SW SO 1 W , for ground roll

Vt

Where:

So = ground run in still air

Vw = wind speed

Vt = take-off velocity

tan

tan ' , for S 50

Vt cos

1

V w

50

S50

tan g

Vg 2 Vs 2

St 0.067 W

D g D S

30

VL

2

C

S0 ln D

C CL L

2g D

C L L

Dg

tan g

L

L = WcosӨg

50 W

S50

Dg

S LTOTAL = S50 + St + SO

Where:

W = weight of aircraft (lb)

Dg = total drag at velocity Vg (lb)

Ds = total drag at velocity Vs (lb)

Vs = gliding speed (fps)

Vs = minimum or stalling speed (fps)

VL = minimum landing speed (fps)

(CD/CL) = lift to drag ratio corresponding to VL

Example:

In still air, what is the landing run for an airplane equipped with brakes on a concrete runway, if its

minimum speed of 62 mph and if the (L/D) at the angle of maximum CL is 8.6?

GIVEN:

μ = 0.50

VL = 62 mph = 90.93 fps

(L/D)L = 8.6

Req’d:

So = ?

Solution:

VL

2

C

S0 ln D

C CL L

2g D

C L L

(90.93) 2

1

1 ln (0.5)

(2)(32.174) 0.5 8 .6

8 .6

So = 488.43ft = 148.93m

31

Problems:

1. In still air, an airplane can climb at an angle of 5 o at an airspeed of 60mph. (a) What is its angle

of climb against a 25 mph wind? (b) What is its angle of climb if it takes off downwind?

Ans. a ' 8.6 0 b ' 3.28 0

2. In still air, an airplane can climb at angle of climb of 7.3o at an airspeed of 95 miles per hour. If

the wheels leave the ground 800ft. away from high, tension wires which are 125ft above the

ground, by what vertical distance are the wires cleared. (a) instill air, (b) in a 25 miles per hour

against the wind? Ans. a - 22.5ft b 14.5ft

3. An airplane weighing 25, 000 lb. with 987 ft2 of wing area, is equipped with brakes and lands on

a concrete runway, within a speed of 75mph. It rolls along at an angle of attack for which CL

= 0.5 and CD = 0.13. What is the landing run on smooth concrete with brakes?

Ans. So = 404 ft

4. In still air, what is the landing run of an airplane equipped with brakes on a concrete runway, if it

is landed at its minimum speed of 71 mph and the (L/D)L is 7.8?

Ans. So = 616 ft

RANGE

Range is the horizontal distance traveled by the aircraft.

C W

R(miles) = 375 P L ln 0

BSFC C D W1

BSFC = brake specific fuel consumption (the amount of fuel per hour used for each

brake horsepower ) in lb/ BHP – hr.

Wo = initial gross weight in lb

W1 = final aircraft weight in lb

Note: For best or maximum range, the flight speed should take place such that CL/CD is maximum. For a

parabotic drag polar equation, this condition implies in accordance with:

2

C

C D0 L

Ae

ENDURANCE

P C L2

3

1 1

E(hours) 778

S

W

W0

BSFC C D 1

BSFC = brake specific fuel consumption in lb/BHP-hr.

Wo = initial gross weight in lb

W1 = final aircraft weight in lb

ρ = air density in slug /ft3

S = wing area in ft2

Note: For best or maximum endurance, CL3/2 / CD needs to be maximum. For the case of parabolic drag

polar equation, this condition implies in accordance with.

C L2

C DO

Ae

32

Problems:

Initial gross weight = 30, 000lb

BSFC = 0.45lb / BHP –hr

CD = 0.02 + 0.05 CL2

ηp = 0.87

S = 300 ft2

This airplane is to carry 3, 000 lb of supply and airdrop it at a distance 1, 500 miles away and return to

the original airport. Determine (a) the total amount of cruise fuel consumed, (b) the corresponding

flying time.

2. Determine the maximum range, maximum endurance (and speeds for best range and endurance at

10, 000ft) of the following airplane.

S = 200ft2

W = 10, 000lb

Maximum fuel = 4, 000lb

BSFC = 0.52 lb/ BHP-hr

ηp = 0.90

Power required characteristics being: (at 10, 000 lb. gross weight)

403 1350

350 92.5

300 600

250 400

200 250

175 215

150 200

140 205

130 220

125 240

3. An airplane has a lift-drag relation of CD = 0.015 + 0, 060CL2, weight is 20, 000lb., wing area is

200 square ft. If this airplane is propeller –driven, what are the equivalent speeds for best range and

endurance at 20, 000 lb. gross weight at sea level?

Ans. VR best 410fps VE best 310.99fps

TURNS

CENTRIPETAL FORCE

Centripetal force – the force which causes the body to accelerate inward in a turn. It is measured by

the mass times the acceleration.

a= 2R

33

or,

V2

a

R

where:

a = acceleration

= angular acceleration

V= linear velocity

R = radius of turn

therefore:

W V

C.F.

G R

where:

W = weight of aircraft (lb)

V = airspeed (fps)

R = radius of turn (ft)

NOTE:

The centrifugal force of an airplane in a turn is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the

accelerating inward (centripetal) force.

BANKING

C.F.

tan

W

W V2

g R

tan

W

34

V2

tan

gR

where:

R - is in feet

g - is in feet per second squared

ΣFv = 0

Lcos β – W = 0

Lcos β - W

W

L

cos

Problems

1. A plane of 3, 800 lb. Gross weight is turning at 175 miles per hour with an angle of bank of 50 o. (a)

What is the centrifugal force? (b) what is the lift (c) What would be the radius of turn?

Ans. (a) C.F. = 4,528.66 lb (b) L = 5,911.75 lb (c) R = 1,718.10 ft

2. An airplane is making a 40o banked of 565ft. radius. What should be the airspeed?

Ans. V = 123.50fps

W 2 1 1

VS '

S C L max cos

VS

VS '

cos

where:

W 2 1

VS '

S C L max

PROBLEMS:

1. A cub has a minimum flying speed of 39.3 mph in straight level flight. Assuming unlimited

engine powers, what is the minimum speed (a) a 30o banked turn; (b) a 50o banked turn; (c) 70o

banked turn?

Ans. a VS ' 42.23mph b VS ' 49.02mph c VS ' 67.20mph

2. An airplane with a loading of 18.2 lb/ft2 uses a wing section whose CL is 1.5; What is the

stalling speed in a 40o banked turn at standard sea level conditions?

Ans. VS ' 115 .44mph

35

MINIMUM RADIUS AS DETERMINED BY WING LOADING

In banked at constant altitude, the lift must equal the vector sum of the weight acting

vertically downward and centrifugal force acting horizontally outward, i.e.

1 W

L CL V 2S

2 cos

V 2 R tan

1 W

CL V 2S g R tan

2 cos

W

R

1

C L Sg sin

2

W

R S

1

C L g sin

2

W

26.15

R S

C L sin

Since, in a turn it is dangerous to stall, the most common rule for pilots is always to keep at

least 20 percent above stalling speed, this is the equivalent of saying that the angle of attack should be such

that the CL will not be greater than CLmax / (1.2). Since on examining most wings, the greatest CLmax to

be found is 1.6, the CL to be used in the above equation should be 1.6 / 1.44 or 1.11. When this value is

used and is recalled that the maximum possible value of sin β is unity (β = 90), the minimum radius

becomes

W

23.56

R S

Problem:

1. On the basis of wing loading, what is the maximum radius of (a) a curtiss P – 40. W/S = 31.2

lb/ft2., (b) a Grumman Wildcat, W/S = 23.5 lb/ft2 and (c) a Piper liason, W/S = 6.76 lb/ft2.?

Assumed standard sea level conditions.

Ans. a R 735.07' b R 553.66' c R 159.27'

2T

t

V

but,

V2

R

g tan

2V 2

t

g tan

36

LOAD FACTOR

Load factor (n) = the ratio of the lift force to the weight of the airplane.

L

n=

W

In horizontal turns, the wing is banked so that the lift force acts in an oblique direction from the

vertical. The vertical component causes the inward acceleration. The lift on the wing must be equal in

magnitude and opposite in direction to the sum of the weight and the centrifugal force. The load factor in a

horizontal turn is the ratio of this lift to the weight of the airplane.

2

WV 2

W 2

gR

n

W

V4

n 1 2 2

g R

n = sec β

Problems

1. Airplane is making a turn 1/8 – mile radius at a speed of 225 mph. What is the load factor?

Ans. n = 5.23

V2

Arc tan 78.97 2

gR

n sec 5.23

2. Airplane is making turn of 300ft. radius at a speed of 240 mph. What is the load factor?

Ans. n = 12.88

85.55o

n 12.88

1

C Lmax SV 2

L 2

n

W 1 2

C L max SVS

2

V2

n 2

VS

37

Where:

V = the velocity when the airplane is pulled out of the dive into the high angle of attack

position.

1

C L V 2S

L 2

n

W C 1 V 2S

L S

2

V2

n 2

VS

Problem:

1. A Lockhead airplane whose landing speed is 72 mph is pulled out of a dive at 225 mph, what is the

laod factor? Ans. n = 9.77

2. A Northrop airplane whose stalling speed is 62 mph is pulled out of a dive at 200 mph. What is the

load factor? Ans. n = 10.41

KUVm

n 1

575 W

S

where:

1

1 W 4 W

K for 16 psi

2 S S

2.67 W

K 1.33 for 16 psf

W4

3

S

S

V = airplane speed, mph

m = slope of lift curve, per radian

CL

=

0

α0= angle of attack for zero lift

Problem:

1. An airplane weighing 2, 000 lb. has a wing area of 216ft 2. The wing has zero lift at -5o. For the

aspect ratio of the wing used CL = 1.19 at = 12o. What is the load factor caused by a sharp –

edged 30ft/s gust when the airplane is flying at 60 mph at 10,000 ft altitude?

Ans. n = 2.95

38

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