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Grp No.

___ Grp Name ____________________ Grp


members______________________________________________
PS2 Section ___ Date performed: _______________________ Date Submitted:
_______________________________

Basic Electric Circuits

I. Prelaboratory Activity
1. What is the difference between a series and a parallel circuit? Construct a circuit diagram for a series and
parallel circuits.
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2. Consider three resistors connected in series. What is the total resistance of the circuit?
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3. If the three resistors are connected in parallel, what is the total resistance of the circuit?
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4. How are the voltage drops across individual resistors related to the total voltage drop in a series circuit?
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5. How is the total voltage drop in a series circuit related to the input voltage?
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6. How does the current in the branches of a parallel circuit relate to the total current in the circuit?
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49 PS2 Introductory Physics 1 Laboratory Experiment


Circuits
Grp No. ___ Grp Name ____________________ Grp
members______________________________________________
PS2 Section ___ Date performed: _______________________ Date Submitted:
_______________________________

Basic Electric Circuits

7. How does the voltage drop across each branch of a parallel circuit relate to the voltage drop across the entire
circuit?
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8. What happens to the effective resistance of a circuit when additional resistors are added in parallel with
resistors already present? Why?
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II. Laboratory Experiment
What you need:
1 3-Volt DC source,
1 Digital Multi-meter (DMMM)
1 Switch,
8 Alligator clip leads,
2 Banana plug patch cords,
2 Banana plug to alligator clip adapters,
1 Set of three resistors R1, R2 and R3 mounted on phenolic.

ACTIVITY A. Resistors in Series


What to do:
1. Check that the multimeter is set to read DC volts within the range of 3V DC. Measure the voltage of your
battery or power supply using the digital multimeter. Record this value.
2. Construct the following circuit.
R1
a b

3V DC
Source

Figure 1

50 PS2 Introductory Physics 1 Laboratory Experiment


Circuits
Grp No. ___ Grp Name ____________________ Grp
members______________________________________________
PS2 Section ___ Date performed: _______________________ Date Submitted:
_______________________________

Basic Electric Circuits

3. Connect the digital multimeter (configured for voltage) to the circuit across the resistor as shown in Figure
2. Record the voltage reading as Vefff (Effective Voltage).
R1
a b

3V DC
Battery V

Figure 2

4. Change the setting of your digital multimeter to current reading and connect it the circuit as shown in
Figure 3. Record the current flowing in the circuit as Ieff

R1
a b
A
3V DC
Battery

Figure 3

5. Obtain a second resistor and insert it in the circuit as shown in Figure 4. Record the current I eff flowing in
the circuit.
R1 R2 a b
A
3V DC
Battery

Figure 4

6. Change the setting of your digital mutimeter to voltage reading. Connect to the circuit at position V 1 to
measure the voltage drop across the resistor R 1 as shown in Figure 5. Record the voltage. Transfer the
multimeter to position V2 and repeat the measurement.
R1 R2
a b
3V DC
Battery V1 V2

51 Figure 5 PS2 Introductory Physics 1 Laboratory Experiment


Circuits
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members______________________________________________
PS2 Section ___ Date performed: _______________________ Date Submitted:
_______________________________

Basic Electric Circuits

7. Connect the digital multimeter to the circuit across both the resistors R 1 and R2 as shown in Figure 5.
Record the voltage Veffl.
8. Add the third resistor to the circuit in series and measure:
 The voltage drop across each resistor similar to procedure 6.
 The voltage Veff drop across all three resistors.
 The current flow through the circuit by performing similar procedures to those in step 5.
ACTIVITY B. Resistors in Parallel
What to do:
1. Construct the circuit with two resistors in parallel as shown in Figure 7. Insert the multimeter, (set for
current reading), into the circuit as indicated at position A 1. Record the current. Repeat the process with
the multimeter in positions A2 and A3.
R1 a b
A1 A3
3V DC
Battery
A2
R2

Figure 7

2. Set the digital multimeter for voltage reading and placed it, across the resistor as indicated in Figure 8.
Record the voltage. Place the digital multimeter across R2 and record your reading.

V1
a b
R1
3V DC
Battery
R2

Figure 8

52 PS2 Introductory Physics 1 Laboratory Experiment


Circuits
Grp No. ___ Grp Name ____________________ Grp
members______________________________________________
PS2 Section ___ Date performed: _______________________ Date Submitted:
_______________________________

Basic Electric Circuits

3. Construct the circuit with three resistors in parallel as shown in Figure 9. Change the setting of the digital
multimeter for current reading and connect it into the circuit at position A 1. Record the current. Repeat
the process with the multimeter in positions A2, A3, and A4.

A1
R1 a b
A2 A4
3V DC R2
battery A3
R3

Figure 9

4. Place the multimeter, set for voltage reading, across the resistor as indicated in Figure 10. Throw the
switch and record the voltage. Repeat the process with the multimeter in position across resistor R 2 and
resistor R3.
V1

R1

R2
3V DC
source
R3

Figure 10

53 PS2 Introductory Physics 1 Laboratory Experiment


Circuits
Grp No. ___ Grp Name ____________________ Grp
members______________________________________________
PS2 Section ___ Date performed: _______________________ Date Submitted:
_______________________________

Basic Electric Circuits

DATA SHEET

ACTIVITY A. Resistors in Series


Results and Calculations: Use the values of Veff and Ieff to compute for Rexpt'l. Use the nominal values of the
resistors to compute for the Rtheo.
1.Data Tables
Table A-I. Resistance of a Series Circuit

Steps Veff (V) Ieff (A) Rexpt'l () Rtheo () % Error
3,4
5,7
8

Table A-II. Voltage Across Resistors in Series


Steps V1 V2 V3 Vtotal of expt’l Vtotal of theo % Error
6.7 N.A.
8

ACTIVITY B. Resistors in Parallel


1.Data Tables
Table B-I. Resistance of a Parallel Circuit

Steps Veff (V) Ieff (A) Rexpt’l () Rtheo () % Error
1,2
3,4

Table B-II. Current through Resistors in Parallel

Steps I1 I2 I3 Itotal of expt’l Itotal of theo % Error


1 N.A.
3

COMPUTATION

54 PS2 Introductory Physics 1 Laboratory Experiment


Circuits