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# This part deals with the design of slabs with openings using the strip method.

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* Openings that can be inscribed in a square with side equal to 0.2 times the
smallest span in the slab
Openings of any size may be permitted as long as it can be shown by analysis that
the strength of the slab is at least equal to that required and that all serviceability
conditions (i.e., cracking and deflection limits) are met.

The strip method offers a rational and safe basis for design of slabs with large
opening. In the method, specially reinforced integral beams, or strong bands, of
depth equal to the slab depth are used to frame the openings. The support bands are
either assumed to be supported at the edges of the slab, or alternatively, to be
supported by support bands in the perpendicular direction.

In analysis, the support bands are assumed to have zero width and to be situated
exactly along the edges of the opening. In practice, the design moments in the
support band are distributed over a certain width within a reasonable distance from
the edge, e.g, within one-third of the distance to the nearest parallel slab support, or
such that the reinforcement ratios are at or below the value required to produced a
tension-controlled member (i.e. to ensure ductile behaviour of the slab).

There should always be at least one bottom and one top bar along each edge of an
opening
p g in order to control cracking,
g pparticularlyy at the corners.
Slab with fixed edges:

The load can be carried on cantilevers from the edges. Support band is shown along
the lower edge of the opening, to take care of the reaction from the triangular
element on the width of the opening.
Figure shows a 4.8 m x 8.4 m with fixed supports along all four sides. A central
opening 1.2 m x 2.4 m is to be accommodated. The slab is to carry uniform
distributed factored load of 15 kN/m2, including self-weight.
Consider a ratio of support to span moments of 2.0.

## Strip A-A (cantilever*):

•Support moment mys = 15 x 1.52 / 2 = 16.875 kNm/m
* consideration of strip as a propped cantileveris not possible as it would result in a negative reaction
on strip D-D

St i B-B
Strip B B (supported
( t d on slab
l b edge
d andd strE-E:
tEE
•Consider the restraint moment at the supported edge mxs to be the same as the basic case (i.e., the
slab without the opening), and use a ratio of support to span moments of 2.0, i.e., mxs = (2/3) x !5 x
1.22/2 = 7.2 kNm/m
•Uplift reaction at right end, w2 = (15 x 1.2 x 0.6 – 7.2)/(0.6 2.7) = 2.22 kN/m2
•Max. positive moment = 2.08 kNm/m

Strip C-C:
•moments and reacion provided by strip E-E, are all one-half the corresponding values for strip B-B

Strip D-D:
The 0.3-m wide strip carries 15 kN/m2 in the X-direction with reactions provided by the strong bands
E-E.
•Max positive moment,
•Max. moment msf = 30 x 00.6
6 x 11.5
5 – 15 x 11.2
2 x 00.6
6 = 16.2
16 2 kNm/m
Strip E-E:
Free-bending moment: m = 63.6 kNm/m
•Support (-ve) moment = (2/3) m = 42.4 kNm/m
•Mid-span (+ve) moment = (1/3) m = 21.2 kNm/m

Strip F-F:
Free-bending moment: m = 43.2 kNm/m
•Support (-ve) moment = (2/3) m = 28.8 kNm/m
•Mid-span (+ve) moment = (1/3) m = 14.4 kNm/m

Strip G-G:
Free-bending moment: m = 5.4 kNm/m
•Support (-ve) moment = (2/3) m = 3.6 kNm/m
•Mid-span (+ve) moment = (1/3) m = 1.8 kNm/m
The final distribution of moments across the negative and positive critical sections
of the slab is as shown.

It should be noted that strips B-B, C-C and D-D have been designed as if they were
simply supported at the strong band E-E. To avoid undesirably wide cracks where
these strips pass over the strong band, nominal negative reinforcement should be
added in this region. Positive bars should be extended fully into the strong bands.