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iounousse2012

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*Jawad Iounousse, Ahmed Farhi, Ahmed El motassadeq, Hassan Chehouani, Salah Erraki

Laboratoire des Procedes, Metrologie et Materiaux pour l'Energie et L'Environnement

Faculte des Sciences et Techniques

Marrakech, Morocco

iounousse@gmail.com, ahmedfarhi@gmail.com, motassadeq@gmail.com,

chehouani@fstg-marrakech.ac.ma, s.erraki@gmail.com

Abstract-Image classification is a very common step in image An alternative to the complex domain neural network for

analysis process. It is a low-level processing that precedes the step classification is the probabilistic neural network (PNN). PNN

of measuring, understanding and decision. Its purpose is image is an implementation of the Bayes optimal decision rule in the

partitioning into related and homogeneous regions in the sense of form of a neural network. Several recent studies [2] [3] [4] [5]

a homogeneity criterion. have been used it for classification. This technique provides

In this paper, we proposed a procedure to determine the

satisfactory results, but the user is obliged initially to define the

optimal number of classes in a grayscale image classification

classes. In this paper, we proposed an automation process for a

based on a Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN). The used

grayscale images classification to solve this problem and

procedure is completely automatic with no parameter adjusting.

The results on synthetic images show a high robustness and

choose the correct number of classes in the PNN training by

better performance. The results showed that PNN is a good using a validity index. This procedure is inspired by a method

technique for one-dimensional data classifying. [6] [7] used for automating the celebrated technique Fuzzy C

Means (FCM).

Keywords-image processing; classification; probabilistic neural II. DESCRIPTION OF PROBABILISTIC NEURAL NETWORK

network; automation; cluster validity index; grayscale (PNN)

I. INTRODUCTION nearest neighbor classifiers and named it as "Probabilistic

The classification is a concept which occurs frequently in Neural Network" (PNN)

[8]. It is often used for data

real life. So, it is desirable to combine the elements of a classification problems such as noise classification [2], the

heterogeneous group, in a limited number of homogeneous protein superfamily classification [3], ship classification [4],

classes as possible. Its application has an important role for the classification of highway vehicles [5] and others. PNN

resolving many problems in pattern recognition, imaging, color allows a supervised classification because the classes are listed

image segmentation, data mining and in different domains such in advance.

as medicine, biology, marketing, land use, etc.... The architecture of a PNN [9] is presented in (Fig. I).

We are talking about unsupervised classification or Input Layer 1 : Radial Basis Layer Layer 2 : Competitive Layer

clustering, when there is no information on the variables to be

\

processed; and supervised classification otherwise. In this

study, we developed a methodology for unsupervised

classification, which aims search for homogeneous groups in a

a'

multidimensional mixture where the number of groups is Kxl

c

unknown. The classification results obtained depend strongly

on the number of classes fixed. So it is important to choose the

correct number of classes for achievement a good quality of

R Q K

classification. This is not always easy, especially in the case of \....-/ \.

...

_________ __

� \.

...

------ -.1

overlapping clusters. a' radbas (1IWl,l. P II b')

= a' com pet (W'.l a')

=

= =

Reference [I] showed that classification is the most K number of classes of input data number of neurons in layer 2

= =

researched topic of neural networks and confirmed that neural R number of elements in input vector (pixels)

=

classification methods. The advantage of neural networks is

Figure l. Architecture of a PNN

that it uses self-adaptive methods to adjusting the data without

any explicit specification.

PNN is composed of two layers:

• 1st layer "Radial Basis Layer": When an input P is To make PNN automatic, we use the output of RBL which

presented, this layer computes the distances from the takes the form of a matrix of probabilities. This matrix will

target vectors representing the defined classes to the allow us, by analogy with the methodology used for FCM

training input vectors (the pixels of the image in our case) [6][7], to determine the target vector (classes) by calculating a

and produces a vector whose elements indicate how each validity index Yin with varying the number of classes N in a

class is close to the training set. This vector is multiplied, given interval. The optimal number of classes is obtained when

element by element, by the bias and then sent to the radial Yin reaches its maximum value.

basis transfer function. An input vector close to a target

vector is represented by a number close to 1 in the output A. choice of classes

vector al. In this paper, we noted this layer RBL. We started by choosing the number of classes N in the

• 2nd layer "Competitive Layer": This layer sums these range [Cmin, Cmax] (Fig. 2). We make a linear distribution of

contributions for each class of inputs to produce a vector the input data values in N classes while allowing a margin

of probabilities as a net output. Finally, a competitive between two classes of 2 sp and margin of 1 sp on the

transfer function on the output reaches the maximum of extremities as illustrated in (Fig. 3).

these probabilities, and produces 1 corresponding to the Minimum Maximum

value sp

largest element of nz, and Os elsewhere. sp value

�I I I I I I I ,

......, ..

It is assumed that there are Q input vector/target vector

".. 2 sp *- .¢-. - . - . - . - . - . - . - . - . - ¢.. 2 sp -t'- Input data

pairs. Each target vector has K elements. One of these elements 2 sp

values

Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class N-l Class N

is 1 and the rest are 0. Thus, each input vector is associated to

one of K classes because that specific class has the maximum

probabiI ity of being correct. Figure 3. Distribution of input data values in N classes

III. AUTOMATION PROCESS sp is the spread of radial basis transfer function of RBL.

The PNN have been widely used for classification. This The peak of the radial basis function is always at its center and

algorithm requires initially the target vectors, which is not spread sp varies depending on the number of classes N to avoid

evident to fmd. The choice of target classes and their number the risk of mutual influence between distant points following

should be without errors. An evaluation methodology IS the duplication:

required to determine and choose the optimal number of sp = (max - min) / N+ 1 (1)

clusters k *. This is called cluster validity index.

In order to approach closer to the dominant classes in the

The process to calculate the cluster validity index is input data, we used the histogram of the input image to move

summarized in the following steps: the classes Ci over the interval [Ci - sp, Ci + sp] by replacing

• Step 1: Selection of target classes from a number of them by the weighted mean (mi) of the input vector values

clusters k. belonging to this interval (Fig. 4). The mean weight mi is the

• Step 2: Apply the algorithm PNN for different values of

number of pixels associated with each interval value.

k with k 2,3, . . . , Cmax. (Cmax is set by the user).

= Pixel

number

• Step 3: Calculate the validity index for each partition

I

obtained in step 2. . I

.

� I

I I

I I

process.

I

I

I

I I

valuei I

sp

. :

I

Input data

2sp 2sp _ . _ . _ . _ . _. _. _. _ . 25

Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class N-l 8 ass N value

Input data

B. Validity index computing

The classes displaced represent the target vectors of RBL.

At the output of this layer, it retrieves a probability matrix Uik

Figure 2. The automation procedure

which represents the membership of a pixel Xk to a class Ci.

The matrix is normalized in the interval [0, 1] with LUik 1. =

Then we compute the validity index Vin defined by the We tested our algorithm on a synthetic image Fig. 5-a

function (2) as follows: representing a gradient of eight levels of gray. In this case, we

(eN choose a number of classes N in the range [Cmin=3,

Vince, U, N) = bb

c. max (Uik) - (2) Cmax=10] to see if our algorithm goes to determine the exact

number of classes. Tab. [ summarized the obtained results.

The maximum validity index (0.969) corresponds to a

C: number of vectors to classify

number of classes of 8.

N: number of classes

U: normalized matrix membership outcome ofRBL TABLE I. VARIABILITY OF VALIDITY INDEX WITH NUMBER OF CLASSES

Max (U): the maximum value ofU associated to each pixel. It FOR A SYNTHETIC IMAGE (FIG. 5-A)

represents the closest class to the pixel.

Number of classes

By varying the number N of classes in a given interval Index Vin

[Cmin, Cmax], the maximum index Vin corresponds to the

optimal distribution ofN classes. The results displayed in (Tab. [ and Fig. 6-a) showed that

our method has recognized the eight existing classes in the

After determining the adequate number of class N, we

image.

perform a PNN classification using the obtained classes Cj as

PNN's target vector. Then we tested our method to the real image of a Moroccan

tile (zelij) (Fig. 5-b). This image appears to contain five levels

[v. RESULTS of gray. So, we choose a number of classes N in the range

Synthetic and real grayscale images (Fig. 5) were used for [Cmin=3, Cmax=8].

testing the developed method. The objective of these tests is to

The maximum validity index (0.882) is associated to a

show if the decision on the classes and their number works

number of classes of 5 (Tab. II and Fig. 6-b).

well for any types of grayscale distribution (simple, real and

complex images). TABLE II. VARIABILITY OF VALIDITY INDEX WITH NUMBER OF CLASSES

FOR A REAL IMAGE (FIG. 5-B)

Number of classes

Index Vin

distribution of grayscale (Fig. 5-c). The image contains a

mixture of three classes. The number of classes N is taken

between Cmin=2 and Cmax=8.

(a)

The obtained results showed that the maximum validity

index (0.823) corresponds to 3 classes (Tab. III).

FOR A REAL IMAGE WITH COMPLEX DISTRIBUTION OF GRAYSCALE (FIG. 5-c)

Number of classes

Index Vin

in (Tab. III and Fig. 6-c) demonstrate the robustness of our

methodology in the distinction of classes and the choice of

adequate number for a complex distribution of grayscale.

(a)

c)

Figure 5. Grayscale images: (a) Synthetic image (b,c) Real images

(b)

image (b,c) Real images

in determining the number of classes using the same concept.

Figure 6. Classified images using our method: (a) Synthetic image (b,c) Real

transform the supervised PNN classification to unsupervised

images one by determining the adequate number of classes using a

validity index.

To show more the robustness and performance of our

We tested our method on different synthetic and real

method, we compared it with the automatic method FCM using

grayscale images. We compared it with automatic FCM

the same images. The following figures show the weaknesses

method using the same concept to detect the number of classes.

of the FCM method compared to ours:

The results showed that it proves to be a good and reliable

technique for one-dimensional data classifying especially when

the number of classes is unknown. Some of the advantages of

our algorithm are that it needs only the interval [Cmin, Cmax]

2

to be configured and that PNN training is easy and

instantaneous of course.

classification methods, we proceed by a preliminary filtering

before using our method.

(a) Finally, it should be noted that the method was only tested

for synthetic and real images. Further study including satellite

images with different spatial resolutions is desirable for testing

the proposed technique in order to get an unsupervised land

cover classification.

REFERENCES

Transaction on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics- Part C: Applications

and Reviews, Vol. 30, No.4, November 2000.

solutionfor noise classification," Journal of Theoretical and Applied

(b) Information Technology. JATIT, vol. 27 No. 1, May 2011, pp. 39-42.

[3] PV. Nageswara Rao,T. Uma Devi, DSGVK Kaladhar, GR. Sridhar and

Allam Appa Rao, "A Probabilistic neural network approach for protein

superfamily classification," Journal of Theoretical and Applied

Information Technology. .fATIT, vol. 6 No.1, 2009, pp 101-105.

[4] L. Fallah Araghi, H. Khaloozade and M. Reza Arvan, "Ship [7] Sahbani Mahersia, H., Hamrouni, K., Segmentation d'images texturees

Identification using Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN)," Proceedings par transformee en ondelettes et classification C-moyenne floue. SETIT

of the International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Tunisie, Mars 2005.

Scientists 2009 Vol II, IMECS 2009,March 18 - 20,2009, Hong Kong. [8] D.F. Specht, "Probabilistic neural networks," Neural Networks, vol. 3,

[5] V. Kwigizile, M. Selekwa and R. Mussa, "Highway Vehicle no. I, pp. 109-118,1990.

Classification by Probabilistic Neural Networks," Proceedings of the

[9] P.O. Wasserman, Advanced Methods in Neural Computing, New York:

Seventeenth International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993, pp. 35-55.

Society Conference, FLAIRS 2004,May 12-14,2004,Miami Florida.

[6] Weina Wang, Yunjie Zhang, "On fuzzy cluster validity indices," Fuzzy

sets and systems 158 (2007), pp. 2095- 2117.

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