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PATTS REVIEW CENTER

PATTS COLLEGE OF AERONAUTICS

APPLIED SUBSONIC AERODYNAMICS

Reviewer: Engr. R. Renigen

WING THEORY

DEFINITION OF WING PROPERTIES

Geometric Wingspan, b = the distance between tip to tip of the wing, measured
perpendicular to the airplane of wing centerline, regardless
of the geometric shape of the wing.

Wing Area, S = the projection of the planform on a plane of reference


which is usually the chord plane.

Wing aspects, A = the ratio of the square of the span to the wing area.
b2
A
S

Tape ratio, λ = the ratio of the tip chord ct to the root chord cr
c
 t
cr

2  2    1 
Mean of aerodynamic chord, MAC, c = cr  
3    1 

Sweep angle, Λ = the angle between a line perpendicular to the centerline


and the leading edge or the quarter chordline. It is denoted
as  L.E . or  c 4

1
WING AEROYNAMIC FORCES AND MOMENT

L  CL q S
D  CD q S
M  C m q Sc

INDUCED ANGLE OF ATTACK AND INDUCED DRAG COEFFICIENT

For non-elliptic lift distribution

CL
i 
Ae

CL 2
CDi 
Ae

Where: e = span efficiency facto or Oswald’s efficiency factor


0.85 – 0.95 for the wing alone

Ae = effective aspect ratio, Aeff

For elliptic lift distribution

CL
i 
Ae

CL 2
CDi 
Ae

Where: e=1

2
TOTAL DRAG COEFFICIENT FOR A WING
CL 2
CD  CD0 
Ae

where : C D 0 is the (lift independent) sum of skin friction and pressure drag.

ASPECT RATIO CORRECTIONS

CL  1 1 
1   2     , inradians
   Ae 1  Ae 2 

 1 1 
 1   2  18.24CL    , in radians
  Ae 1  Ae 2 

CL  1 1 
2

CD1  CD2    
   Ae 1  Ae 2 

where:  1 = angle of attack of wing # 1


 2 = angle of attack of wing # 2
C D1 = drag coefficient of wing # 1
C D2 = drag coefficient of wing # 2

SLOPE OF LIFT CURVE

a2
a1 
a2  1 1 
1   
   Ae 1  Ae 2 

a
a1 
a
1
 Ae

Where : a1 & a3 = slope of lift curve for finite aspect ratio


( wing #1 & wing #2, respectively)
a = slope of lift curve for finite aspect ratio
a = slope of lift curve for infinite aspect ratio

WING STALL

Wing stall is due to follow separation. How the flow separation progresses chordwise and spanwise
on a wing depends on the following items:

1. Airfoil stall characteristics


2. Planform Geometry and Twist

The following planform effects are important in determining stall behavior


3
a). Taper Ratio
A rectangular wing – has a larger downwash angle at the tip than at the root. The effective angle of
attack at the tip is thus reduced, and therefore it will stall last. However, it is aerodynamically inefficient,
because the planform is far from elliptical so that it produces more induce drag.

To reduce the induced drag, planform tapering to approximate the ideal elliptical planform is often
used. With the tip reduced, the local Reynold’s number and the induced angle of attack are decrease in the
tip region. Therefore, the tip section will tend to stall first for a tapered wing. This is undesirable from a
standpoint of a lateral stability in stall entries and stall recoveries. It is seen that as the taper ratio is
decreased it promotes tip-stall.

b) Aspect ratio

With increasing aspect ratio wing tends to behave more like an airfoil section. For that reason it can be
expected that C L max increases with aspect ratio.

c) Sweep angle

For swept aft wings, since the wing tips are usually situated aft of the center of gravity, loss lift at the
tips causes the nose to come up. If the angle of attack is high originally, this will increase the angle of attack
further. This may result in loss of pitch control. This phenomenon is known as pitch – up.

Note that a swept forward wing would tend to exhibit pitch down.

In addition, because of the tendency toward spanwise flow, a swept –aft wing tends towards tip stall
because of boundary layer thickening. A swept forward wing for the same reason, will tend toward root-
stall.

The trend is for C L max


to decrease with sweep angle (fore & aft)

d) Twist (or Wash out)

If the angles of attack at various spanwise station are not equal the wing is said to have twist. If the
angle of attack at the wing tip is less than that of the root, the wing is said to have washout. With
washout, the tips will be at a lower angle of attack than the root, and thus the tip stall may be delayed
until after the stall has occurred at the root.

PROBLEMS:

1. A straight, tapered wing 30 ft. span has leading-edge and trailing-edge sweep angle of 45 o and
15o, respectively. Find the magnitudes of root chord, tip chord and the mean aerodynamic chord
if its total area is 280 ft2.
Ans. Cr = 15’ ; Ct = 4.02’ ; MAC = 10.57’

2. An airplane weighing 5, 000 lbs. has a wing area of 250ft2. If the lift-curve slope is 6.0 per
radian and the angle of attack of zero lift is –2 deg., calculate the angle of attack (in degrees) of
this airplane at a level flight speed of 200 mph under standard sea-level condition.
Ans.   0.137 deg.

3. The test results of NACA 23012 airfoil shows the following:

 (deg) C
0 0.15
9 1.2

If the airfoil is used to construct an elliptical wing of A = 7.0, determine the wing lift curve slope.
Ans. a = 0.009/deg.

4
2. The rectangular wing model of 40 in. by 5 in has the following characteristics determined from a
wind tunnel test: e = 0.87, C L =  = 0.09 per deg. And o = -3o, if a full-scale rectangular

wing of 42 ft by 6 ft is constructed with the same airfoil section. What lift will it develop at  =
5o and 120 mph under standard sea-level conditions? Assume e = 0.87 for the full-scale wing.
Ans. L =6,457.05 LB

AIRPLANE DRAG

COMPLETE AIRPLANE POLARS

CLEAN AIRPLANE

A clean airplane is defined as an airplane in its cruise configuration


2
C
CD  CD0  L
Ae

Where: C D 0 = zero lift drag coefficient


e = Oswald’s efficiency factor. A value of e = 1 would indicate are elliptical
lift distribution.

C
CD = 2CD0 at CL for C
L

D max

CL
CL = AeCD0 for C
D max

CL 1 Ae
CD
= 2 CD0
max

3
CL
CL  3AeCDO for 2
CD max

3
CL 3 Ae
2 = 16 Ae C
CD max
D 0

3
CL
CD  4CDO for 2
CD max

5
FUNDAMENTALS OF FLIGHT MECHANICS
FOR STEADY SYMMETRICAL FLIGHT
Where:

Xs, Ys, Zs, = body axes system (Ys, not shown, is pointing into the paper), with Xs,
along some airplane reference line.

Xs, Ys, Zs, = stability area system (Ys is pointing along Ys) with Xs pointing in the
direction of the velocity vector v

γ = the flight path angle, positive for ascending flight (climb) and negative
for descending flight ( glide or drive)

α = airplane (reference) angle of attack

ө = pitch attitude angle

V = true airspeed

Vh = horizontal flight speed component (Vh = Vcosγ)

Vv = R.C. = vertical flight speed component or rate-of-climb: R.C. = Vsinγ

F XS =0

T cos    T   D  W sin  0 6
Assume,
cos    T   1.0

T – D – siny = 0
T = D + siny

F ZS =o
T cos    T   L  W sin  0

Assume,

sin    T   0

L = W cos γ

Where: L = airplane lift


R is their resultant force
D = airplane drag

T = airplane thrust

W = airplane weight

ӨT = thrust orientation angle relative to the body x-axis

To write Eqn. (T = D + Wsinγ) in terms of “work” multiply both sides by the airspeed V.

TV = DV + WVsinγ

since,

R.C. = Vsinγ

TV = DV + W. R. C.
where:

TV = power available from the propulsive system


DV = Preqd = power required to overcome the drag at a given speed V.
W.R.C. = PCL = climb power

Note that in steady symmetrical flight the power available equals to the sum of the power required
and the climb power.

7
UNPOWERED FLIGHT OR GLIDE
Fig. 5 Airplane in Gliding Flight

In this flight condition, T = O

Σ Fv = 0

R = W

but,

R = (L2 + D2) ½ = W

CR q S = (CL2 + CD2) ½ qS =W

F XS =0

D = Wsin 

CD q S = Wsin 

F ZS =0

L = Wcos 

CL q S = Wcos 

GUIDE ANGLE

CD 1
tan   
CL CL
CD

8
AIRSPEED
 W  2  1 
V      cos 
 S    C L 

RATE OF DESCENT

RD = V sin 

 CD  W  2   3
 cos =    3
1
RD = V  cos 
 3 
 S    CL CD 
 CL 

HORIZONTAL DISTANCE COVERED IN A STEADY GUIDE

h C 
R ; R  h L 
tan  CD 

Where: h = initial altitude

MINIMUM GLIDE PATH ANGLE

1
 min  tan 1
 CL 
 
 C D  maz

The maximum value of CL/CD for the case of an airplane with parabolic drag polar is givemLn by;

CL 1 Ae
CD  2CD0  CL
CD

2 C D0  at
CD
max
CL  Ae max

MINIMUM RATE OF DESCENT

 W  2  1  3
RDmin     3  cos 
2 
 S    CL CD 

9
For the case of an airplane with a parabotic drag polar
CL 3 3 3Ae
 Ae
CD
2 16 CDO
max

3
CL
CL  3AeCDO for 2
CD max

MINIMUM SPEED OR STALLING SPEED

 W  2  1 
Vmin  Vs     cos
 S    CL max 

LEVEL FLIGHT

In case of level flight (R.C. = 0)

ΣFH = 0
T = D = CD q S

ΣFv = 0
L = CL q S = W

Note that eqn. (TV = DV + WR. C.), in the case of level flight can be written as:

T V = DV

Pav = Preq’d

The level flight speed follows from Eqn. (L = CL q S = W)

 W  2  1 

V   
 S    C L 

The drag in level flight is:

C 
D   D  W
 CL 

10
The power required is:

C  W  2  1 
Preq'd  DV   L  W    
 CD   S    CL 
 W  2  CD 
2
W  2  
Preq'd  W    3   W    3 2 
1
 S    CL   S    CL CD 
DRAG AND POWE REQUIRED FOR THE CASE OF PARABOLIC DRAG POLARS

2
CD
CD  CDO 
Ae

1
D CDV 2 S
2

D = Do + Di

1 1
D  C DO V 2S  C DO V 2S
2 2

2
1 CL 1
D  C DO V 2S  V 2S
2 Ae 2

1 W2
D  C DO V 2S 
2 1
Ae V 2S
2

Where: D = Total airplane drag


Do = parasite drag
Di = induced drag

The power required in level flight is:

1 W2
Preq'd  DV  CDO V 3 S 
2 1
Ae VS
2
\

1  W b2
Preq'd  DV  CDO V 3 S 
2 1
e V
2

W
where:  SpanLoading
b

MINIMUM DRAG

CDO
Dmin =2Do =2W  11
Ae
SPEED AT MINIMUM DRAG

W  2  1
V mindrag   
 S    AeCDo

POWER REQUIRED AT MINIMUM DRAG


 W  2  3CDO
Preq'dmindrag  2W   
 S     Ae 3
MINIMUM POWER REQUIRED

4  W  2  3CDO
Preq'dmin  W   
3  S     Ae 3

SPEED AT MINIMUM REQUIRED POWER

W  2  1
Vminreq'd power    
 S    5CDO Ae

DRAG AT MINIMUM REQUIRED POWER SPEED

C DO 3C DO
D at Vmin req'd power = W  W
3Ae Ae

PROBLEMS:

1. The drag polar equation of an advanced light twin airplane in clean configuration can be
written as:

CD = 0.0358 = 0.405CL2

Its weight is 18, 680 N and the wing area is 14.4m2. Calculate by analytical methods its (1)
maximum lift-drag ratio (2) Minimum drag speed, (3) minimum power required with the
corresponding flight speed. Assume standard sea-level conditions.
Ans. (CL/CD)max =13.13 ; Vmindrag  47.46 m s ; Preq'dmin  59.24KW ;
VminP req'd  36.06 m s

2. A glider weighs 3, 550 N and has a wing loading of 574 N/m2. Its drag equation is:

CD = 0.010 + 0.022CL2
After being launched at 1, 500 ft in still air and (a) the greatest distance it can cover and (b)
the greatest duration of flight possible, over level ground. In both cases, find the
corresponding flight speeds. Ignore the effect of density changes of the atmosphere and use
standard sea level conditions.
Ans. R max  50,565ft ; t max  7.85minutes; VR max  37.28 m s ; Vt max  28.33 m s

CLIMB PERFORMANCE AND SPEED OF PROPELLER DRIVEN AIRPLANE

POWER REQUIRED

Power required for flight at constant speed is given by:

Preq’d = DV 12
For a small γ:
 C
Treq 'd  D  W

 C

 W  2 
V   
  

 S  

W 
T HPreq "d  

55 0 

Below the drag-divergence Mach number, it can be assumed that the C L and CD at the same angle of
attack will remain constant.

At sea level

 CL 
Tre q'
do  W 
 

 CD 

 W  2
V   

O
 S  O

THPre q"d  Tre q'


do

All attitudes

Treq'd  Treq'dO

VO
V

THPreq'dO
THPreq'd 


: 
where
O

POWER AVAILABLE

The available thrust power is given by:

THPav = p BHP

Where: p = propeller efficiency


BHP = shaft brake horsepower

RATE OF CLIMB

THPav  THPreq 'd


R.C. X 33,000 , ft/min, W in lbs
W
From the plotted graph of power required and available to given altitudes, various performance

parameters can be obtained. 13


 Maximum flight speed

The maximum speed in level flight at a given altitude is simply the speed at which the power
available and power required curves intersect.

 Maximum rate of climb

The maximum rate of climb occurs when the excess power is maximum

 Maximum climb angle

The maximum climb angle occurs when the ratio (R.C.V.) is maximum. In determining the
maximum climb angle, care should be taken to make sure that the speed for maximum climb angle is
not less than the stall speed. To find the condition for maximum (R.C.V.) draw a straight line from
the origin tangent to the curve.

R.C.
 max  sin 1
V max

CEILING AND TIME TO CLIMB

Where: H = absolute ceiling


` Hs = service ceiling
R.C.o = Rate of climb at sea

RATE OF CLIMB

Absolute Ceiling - the maximum altitude above sea level at which a given airplane would be able to
maintain horizontal flight under air condition.

- the altitude where the rate of climb is zero


Service Ceiling – the altitude above sea level, under air conditions, at which a given airplane is unable to
climb faster than a small specified rate.

- the altitude where the rate of climb is 30.49 meters per minute.

H R.C.O  30.49 
HS 
R.C.O

h R.C.O
H
R.C.O  R.C.h

Where : h = any altitude


R.C.h = Rate of climb at any altitude

14
Time to Climb
H H
t ln
R .C.O Hh

Where:
t = time to climb to altitude h
H = absolute ceiling

PROBLEMS:

1. An airplane is climbing at V = 90m/s, propeller-driven and with brake power delivery of 2, 250 KW.
Given also are the following data:

CD = 0.014 + 0.05CL2
W = 460, 000N.
S = 40m2
ήp = 87%
SSLC

Compute for the maximum rate of climb and the corresponding climb path angle.
Ans. Max R.C. = 7.08 m/s ;  @ max R.C.  4.51 deg

2. A 22, 240 N aircraft has an excess power of 56KW at sea level and the service ceiling is 3.66km.
Determine:

(a) Rate of climb at 2.8 km


(b) Rate of climb at Service ceiling
(c) Rate of climb at Absolute ceiling
Ans. R.C.@h 2.8km  58.76m / min ; R.C.HS  30.49m / min ; R.C H  0

3. A light airplane has a service ceiling of 3 km. Its rate climb at sea level is 3464.74 m/min. How
long will take to climb to 3 km and time to climb to reach service?
Ans. t = 11.94 minutes

TAKE-OFF AND LANDING PERFORMANCE


Reference: Fundamentals of Aerodynamics Part II

TAKE-OFF PHASES OF FLIGHT

1. Accelerating ground-run
2. Rotation
3. Lift-off
4. Climb out

LANDING PHASES OF FLIGHT

1. Descent
2. Flare
3. Touchdown
4. Decelerating ground-run

15
SUMMARY OF CTOL TAKE-OFF RULES
ITEM MIL-C5011A FAR PART 23 FAR PART 25
(MILLITARY) (CIVIL) (COMMERCIAL)

SPEED VLOF ≥ 1.1VS VLOF ≥ 1.1VS VLOF ≥ 1.1VS


VCL ≥ 1.2VS VCL ≥ 1.1VS VCL ≥ 1.2VS

CLIMB GEAR UP: GEAR UP: GEAR DOWN;


500 fpm @ S.L. 300fpm @ S.L. ½% @ VLOF
(AEO) (AEO)
GEAR UP:
100fpm @ S.L. 3% @ VCL (OIE)
(OEI)

FIELD LENGTH TAKE-OFF TAKE-OFF 115% OFF TAKE-OFF


DEFINITION Distance Distance DISTANCE WITH AEO
OVER 50 OVER 50’ OVER 35%

NOTES:

AEO = All engine operating


OEI = One Engine Inoperative
Vs = one g stall speed out of ground effect
VLOF = lift off speed
VCL = climb out speed

SUMMARY OF CTOL LANDING RULES

ITEM MIL-C5011A FAR APART 23 FAR APART 25

SPEEDS VA ≥ 1.2VS (L) VA ≥ 1.3VS (L) VA ≥ 1.3VS (L)


VTD ≥ 1.2VS (L) VTD ≥ 1.15VS (L) VA ≥ 1.15VS (L)

FIELD LENGTH LANDING LANDING LANDING


DEFINITION DISTANCE DISTANCE DISTANCE
OVER 50’ OVER 50’ OVER 50’
Divided by 0.6

NOTES:

VA = speed over the 50 ft. obstacle (also called the approach speed)
VTD = speed at touchdown during landing
Vs (L) = stalling speed in the landing configuration

16
TAKE-OFF DISTANCE
ST/O = SO + SR + STR + SCL

Ground Distance, SG

Approximate Method I for SG

a). Approximate for zero wind speed (VW = O)

W  VLOF 
2
SG   
2G  Fm 

W  VLOF 
2
SG   
2G  kFS 

Where : Fm = regarded as the average net force for acceleration


 FLOF 
1 
 FS 
Fm  FS  kFS
 FS 
 ln F 
 LOF 

 FLOF 
1 
FS
k 
 FS 
 ln F 
 LOF 

FS  T  W  W , AT V  0

FLOF  T  D   W  L   W 

 At V  VLOF

FLOF  T  W   C D  C L  qS  W 

C L  IGE 
C L  C L IGE   C L  OGE   C L  IGE   O
C L  OGE 

17
2A
C L  OGE   , per radian
A 2 2
 tan  c 2 
2
2 1    4
k2   2

2A eff
C L  OGE   , per radian
2
A eff  2  tan 2  c 2 
2 1    4
k2  2 

A  2h 
 f   , in Fig. 7
A eff  b 

2
2  1  M 
k  a  / 2 / 
a   2 per radian

t 1 1 
   3.5655  0.1177  , deg.
c  h c  h c 2 

C D  C D  CORRECTED   C D OGE   C Di

2
C D OGE 
C Di   '

Ae

h
 '  f   ' in figure 8
b

1  1.32 h b h
'  , for 0.033   0.25
1.05  7.4 h b b

b) Approximation for Non - zero Wind Speed (Vw  0)

W  VLOF  VW 
2

SG 
2g Fmw

Where: Fmw = may be regarded as the average net force for acceleration.
  F  V 2  
 1  LOF 1  W 2  
  FS  VLOF  
Fmw  FS    k w FS
   2
 2

1  W 2   LOF2  
FS V V
ln 
 F  V  V 
  LOF  LOF  W  

 FLOF  VW 2 
1  1  
F  V 2
 S  LOF 
kW 
 FS  VW  VLOF 2 
2
1  
ln 
F  V 2  V 2 
 LOF  LOF  W 

18
Typical values of coefficient of friction, μ

BRAKES-OFF μ
Concrete 0.02-0.03
Hard turf 0.05
Short grass 0.05
Long grass 0.10
Soft ground 0.10 – 0.30
Approximate Method II for SG

At Vw ≠ 0:

W  VLOF  VW 
2

SG 
2G Fm

At Vw = 0:

W  VLOF 
2

SG 
2G Fm

19
where:
FS  FLOF
Fm 
2

FS  T  W  W , at V  0

FLOF  T  W   C D  C L  qS  W at V  VLOF 2

Approximate method for Rotation Distance, SR


SR - tR VLOF
Where: tR ≈ 3 sec. for modern swept –wing aircraft (less for small aircraft)

Approximate method for transition Distance, STR

STR  R sin C L

Where:

2
VLOF
R
 V 2
 C LTR  
g  LOF2    1
 VS  C Lmax  
 

C LTR
is frequently assumed to be 0.8
C LMAX

TD
CL  , CL is in radians
W V VLOF

2
 V 
C LTR  C LMAX  S 
 VLOF 

Approximate Method for Climb Distance, SCL

50  h TR
SCL 
tan CL

STR
where: h TR  1  cos CL 
sin CL
Approximation Method for Take-off time,

Ground-run time, tG

W VLOF  VW
tG 

g  T  W    C D  C L  qS    V VLOF 2

20

Rotation Time tR

The rotation time may be taken to be three seconds or less.

Time for Transition and Climb, t(TR + CL)

SCL
STR 
cos CL
t  TR CL  
VLOF
Total take-off time, tTO

tTO = tG + tR + t(TR + CL)

Landing Distance

21
Air Distance, SA

W  VA  VTD 
2 2
SA    h 
D  T  
F
2g 
or
h F R '
SA  
 2
or
2
hF VF 
SA  
 2g n  1
where: VA = 1.3 VS(L)

VTD = (1.10 – 1.15) VS(L)

VS(L) = stall speed in the landing configuration

1
D = DA = CDA pVA 2S
2
hF = 50 ft.

R’ = VF2 /g(n-1)

VF = 0.95 VA

g = gravitational acceleration

LF
n = , load factor
W

1
LF = CLA pVA2S
2

DT C T
   D  , in rad.
 W  V  VA C L W

Free Roll Distance, SFR

SFR = tFR VTD


Where: tFR ≈ 0 to 3 seconds

22
Braking Distance, SB
At Vw = 0:

WV 
2
SB   TD 

2g  Fm 
FS  FTD
Fm 
Where : F
ln S
FTD
FS  W  Te  W

FTD   W  Te    C L  C D  qS  W at V  VTD

At W 0 :
V

W
SB   VTD  VW  2
2gFmw

 VW 2 
 FS  FTD  1  2 
 VTD 
Where: Fmw 
 FS  VW 2  VW 2 
ln  1  2   2 
 FTD  VTD  VTD 
Note that with the brakes applied, μ on concrete may be taken to be 0.4 to 0.6

PROBLEMS:

1. The wing characteristics of the basic FSD – 1 airplane are as follows:


A = 2.02, h/ c = 0.329, (2hb = 0.36), to t/c = 6.05, Ac/2 = 35o

Estimate the ground effect on the lift curve at M = 0


Ans. C L   1.25C L   0.026
IGE IGE

2. An aircraft weighing 56, 000 lb. has a wing area of 90 ft2. And its drag equation is C D = 0.016 +
0.04 CL2(in ground effect). It is desired to operate this aircraft on an existing runway of 3, 000 ft.
(ground rum distance) with concrete pavement (μ = 0.02) at sea level. If the lift-of speed is 1.2 V S
and CLmax = 1.8, compute the thrust required, assuming that the aircraft engines deliver a constant
thrust during the take-off run. Vw = 0 and φ = 0. CL in ground roll = 1.0.
Ans. T = 14,090 LB

3. A jet fighter for carrier operation has a landing weight of 18, 000lb and a wing area of 320ft2. C Lmax
= 2.4 and CL in ground roll is 1.80. The drag equation in landing configuration in ground effect is CD
= 0.4 + 0.085CL. The effective thrust in ground roll is limited to 700ft, how fast the carrier be
moving for the landing to be successful? Assume μB = 0.4, VTD = 1.15 and sea level standard
conditions.
Ans. Vcarrier = 35.58 fps

4. Assumed that during take-off ground run, the angle of attack is kept fixed and the airplane speed and
thrust are independent of  . Show that for maximum net force for acceleration (and hence
minimum ground run distance), the airplane lift coefficient during ground run should be such that:
Ae
CL 
2

23

TAKE –OFF AND LANDING


Reference : ELEMENTS OF PRACTICAL AERODYNAMICS
By: BRADLY JONES – fourth edition

TAKE OFF DISTANCE IN STILL AIR


Three phases to the take-off of an airplane

PHASE I : There is a very short period during which the tail is being raised from the ground.

PHASE II : There is a comparatively long period during which the airplane is gaining speed with
the tail up so the wing is at low angle of attack

PHASE III: The stick is pulled back to put the wing at a high angle of attack so that the airplane is
lifted into the air.

COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION (μ)

BRAKES OFF
Concreter runway of wooden deck μ = 0.02
Hard turf, level field μ = 0.04
Average field, short gas μ = 0.05
Average field, long grass μ = 0.10
Soft ground μ = 0.10-0.30

BREAKS ON
Concreter runway of wooden deck μ = 0.50
Hard turf, level field μ = 0.40
Average field, short gas μ = 0.30
Average field, long grass μ = 0.50

GROUND RUN DISTANCE, SO,


2
V W1  1 
SO  t   1  ln 1  K   
gFO  K  K 

F  TO  W

TO 
 K  bhp 
TO

 N  D 

FO  Ft
K
FO
24
 W  2  1 

Vt     
 S    0.9C L max 

Vmin
Vt 
0.9

Vt  1.054Vmin

 W  2  1 

Vmin    
 S    C L max 

1 2
Ft  Tt  C D ' Vt S
2
Where:

Fo = initial accelerating for (lb)

To = static thrust of the propeller (lb)

KTo = static thrust coefficient

Tt = thrust at take –off (lb)

Ft = accelerating force at take –off (lb)

L
CD’ = CDt at angle of attack of Dt max

Vt = Take-off velocity (ft/s)

W = Take-off weight (lb)

So = ground run distance (ft)

C D t  C D W  C D pe
1.28a e
C D pe 
S

ae = equivalent parasite area

TRANSITION DISTANCE, St

St = 0.011

Where:

W = weight at take –off (lb)

Vt = Take – off velocity (mph)

Ft = Accelerating force at take –off (lb)

25
DISTANCE TO CLEAR AT 50 FT. OBSTACLE, SSO
50
S50 
tan 
Where:

 = maximum climb angle (deg.)

TOTAL TAKE-OFF DISTANCE STOTAL

STOTAL = SO + St + S50
Example:

Find the take-off ground of a monoplane weighing 2, 000 lb., having a clark y wing 216 ft2.
Parasite, powered with an engine rated at 125 hp at 2, 200 rpm, propeller diameter 6 in having an
efficiency of 81% under design conditions. Μ = 0.02.

GIVEN:

W = 2, 000lb
S = 216ft2
ae = 3.8ft2
BHP = 125hp
N = 2, 200 rpm
D = 6ft

REQ’D:

So = ?

SOLUTION:

2
V W1  1 
SO  t   1  ln1  K   
gFO  K  K 

In fig. 14:
 V 
K TO  f  
 ND 

V 88V

ND ND

V

 88125
ND  2,200 6 

V
 0.83, therefore K TO  48,000
ND

TO 
 K  bhp
TO

ND

TO 
 48,000125
 2,200 6 

TO = 454.55 lb
26
Fo = To – μW

Fo = 454.55 – (0.02) (2,000)

Fo = 414.55lb
From characteristics curves of clark y (Fig. 13):

L
C Lmax  1.56 and C D W  0.02 @
D max

Vt  1.054Vmin

 W  2  1 

Vt  1.054   
 S    C Lmax 

 2,000  2  1 
Vt  1.054    
 216  0. 002377  1.56 

15
Vt  74.78ft / s x  50.78mph
22

since:

thPt  Tt x Vt

thPt
Tt 
Vt
In Fig. 15;

thPt  V 
 f  t 
thPdes  Vmax 

Vt 50.78
  0.406
Vmax 125

thPt
 0.615
thPdes

thPt = bhp x  p
thPdes = (125) (0.81)
thPdes = 101.25hp

thPt = 0.615 (thPdes)


thPt = (0.615) (101.25)
thPt = 62.27hp

27
thPt x 550
Tt 
Vt

Tt 
 62.27  550
74.48

Tt  459.83lb.

C D '  C DW  C D
pe

1.28a e
C D '  C DW 
S

1.28 3.8
C D '  C DW 
S

C D '  0.043

1 2
Ft  Tt  C D ' Vt S
2

1
Ft  459.83   0.043   0.002377  74.48  216
2

2

Ft  398.59lb.

K
 FO  Ft 
FO

K
 414.55  398.59
414.55

K  0.038

Therefore,

SO 
 32.174 414.55  1  1  1 
ln 1  0.038  

 74.48 2  2,000  0.038  0.038 

1m
SO  426.75ft x
3.28ft

SO  130.11m

28
29
EFFECT OF WIND ON TAKE –OFF (UPWIND)

 V 
2

SW  SO 1   W   , for ground roll
  Vt  
Where:

Sw = ground run distance with wind


So = ground run in still air
Vw = wind speed
Vt = take-off velocity

tan 
tan '  , for S 50
 Vt cos  
1   
 V w 

LANDING RUN IN STILL AIR

50
S50 
tan  g


 Vg 2  Vs 2 
St  0.067 W  

  D g  D S  
30
VL
2
C 
S0  ln  D 
 C    CL L
2g    D  
  C L  L 
Dg
tan  g 
L

L = WcosӨg

cos Өg ≈ 1.0 for small value of Өg


50 W
S50 
Dg

S LTOTAL = S50 + St + SO

Where:

Өg = gliding angle (deg)


W = weight of aircraft (lb)
Dg = total drag at velocity Vg (lb)
Ds = total drag at velocity Vs (lb)
Vs = gliding speed (fps)
Vs = minimum or stalling speed (fps)
VL = minimum landing speed (fps)
(CD/CL) = lift to drag ratio corresponding to VL

Example:

In still air, what is the landing run for an airplane equipped with brakes on a concrete runway, if its
minimum speed of 62 mph and if the (L/D) at the angle of maximum CL is 8.6?

GIVEN:

μ = 0.50
VL = 62 mph = 90.93 fps
(L/D)L = 8.6

Req’d:

So = ?

Solution:

VL
2
C 
S0  ln  D 
 C    CL L
2g    D  
  C L  L 

(90.93) 2
  1 
  1  ln (0.5)  
(2)(32.174) 0.5     8 .6 
  8 .6 

So = 488.43ft = 148.93m
31
Problems:

1. In still air, an airplane can climb at an angle of 5 o at an airspeed of 60mph. (a) What is its angle
of climb against a 25 mph wind? (b) What is its angle of climb if it takes off downwind?
Ans.  a   '  8.6 0  b   '  3.28 0
2. In still air, an airplane can climb at angle of climb of 7.3o at an airspeed of 95 miles per hour. If
the wheels leave the ground 800ft. away from high, tension wires which are 125ft above the
ground, by what vertical distance are the wires cleared. (a) instill air, (b) in a 25 miles per hour
against the wind? Ans.  a  - 22.5ft  b  14.5ft

3. An airplane weighing 25, 000 lb. with 987 ft2 of wing area, is equipped with brakes and lands on
a concrete runway, within a speed of 75mph. It rolls along at an angle of attack for which CL
= 0.5 and CD = 0.13. What is the landing run on smooth concrete with brakes?
Ans. So = 404 ft

4. In still air, what is the landing run of an airplane equipped with brakes on a concrete runway, if it
is landed at its minimum speed of 71 mph and the (L/D)L is 7.8?
Ans. So = 616 ft

BREGUET’S FORMULAS FOR RANGE AND ENDURANCE

PROPELLER –DRIVEN AIRPLANES

RANGE
Range is the horizontal distance traveled by the aircraft.

   C   W 
R(miles) = 375 P  L  ln 0 
 BSFC  C D   W1 

Where: P = propeller efficiency


BSFC = brake specific fuel consumption (the amount of fuel per hour used for each
brake horsepower ) in lb/ BHP – hr.
Wo = initial gross weight in lb
W1 = final aircraft weight in lb

Note: For best or maximum range, the flight speed should take place such that CL/CD is maximum. For a
parabotic drag polar equation, this condition implies in accordance with:
2
C
C D0  L
Ae

ENDURANCE

Endurance is the time that an aircraft can stay aloft,


 P  C L2 
3
 1 1 
E(hours)  778   
S 
 W

W0 
 BSFC  C D   1

Where: P = propeller efficiency


BSFC = brake specific fuel consumption in lb/BHP-hr.
Wo = initial gross weight in lb
W1 = final aircraft weight in lb
ρ = air density in slug /ft3
S = wing area in ft2

Note: For best or maximum endurance, CL3/2 / CD needs to be maximum. For the case of parabolic drag
polar equation, this condition implies in accordance with.
C L2
C DO 
Ae
32
Problems:

1. A cargo airplane has the following characteristics:


Initial gross weight = 30, 000lb
BSFC = 0.45lb / BHP –hr
CD = 0.02 + 0.05 CL2
ηp = 0.87
S = 300 ft2

Cruise altitude = 28, 000ft.

This airplane is to carry 3, 000 lb of supply and airdrop it at a distance 1, 500 miles away and return to
the original airport. Determine (a) the total amount of cruise fuel consumed, (b) the corresponding
flying time.

2. Determine the maximum range, maximum endurance (and speeds for best range and endurance at
10, 000ft) of the following airplane.

S = 200ft2
W = 10, 000lb
Maximum fuel = 4, 000lb
BSFC = 0.52 lb/ BHP-hr
ηp = 0.90

Power required characteristics being: (at 10, 000 lb. gross weight)

V, mph THP req’d

403 1350
350 92.5
300 600
250 400
200 250
175 215
150 200
140 205
130 220
125 240

3. An airplane has a lift-drag relation of CD = 0.015 + 0, 060CL2, weight is 20, 000lb., wing area is
200 square ft. If this airplane is propeller –driven, what are the equivalent speeds for best range and
endurance at 20, 000 lb. gross weight at sea level?
Ans. VR best  410fps VE best 310.99fps

TURNS

CENTRIPETAL FORCE

Centripetal force – the force which causes the body to accelerate inward in a turn. It is measured by
the mass times the acceleration.

In constant circular motion:

a=  2R

33
or,

V2
a
R
where:
a = acceleration
 = angular acceleration
V= linear velocity
R = radius of turn

therefore:
W V
C.F. 
G R

where:

g = gravitational acceleration (fps2)


W = weight of aircraft (lb)
V = airspeed (fps)
R = radius of turn (ft)

NOTE:

The centrifugal force of an airplane in a turn is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the
accelerating inward (centripetal) force.

BANKING

C.F.
tan  
W

W V2
g R
tan  
W
34

V2
tan  
gR

where:

V - is in feet per second


R - is in feet
g - is in feet per second squared

ΣFv = 0

Lcos β – W = 0

Lcos β - W

W
L
cos 

Problems

1. A plane of 3, 800 lb. Gross weight is turning at 175 miles per hour with an angle of bank of 50 o. (a)
What is the centrifugal force? (b) what is the lift (c) What would be the radius of turn?
Ans. (a) C.F. = 4,528.66 lb (b) L = 5,911.75 lb (c) R = 1,718.10 ft

2. An airplane is making a 40o banked of 565ft. radius. What should be the airspeed?
Ans. V = 123.50fps

MINIMUM SPEED IN TURNS

 W  2  1  1 

VS '     
 S    C L max  cos  

VS
VS ' 
cos 

where:

 W  2  1 

VS '    
 S    C L max 

PROBLEMS:

1. A cub has a minimum flying speed of 39.3 mph in straight level flight. Assuming unlimited
engine powers, what is the minimum speed (a) a 30o banked turn; (b) a 50o banked turn; (c) 70o
banked turn?
Ans.  a  VS '  42.23mph  b  VS '  49.02mph  c  VS '  67.20mph

2. An airplane with a loading of 18.2 lb/ft2 uses a wing section whose CL is 1.5; What is the
stalling speed in a 40o banked turn at standard sea level conditions?
Ans. VS '  115 .44mph

35
MINIMUM RADIUS AS DETERMINED BY WING LOADING

In banked at constant altitude, the lift must equal the vector sum of the weight acting
vertically downward and centrifugal force acting horizontally outward, i.e.

1 W
L  CL V 2S 
2 cos 

V 2  R tan 
1 W
CL V 2S g R tan  
2 cos 

W
R 
1
C L Sg sin 
2

W
R  S
1
C L g sin 
2

W
26.15
R  S
 C L sin 

Since, in a turn it is dangerous to stall, the most common rule for pilots is always to keep at
least 20 percent above stalling speed, this is the equivalent of saying that the angle of attack should be such
that the CL will not be greater than CLmax / (1.2). Since on examining most wings, the greatest CLmax to
be found is 1.6, the CL to be used in the above equation should be 1.6 / 1.44 or 1.11. When this value is
used and is recalled that the maximum possible value of sin β is unity (β = 90), the minimum radius
becomes

W
23.56
R S

Problem:

1. On the basis of wing loading, what is the maximum radius of (a) a curtiss P – 40. W/S = 31.2
lb/ft2., (b) a Grumman Wildcat, W/S = 23.5 lb/ft2 and (c) a Piper liason, W/S = 6.76 lb/ft2.?
Assumed standard sea level conditions.
Ans.  a  R  735.07'  b  R  553.66'  c  R  159.27'

TIME FOR 360O TURN

2T
t
V
but,
V2
R
g tan 

2V 2
t
g tan 

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LOAD FACTOR

Load factor (n) = the ratio of the lift force to the weight of the airplane.

L
n=
W

LOAD FACTOR IN HORIZONTAL TURNS

In horizontal turns, the wing is banked so that the lift force acts in an oblique direction from the
vertical. The vertical component causes the inward acceleration. The lift on the wing must be equal in
magnitude and opposite in direction to the sum of the weight and the centrifugal force. The load factor in a
horizontal turn is the ratio of this lift to the weight of the airplane.

2
 WV 2 
W 2   
 gR 
n
W

 V4 
n  1   2 2 
g R 

n = sec β

Problems

1. Airplane is making a turn 1/8 – mile radius at a speed of 225 mph. What is the load factor?
Ans. n = 5.23

V2
  Arc tan  78.97 2
gR

n  sec   5.23

2. Airplane is making turn of 300ft. radius at a speed of 240 mph. What is the load factor?
Ans. n = 12.88

  85.55o
n  12.88

DIVES AND PULL-OUTS

1
C Lmax SV 2
L 2
n 
W 1 2
C L max SVS
2

V2
n 2
VS

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Where:

V = the velocity when the airplane is pulled out of the dive into the high angle of attack
position.

Vs = stalling or landing speed.

DIVES AND PULL-OUTS


1
C L V 2S
L 2
n 
W C 1  V 2S
L S
2

V2
n 2
VS
Problem:

1. A Lockhead airplane whose landing speed is 72 mph is pulled out of a dive at 225 mph, what is the
laod factor? Ans. n = 9.77

2. A Northrop airplane whose stalling speed is 62 mph is pulled out of a dive at 200 mph. What is the
load factor? Ans. n = 10.41

LOAD FACTOR DUE TO GUSTS

 
 KUVm 
n  1  
 575 W  
  
  S 

where:
1

1  W 4 W
K   for  16 psi
2 S  S

 
 
2.67 W
K  1.33  for  16 psf
 W4 
3
S
 
 S 

U = normal gust velocity, ft/s


V = airplane speed, mph
m = slope of lift curve, per radian
CL
=
   0 
α0= angle of attack for zero lift

Problem:

1. An airplane weighing 2, 000 lb. has a wing area of 216ft 2. The wing has zero lift at -5o. For the
aspect ratio of the wing used CL = 1.19 at  = 12o. What is the load factor caused by a sharp –
edged 30ft/s gust when the airplane is flying at 60 mph at 10,000 ft altitude?
Ans. n = 2.95
38