Damage plasticity model of concrete

© All Rights Reserved

1 (de) vizualizări

A Damage-plasticity Approach to Modelling the Failure of Concrete

Damage plasticity model of concrete

© All Rights Reserved

- Capping Beam Design 1
- tension test on hot rolled plain steel bar (ASTM-A615/615-M)
- BEHAVIOUR OF BUILT – UP COLD FORMED STEEL SECTIONS
- Mechanics of Materials lecture notes
- Plastic Data for 7075_Sciecedirect
- Evaluation Libre
- Funda-SM
- Full Text
- muh-29-6-4-0506-7 (1)
- Lecture 9
- Presentation Lecture 1
- AMIE Syllabus
- Paper 519
- VSN & SNIPS Wall Thickness10-Inch Gas Reinjection 95C
- 1-s2.0-S0141029607003239-main
- Elastic Settlement Calculation
- Exta Class Ppt
- 4102- Chap 9 Creep Notes.pdf
- wer
- Part 1_Constitutive Models

Sunteți pe pagina 1din 12

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijsolstr

of concrete

Peter Grassl a,⇑, Dimitrios Xenos a, Ulrika Nyström b, Rasmus Rempling b, Kent Gylltoft b

a

School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK

b

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: A constitutive model based on the combination of damage mechanics and plasticity is developed to ana-

Received 20 August 2012 lyse the failure of concrete structures. The aim is to obtain a model, which describes the important char-

Received in revised form 22 June 2013 acteristics of the failure process of concrete subjected to multiaxial loading. This is achieved by

Available online 31 July 2013

combining an effective stress based plasticity model with a damage model based on plastic and elastic

strain measures. The model response in tension, uni-, bi- and triaxial compression is compared to exper-

Keywords: imental results. The model describes well the increase in strength and displacement capacity for increas-

Concrete

ing conﬁnement levels. Furthermore, the model is applied to the structural analyses of tensile and

Constitutive model

Plasticity

compressive failure.

Damage mechanics Ó 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Fracture

Mesh dependence

1. Introduction elastic and plastic parts represents realistically the observed defor-

mations in conﬁned compression, so that unloading and path-

Concrete is a strongly heterogeneous material, which exhibits a dependency can be described well. However, plasticity models

complex nonlinear mechanical behaviour. Failure in tension and are not able to describe the reduction of the unloading stiffness

low conﬁned compression is characterised by softening which is that is observed in experiments. Conversely, damage mechanics

deﬁned as decreasing stress with increasing deformations. This models are based on the concept of a gradual reduction of the elas-

softening response is accompanied by a reduction of the unloading tic stiffness (Kachanov, 1980; Mazars, 1984; Ortiz, 1985; Resende,

stiffness of concrete, and irreversible (permanent) deformations, 1987; Mazars and Pijaudier-Cabot, 1989; Carol et al., 2001; Tao and

which are localised in narrow zones often called cracks or shear Phillips, 2005; Voyiadjis and Kattan, 2009). For strain-based isotro-

bands. On the other hand, the behaviour of concrete subjected to pic damage mechanics models, the stress evaluation procedure is

high conﬁned compression is characterised by a ductile hardening explicit, which allows for a direct determination of the stress state,

response; that is, increasing stress with increasing deformations. without an iterative calculation procedure. Furthermore, the stiff-

These phenomena should be considered in a constitutive model ness degradation in tensile and low conﬁned compressive loading

for analysing the multiaxial behaviour of concrete structures. observed in experiments can be described. However, isotropic

There are many constitutive models for the nonlinear response damage mechanics models are often unable to describe irreversible

of concrete proposed in the literature. Commonly used frameworks deformations observed in experiments and are mainly limited to

are plasticity, damage mechanics and combinations of plasticity tensile and low conﬁned compression stress states. On the other

and damage mechanics. Stress-based plasticity models are useful hand, combinations of isotropic damage and plasticity are widely

for the modelling of concrete subjected to triaxial stress states, used for modelling both tensile and compressive failure and many

since the yield surface corresponds at a certain stage of hardening different models have been proposed in the literature (Ju, 1989;

to the strength envelope of concrete (Leon, 1935; Willam et al., Lee and Fenves, 1998; Jason et al., 2006; Grassl and Jirásek,

1974; Pramono and Willam, 1989; Etse and Willam, 1994; 2006a; Nguyen and Houlsby, 2008; Nguyen and Korsunsky,

Menétrey and Willam, 1995; Pivonka, 2001; Grassl et al., 2002; 2008; Voyiadjis et al., 2008; Grassl, 2009; Sánchez et al., 2011;

Papanikolaou and Kappos, 2007; Červenka and Papanikolaou, Valentini and Hofstetter, 2013).

2008; Folino and Etse, 2012). Furthermore, the strain split into One popular class of damage-plastic models relies on a combi-

nation of stress-based plasticity formulated in the effective

⇑ Corresponding author. Tel.: +44 141 330 5208; fax: +44 141 330 4907. (undamaged) stress space combined with a strain based damage

E-mail address: peter.grassl@glasgow.ac.uk (P. Grassl). model. The combined damage-plasticity model recently developed

0020-7683/$ - see front matter Ó 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2013.07.008

3806 P. Grassl et al. / International Journal of Solids and Structures 50 (2013) 3805–3816

p iþ and r pc ¼ hr p i , where h iþ and h i are positive and

called here Concrete Damage Plasticity Model 1 (CDPM1), is char- negative part operators, respectively, deﬁned as hxiþ ¼ max ð0; xÞ

acterised by a very good agreement with a wide range of experi- and hxi ¼ min ð0; xÞ. For instance, for a combined tensile and com-

mental results of concrete subjected to multiaxial stress states. pressive stress state with principal effective stress components

Furthermore, it has been used in structural analysis in combination r p ¼ ðr ; 0:2r ; 0:1r ÞT , the positive and negative principal stresses

with techniques to obtain mesh-independent results and has are r pt ¼ ð0; 0:2r ; 0:1r ÞT and r ; 0; 0ÞT , respectively.

pc ¼ ðr

shown to be robust (Grassl and Jirásek, 2006b; Valentini and Hof- The plasticity model is based on the effective stress, which is

stetter, 2013). However, CDPM1 is based on a single damage independent of damage. The model is described by the yield func-

parameter for both tension and compression. This is sufﬁcient for tion, the ﬂow rule, the evolution law for the hardening variable

monotonic loading with unloading, but is not suitable for model- and the loading–unloading conditions. The form of the yield func-

ling the transition from tensile to compressive failure realistically. tion is

When the model was proposed, this limitation was already noted

fp r ; jp ¼ F ðr

; qh1 ; qh2 Þ ð3Þ

and a generalisation to isotropic formulations with several damage

parameters was recommended. In the present work, CDPM1 is rev- where qh1 jp and qh2 jp are dimensionless functions controlling

isted to address this issue by proposing separate damage variables the evolution of the size and shape of the yield surface. The ﬂow

for tension and compression. The introduction of two isotropic rule is

damage variables for tension and compression was motivated by

@g

the work of Mazars (1984), Ortiz (1985) and Fichant et al. e_ p ¼ k_ p r ; jp ð4Þ

(1999). Secondly, in CDPM1, a perfect plastic response in the @r

nominal post-peak regime is assumed for the plasticity part and where e_ p is the rate of the plastic strain, k_ is the rate of the plastic

damage is determined by a function of the plastic strain. For the multiplier and g p is the plastic potential. The rate of the hardening

nonlocal version of CDPM1 presented in Grassl and Jirásek variable jp is related to the rate of the plastic strain by an evolution

(2006b), this perfect-plastic response resulted in mesh-dependent law. The loading–unloading conditions are

plastic strain proﬁles, although the overall load–displacement

response was mesh-independent. Already in Grassl and Jirásek fp 6 0; k_ P 0; _ p¼0

kf ð5Þ

(2006b), it was suggested that the plastic strain proﬁle could be A detailed description of the individual components of the plasticity

made mesh-independent by introducing hardening in the plastic- part of the model are discussed in Section 2.2.

ity model for the nominal post-peak regime. In the present model, The damage part of the model is described by the damage load-

the damage functions for tension and compression depend on both ing functions, loading unloading conditions and the evolution laws

plastic and elastic strain components. Furthermore, hardening is for damage variables for tension and compression. For tensile dam-

introduced in the nominal post-peak regime. With these exten- age, the main equations are

sions, the damage laws can be analytically related to chosen

stress-inelastic strain relations, which simpliﬁes the calibration fdt ¼ ~et ðr

Þ jdt ð6Þ

procedure. The extension to hardening is based on recent 1D dam-

age-plasticity model developments in Grassl (2009), which are fdt 6 0; j_ dt P 0; j_ dt fdt ¼ 0 ð7Þ

here for the ﬁrst time applied to a 3D model. The present dam-

age-plasticity model for concrete failure is an augmentation of

xt ¼ g dt ðjdt ; jdt1 ; jdt2 Þ ð8Þ

CDPM1. Therefore, the model is called here CDPM2. The aim of this For compression, they are

article is to present in detail the new phenomenological model and

to demonstrate that this model is capable of describing the inﬂu-

fdc ¼ ac ~ec ðr

Þ jdc ð9Þ

ence of conﬁnement on strength and displacement capacity, the

presence of irreversible displacements and the reduction of

fdc 6 0; j_ dc P 0; j_ dc fdc ¼ 0 ð10Þ

unloading stiffness, and the transition from tensile to compressive

failure realistically. Furthermore, it will be shown, by analysing

xc ¼ g dc ðjdc ; jdc1 ; jdc2 Þ ð11Þ

structural tests, that CDPM2 is able to describe concrete failure Here, fdt and fdc are the loading functions, ~et ðr Þ and ~ec ðr

Þ are the

mesh independently. equivalent strains and jdt ; jdt1 ; jdt2 ; jdc ; jdc1 and jdc2 are dam-

age history variables. Furthermore, ac is a variable that distin-

2. Damage-plasticity constitutive model guishes between tensile and compressive loading. A detailed

description of the variables is given in Section 2.3.

2.1. General framework

2.2. Plasticity part

The damage plasticity constitutive model is based on the fol-

lowing stress–strain relationship: The plasticity part of the model is formulated in a three-dimen-

sional framework with a pressure-sensitive yield surface, harden-

r ¼ ð1 xt Þr t þ ð1 xc Þr c ð1Þ ing and non-associated ﬂow. The main components are the yield

function, the ﬂow rule, the hardening law and the evolution law

where r t and r

c are the positive and negative parts of the effective

for the hardening variable.

stress tensor r , respectively, and xt and xc are two scalar damage

variables, ranging from 0 (undamaged) to 1 (fully damaged). The

2.2.1. Yield function

effective stress r is deﬁned as

The yield surface is described in terms of the cylindrical coordi-

r ¼ De : e ep ð2Þ nates in the principal effective stress space (Haigh–Westergaard

coordinates), which are the volumetric effective stress

where De is the elastic stiffness tensor based on the elastic Young’s

I1

modulus E and Poisson’s ratio m; e is the strain tensor and ep is the r V ¼ ð12Þ

plastic strain tensor. The positive and negative parts of the effective 3

stress r

in (1) are determined from the principal effective stress r p the norm of the deviatoric effective stress

P. Grassl et al. / International Journal of Solids and Structures 50 (2013) 3805–3816 3807

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

q ¼ 2J2 ð13Þ

and the Lode angle

pﬃﬃﬃ !

h ¼ 1 arccos 3 3 J3 ð14Þ

3 2 J 3=2

2

:d¼r

I1 ¼ r ij dij ð15Þ

of the effective stress tensor r

, and the second and third invariants

1 1 1

J2 ¼ s : s ¼ s2 : d ¼ sijsij ð16Þ

2 2 2

1 3 1

J 3 ¼ s : d ¼ sijsjkski ð17Þ

3 3

of the deviatoric effective stress tensor s ¼ r

dI1 =3. Fig. 2. The evolution of the deviatoric section of the yield surface during hardening

The yield function for a constant volumetric stress of r

V ¼ fc =3.

8 !2 rﬃﬃﬃ 92

< q r

V 3q=

fp ðr ; h; jp Þ ¼

V; q 1 qh1 ðjp Þ pﬃﬃﬃ þ þ

: 6fc fc 2 fc ; the two variables qh1 and qh2 in (18) are set equal to one and the

" # resulting yield function is set equal to zero, the failure surface

2 q r V " #

þ m0 qh1 ðjp Þqh2 ðjp Þ pﬃﬃﬃ rðcos hÞ þ

6fc fc 3q2 q r V

þ m0 p ﬃﬃﬃ rðcos hÞ þ 1¼0 ð21Þ

2 fc2 6fc fc

q2h1 ðjp Þq2h2 ðjp Þ ð18Þ

is obtained, which was originally proposed by Menétrey and

depends on the effective stress (which enters in the form of cylin-

Willam (1995).

drical coordinates) and on the hardening variable jp (which enters

through the dimensionless variables qh1 and qh2 ). Parameter fc is the

2.2.2. Flow rule

uniaxial compressive strength. For qh2 ¼ 1, the yield function is

In the present model, the ﬂow rule in (4) is non-associated,

identical to the one of CDPM1.

which means that the yield function fp and the plastic potential

The meridians of the yield surface fp ¼ 0 are parabolic, and the

g p do not coincide and, therefore, the direction of the plastic ﬂow

deviatoric sections change from triangular shapes at low conﬁne-

@g p =@ r

is not normal to the yield surface. The plastic potential is

ment to almost circular shapes at high conﬁnement. The shape of

given as

the deviatoric section is controlled by the function

8 !2 rﬃﬃﬃ 92

4ð1 e2 Þ cos 2 h þ ð2e 1Þ2 < q rV 3q=

rðcos hÞ ¼ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ g p ðr ; jp Þ ¼

V; q 1 qh1 ðjp Þ pﬃﬃﬃ þ þ

2ð1 e2 Þ cos h þ ð2e 1Þ 4ð1 e2 Þ cos 2 h þ 5e2 4e : 6fc fc 2 fc ;

!

ð19Þ m0 q mg ðr V ; jp Þ

þ q2h1 ðjp Þ pﬃﬃﬃ þ ð22Þ

proposed by Willam et al. (1974). The calibration of the eccentricity 6fc fc

parameter e is described in Jirásek and Bažant (2002) and in Sec-

where

tion 5. The friction parameter m0 is given by

r V qh2 ðjp Þft =3

3 fc2 ft2 e mg ðr

V ; jp Þ ¼ Ag jp Bg jp fc exp ð23Þ

m0 ¼ ð20Þ Bg jp fc

fc ft eþ1

is a variable controlling

the ratio

of volumetric and deviatoric plas-

where ft is the tensile strength. The shape and evolution of the yield

tic ﬂow. Here, Ag jp and Bg jp , which depend on qh2 ðjp Þ, are de-

surface is controlled by the variables qh1 and qh2 (Figs. 1 and 2). If

rived from assumptions on the plastic ﬂow in uniaxial tension and

compression in the post-peak regime.

The derivation of these two variables is illustrated in the follow-

@g

ing paragraphs. Here, the notation m @rp is introduced. In the

principal stress space, the plastic ﬂow tensor m has three compo-

nents, m1 ; m2 and m3 associated with the three principal stress

components. The ﬂow rule (4) is split into a volumetric and a devi-

atoric part, i.e., the gradient of the plastic potential is decomposed

as

@g @g @ r V @g @ q

m¼ ¼ þ ð24Þ

@r

@r V @r

@q

@r

Taking into account that @ r ¼ d=3 and @ q

V =@ r ¼ s=q

=@ r , restricting

attention to the post-peak regime (in which qh1 ¼ 1) and differenti-

ating the plastic potential (22), we rewrite Eq. (24) as

!

@g @mg d 3 m0 s

m¼ ¼ þ þ pﬃﬃﬃ ð25Þ

Fig. 1. The evolution of the meridional section of the yield surface during @r

@r V 3f c fc 6q fc

hardening.

3808 P. Grassl et al. / International Journal of Solids and Structures 50 (2013) 3805–3816

cate that the strains perpendicular to the loading direction are elas-

tic in the softening regime. Thus, the plastic strain rate in these

directions should be equal to zero (m2 ¼ m3 ¼ 0). Under uniaxial

tension, the effective stress state in the post-peak regime is charac-

terised by r 1 ¼ ft qh2 ; r

2 ¼ r

3 ¼ 0; r

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

V ¼ ft qh2 =3, s1 ¼ 2f t qh2 =3;

s2 ¼ s3 ¼ ft qh2 =3 and q ¼ 2=3ft qh2 . Substituting this into (25)

and enforcing the condition m2 ¼ m3 ¼ 0, we obtain an equation

from which

@mg 3f t qh2 m0

¼ þ ð26Þ

V r

@r fc 2

V ¼ft qh2 =3

observed in the softening regime. Thus, the inelastic lateral strains

are positive while the inelastic axial strain is negative. In the Fig. 3. The two hardening laws qh1 (solid line) and qh2 (dashed line).

between lateral and axial plastic strain rates in the softening regime

is assumed. The effective stress state at the end of hardening under

sets the rate of the hardening variable equal to the norm of the plas-

uniaxial compression is characterised by r 1 ¼ fc qh2 ;

tic strain rate scaled by a hardening ductility measure

r 2 ¼prﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

3 ¼ 0; r V ¼ fc qh2 =3, s1 ¼ 2f c qh2 =3; s2 ¼ s3 ¼ fc qh2 =3 and

q ¼ 2=3fc qh2 . Substituting this into (25) and enforcing the condi- Ah ðAh Bh Þ exp ðRh ðr V Þ=C h Þ if Rh ðr

VÞ P 0

xh ðr

VÞ ¼

tion m2 ¼ m3 ¼ Df m1 , we get an equation from which Eh expðRh ðr

V Þ=F h Þ þ Dh if Rh ðr

VÞ < 0

@mg 2Df 1 m0 ð33Þ

¼ 3qh2 þ ð27Þ

V r

@r Df þ 1 2

V ¼fc qh2 =3 For pure volumetric stress states,

h in (32) is set to zero. The depen-

Substituting the speciﬁc expression for @mg =@ r

V constructed by dif- dence of the scaling factor xh on the volumetric stress r V is con-

ferentiation of (23) into (26) and (27), we obtain two equations structed such that the model response is more ductile under

from which parameters compression. The variable

3f t qh2 m0 r V 1

Ag ¼ þ ð28Þ Rh ðr

VÞ ¼ ð34Þ

fc 2 fc 3

ðqh2 =3Þð1 þ ft =fc Þ is a linear function of the volumetric effective stress. Model param-

Bg ¼ ð29Þ

ln Ag ln ð2Df 1Þ ln ð3qh2 þ m0 =2Þ þ ln ðDf þ 1Þ eters Ah ; Bh ; C h and Dh are calibrated from the values of strain at

can be computed. The gradient of the dilation variable mg in (23) peak stress under uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression and triax-

decreases with increasing conﬁnement. The limit r V ! 1 corre- ial compression, whereas the parameters Eh and F h are determined

sponds to purely deviatoric ﬂow. As in CDPM1, the plastic potential from the conditions of a smooth transition between the two parts of

does not depend on the third Haigh–Westergaard coordinate (Lode Eq. (33) at Rh ¼ 0:

angle

h), which increases the efﬁciency of the implementation and

Eh ¼ Bh Dh ð35Þ

the robustness of the model.

ðBh Dh ÞC h

Fh ¼ ð36Þ

2.2.3. Hardening law Ah Bh

The dimensionless variables qh1 and qh2 that appear in (18), (22) This deﬁnition of the hardening variable is identical to the one in

and (23) are functions of the hardening variable jp . They control CDPM1 described in Grassl and Jirásek (2006a), where the calibra-

the evolution of the size and shape of the yield surface and plastic tion procedure for this part of the model is described.

potential. The ﬁrst hardening law qh1 is

( 2.3. Damage part

qh0 þ ð1 qh0 Þ j3p 3j2p þ 3jp Hp j3p 3j2p þ 2jp if jp < 1

qh1 ðjp Þ ¼

1 if jp P 1 Damage is initiated when the maximum equivalent strain in the

ð30Þ history of the material reaches the threshold e0 ¼ ft =E. For uniaxial

The second hardening law qh2 is given by tension only, the equivalent strain could be chosen as ~e ¼ r t =E,

where r t is the effective uniaxial tensile stress. Thus, damage

1 if jp < 1 initiation would be linked to the axial elastic strain. However, for

qh2 ðjp Þ ¼ ð31Þ

1 þ Hp ðjp 1Þ if jp P 1 general triaxial stress states a more advanced equivalent strain

expression is required, which predicts damage initiation when

The initial inclination of the hardening curve qh1 at jp ¼ 0 is posi-

the strength envelope is reached. This expression is determined

tive and ﬁnite, and the inclinations of qh1 on the left of jp ¼ 1 and

from the yield surface (fp ¼ 0) by setting qh1 ¼ 1 and qh2 ¼ ~e=e0 .

qh2 on the right of jp ¼ 1 are equal to Hp , as depicted in Fig. 3.

From this quadratic equation for ~e, the equivalent strain is

For Hp ¼ 0, the hardening law reduces to the one proposed in Grassl

determined as

and Jirásek (2006a). !

~e ¼

e0 m0 q r V

pﬃﬃﬃ r ðcos hÞ þ

2.2.4. Hardening variable 2 6fc fc

The evolution law for the hardening variable, vﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

!2 ﬃ

u

ue2 m2 q

r 3 e q

2 2

_ þ t 0 0 pﬃﬃﬃ r ðcos hÞ þ

V

ke_p k 2 kkmk 2 þ 02 ð37Þ

j_ p ¼ 2 cos h ¼ 2 cos h ð32Þ 4 6fc fc 2fc

xh ð r

VÞ xh ð r

VÞ

P. Grassl et al. / International Journal of Solids and Structures 50 (2013) 3805–3816 3809

r 1 ¼ p

r tﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

; r 2 ¼ r 3 ¼ 0; r

V ¼ r

t =3; s1 ¼ 2r

t =3; s2 ¼ s3 ¼ r

t =3;

q ¼ 2=3r t and rðcos hÞ ¼ 1=e. Setting this into (37) and using the

deﬁnition of m0 in (20) gives

r t

~e ¼ e0 ¼r

t =E ð38Þ

ft

which is suitable equivalent strain for modelling tensile failure. For

uniaxial compression, the effective stress state is deﬁned as

r 1 ¼ p

r c; r

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2 ¼ r 3 ¼ 0; r

V ¼ r

c =3; s1 ¼ 2=3r c ; s2 ¼ s3 ¼ 1=3r

c;

q ¼ 2=3r c , and rðcos hÞ ¼ 1. Here, r c is the magnitude of the

effective compressive stress. Setting this into (37), the equivalent

strain is

~e ¼

r c e0 r c ft

¼ ð39Þ

fc Efc

If r

c ¼ ðfc =ft Þr

t , the equivalent strain is again equal to the axial

elastic strain component in uniaxial tension. Consequently, the

equivalent strain deﬁnition in (37) is suitable for both tension and

compression, which is very convenient for relating the damage

variables in tension and compression to stress-inelastic strain Fig. 4. Geometrical meaning of the inelastic strain ei for the combined damage-

curves. plasticity model. The inelastic strain is composed of reversible xðe ep Þ and

irreversible ep parts. The dashed lines represent elastic unloading with the same

The damage variables xt and xc in (1) are determined so that a

stiffness as the initial elastic loading.

prescribed stress-inelastic strain relation in uniaxial tension is

obtained. Since, the damage variables are evaluated for general ~e_ t ¼ ~e_ ð43Þ

triaxial stress states, the inelastic strain in uniaxial tension has to

be expressed by suitable scalar history variables, which are with ~e given in (37). For jdt1 , the inelastic strain component related

obtained from total and plastic strain components. To illustrate the plastic strain ep is replaced by

(

the choice of these components, a 1D damage-plastic stress–strain 1

ke_ p k if j_ dt > 0 and jdt > e0

xs

law of the form j_ dt1 ¼ ð44Þ

0 if j_ dt ¼ 0 or jdt < e0

r ¼ ð1 xÞr ¼ ð1 xÞEðe ep Þ ð40Þ

Here, the pre-peak plastic strains do not contribute to this history

is considered. Here, x is the damage variable. This law can also be variable, since j_ dt1 is only nonzero, if jdt > e0 . Finally, the third his-

written as tory variable is related to jdt as

r ¼ E e ep þ xðe ep Þ ¼ Eðe ei Þ ð41Þ j_ dt

j_ dt2 ¼ ð45Þ

where ei is the inelastic strain which is subtracted from the total xs

strain. The geometrical interpretation of the inelastic strain and In (44) and (45), xs is a ductility measure, which describes the inﬂu-

its split for monotonic uniaxial tension, linear hardening plasticity ence of multiaxial stress states on the softening response, see

and linear damage evolution are shown in Fig. 4. Furthermore, the Section 2.3.4.

way how the hardening inﬂuences damage and plasticity dissipa-

tion has been discussed in Grassl (2009). The part xðe ep Þ is 2.3.2. History variables for compression

reversible and ep is irreversible. The damage variable is chosen, so The compression damage variable xc is also deﬁned by three

that a softening law is obtained, which relates the stress to the history variables jdc ; jdc1 and jdc2 . Analogous to the tensile case,

inelastic strain, which is written here in generic form as the variable jdc is used in the deﬁnition of the inelastic strain in

r ¼ fs ðei Þ ð42Þ (41), while jdc1 and jdc2 enter the deﬁnition of the equivalent

strain in (42). In addition, a variable ac is introduced which distin-

Setting (41) equal with (42) allows for determining the damage var- guishes tensile and compressive stresses. It has the form

iable x.

However, the inelastic strain ei in (41) and (42) needs to be ex- X

3

rpc i r pt i þ r pc i

ac ¼ ð46Þ

pressed by history variables, so that the expression for the damage i¼1

p k2

kr

variable can be used for non-monotonic loading. Furthermore, to

be able to describe also the inﬂuence of multiaxial stress states where r pti and r pci are the components of the compressive and ten-

on the damage evolution, the inelastic strain in (42) is replaced sile part of the principal effective stresses, respectively, which were

by different history variables than the inelastic strain in (41). The previously used for the general stress strain law in (1). The variable

choice of the history variables for tension and compression is ex- ac varies from 0 for pure tension to 1 for pure compression. For in-

plained in Sections 2.3.1 and 2.3.2. stance, for the mixed tensile compressive effective stress state

r p ¼ fr

; 0:2r

; 0:1r g, considered in Section 2.1, the variable is

2.3.1. History variables for tension ac ¼ 0:95.

The tensile damage variable xt in (1) is deﬁned by three history The history variable jdc is determined from ~ec using (9) and

variables jdt ; jdt1 and jdt2 . The variable jdt is used in the deﬁni- (10), where, analogous to the tensile case, the ec is speciﬁed implic-

tion of the inelastic strain in (41), while jdt1 and jdt2 enter the def- itly by

inition of the inelastic strain in (42). The history variable jdt is ~e_ c ¼ ac ~e_ ð47Þ

determined from ~et using (6) and (7). Here, ~et is given implicitly

in incremental form by The other two history variables are

3810 P. Grassl et al. / International Journal of Solids and Structures 50 (2013) 3805–3816

(

ac bc

xs

ke_ p k if j_ dt > 0 ^ jdt > e0

j_ dc1 ¼ ð48Þ

0 if j_ dt ¼ 0 _ jdt < e0

and

j_ dc

j_ dc2 ¼ ð49Þ

xs

In (48), the factor bc is

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

ft q 2=3

bc ¼ qh2 ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð50Þ

q 1 þ 2D2f

This factor provides a smooth transition from pure damage to dam-

age-plasticity softening processes, which can occur during cyclic

loading, as described in Section 2.3.5.

Fig. 5. Bilinear softening.

With the history variables deﬁned in the previous two sections,

the damage variables for tension and compression are deter-

mined. The form of these damage variables depends on the type where Rs is

of softening law considered. For bilinear softening used in the ( pﬃﬃ

present study, the stress versus inelastic strain in the softening 6r V

q if r

V 6 0

regime is Rs ¼ ð57Þ

8 0 if r

V > 0

> ft r1

< ft ef1 ei

> if 0 < ei 6 ef1

and As is pﬃﬃﬃa model parameter. For uniaxial compression

r

r ¼ r1 e e ðei ef1 Þ if ef1 < ei 6 ef ð51Þ

>

1

r V =q ¼ 1= 6, so that Rs ¼ 1 and xs ¼ As , which simpliﬁes the cal-

>

:

f f1

where ef is the inelastic strain threshold at which the uniaxial stress 2.3.5. Constitutive response to cyclic loading

is equal to zero and ef1 is the threshold where the uniaxial stress is The response of the constitutive model is illustrated by a quasi-

equal to r1 as shown in Fig. 5. Furthermore, ei is the inelastic strain static strain cycle (Fig. 6, solid line), before it is compared to a wide

in the post-peak regime only. Since damage is irreversible, the range of experimental results in the next section. The strain is in-

inelastic strain ei in (51) is expressed by irreversible damage history creased from point 0 to point 1, where the tensile strength of the

variables as material is reached. Up to point 1, the material response is elas-

ei ¼ jdt1 þ xt jdt2 ð52Þ tic–plastic with small plastic strains. With a further increase of

the strain from point 1 to point 2, the effective stress part contin-

Furthermore, the term e ep in (40) is replaced by jdt , which gives ues to increase, since Hp > 0, whereas the nominal stress de-

r ¼ ð1 xt ÞEjdt ð53Þ creases, since the tensile damage variable xt increases. A reverse

of the strain at point 2 results in an reduction of the stress with

Setting (51) with (52) equal to (53), and solving for xt gives an unloading stiffness, which is less than the elastic stiffness of

8 an elasto-plastic model, but greater than the stiffness of an elas-

>

> ðEjdt ft Þef1 ðr1 ft Þjdt1

>

> if 0 < ei 6 ef1 to-damage mechanics model, i.e. greater than the secant stiffness.

< Ejdt ef1 þ ðr1 ft Þjdt2

> At point 3, when the stress is equal to zero, a further reduction of

xt ¼ Ejdt ðef ef1 Þ þ r1 ðjdt1 ef Þ ð54Þ the strain leads to a compressive response following a linear

>

> if ef1 < ei 6 ef

>

> Ejdt ðef ef1 Þ r1 jdt2 stress–strain relationship between the points 3 and 4 with the ori-

>

:

0 if ef < ei ginal Young’s modulus E of the undamaged material. This change

of stiffness is obtained by using two damage variables, xt and

For the compressive damage variable, an evolution based on an

xc . At point 3, xt > 0, but xc ¼ 0. Up to point 5, no further plastic

exponential stress-inelastic strain law is used. The stress versus

inelastic strain in the softening regime in compression is

ei

r ¼ ft exp if 0 < ei ð55Þ

efc

where efc is an inelastic strain threshold which controls the initial

inclination of the softening curve. The use of different damage evo-

lution for tension and compression is one important improvement

over CDPM1 as it will shown later on when the structural applica-

tions are discussed.

The history variables jdt1 ; jdt2 ; jdc1 and jdc2 in (44), (45), (48)

and (49), respectively, depend on a ductility measure xs , which

takes into account the inﬂuence of multiaxial stress states on the

damage evolution. This ductility measure is given by

xs ¼ 1 þ ðAs 1ÞRs ð56Þ Fig. 6. Model response for cyclic loading with ft ¼ 1 and fc ¼ 3 for CDPM2 (solid

line) and CDPM1 (dashed line).

P. Grassl et al. / International Journal of Solids and Structures 50 (2013) 3805–3816 3811

strains are generated, since the hardening from point 0 to 2 has in- corresponding to the plastic and damage parts of the model. In

creased the elastic domain of the plasticity part, so that the yield the plastic part, the plastic strain ep and the effective stress r

at

surface is not reached. Thus, the softening from point 4 to 5 is only the end of the step are determined. In the damage part, the damage

described by damage. Only at point 5, the plasticity surface is variables xt and xc , and the nominal stress r at the end of the step

reached and a subsequent increase of strain results in hardening are obtained. The implementation strategy for the local problem,

of the plasticity part, which corresponds to an increase of the effec- described in detail in Grassl and Jirásek (2006a) for CDPM1, applies

tive stress. However, the nominal stress, shown in Fig. 6, decreases, to the present model as well. To improve the robustness of the

since xc increases. The continuous slopes of parts 4–5 and 5–6 are model, a subincrementation scheme is employed for the integra-

obtained, since the additional factor bc in (48) is introduced. A sec- tion of the plasticity part.

ond reversal of the strain direction (point 6) changes the stress

from compression to tension at point 7, which is again associated 5. Comparison with experimental results

with a change of the stiffness. The above response is very different

from the one obtained with CDPM1 with only one damage param- In this section, the model response is compared to ﬁve groups of

eter, which is also shown in Fig. 6 by a dashed line. With CDPM1, experiments reported in the literature. For each group of experi-

the compressive response after point 3 is characterised by both a ments, the physical constants Young’s modulus E, Poisson’s ratio

reduced stiffness and strength which would depend on the amount m, tensile strength ft , compressive strength fc and tensile fracture

of damage accumulated in tension. For the case of damage equal to energy GFt are adjusted to obtain a ﬁt for the different types of con-

1 in tension, both the strength and stiffness in compression would crete used in the experiments. The ﬁrst four constants are model

be zero, which is not realistic for the tension–compression transi- parameters. The last physical constant, GFt , is directly related to

tion in concrete. model parameters. For the bilinear softening law in Section 2.3.3,

the tensile fracture energy is

3. Mesh adjusted softening modulus

GFt ¼ ft wf1 =2 þ r1 wf =2 ð59Þ

If the constitutive model described in the previous sections is For r1 =ft ¼ 0:3 and wf1 =wf ¼ 0:15 (shown by Jirásek and Zimmer-

straightaway used within the ﬁnite element method, the amount mann, 1998 to result in a good ﬁt for concrete failure), the expres-

of dissipated energy might be strongly mesh-dependent. This sion for the fracture energy reduces to GFt ¼ ft wf =4:444. The

mesh-dependence is caused by localisation of deformations in compressive energy is GFc ¼ fc efc lc As , where lc is the length in which

mesh-size dependent zones. The ﬁner the mesh, the less energy the compressive displacement are assumed to localise and As is the

would be dissipated. This is a well known limitation of constitutive ductility measure in Section 2.3.4. If no experimental results are

laws with strain softening. One way to overcome this mesh-depen- available, the ﬁve constants can be determined using, for instance,

dence is to adjust the softening modulus with respect to the ele- the CEB-FIP Model Code (CEB, 1991).

ment size. For the present model, this approach is applied for the The other model parameters are set to their default values for

tensile damage variable by replacing in the tensile damage law all groups. The eccentricity constant e that controls the shape of

in (54) the strain thresholds ef1 and ef with wf1 =h and wf =h, respec- the deviatoric section is evaluated using the formula in Jirásek

tively. Here, wf1 and wf are displacement thresholds and h is the and Bažant (2002), p. 365:

ﬁnite element size. Thus, with this approach the damage variables

2

for bilinear softening are 1þ ft fbc fc2

8 e¼ ; where ¼ ð60Þ

ðEjdt ft Þwf1 ðr1 ft Þjdt1 h 2 fbc fc ft2

2

>

> if 0 < hei 6 wf1 h

>

>

< Ejdt wf1 þ ðr1 ft Þjdt2 h

> where fbc is the strength in equibiaxial compression, which is esti-

xt ¼ Ejdt ðwf wf1 Þ þ r1 ðjdt1 h wf Þ ð58Þ mated as fbc ¼ 1:16f c according to the experimental results reported

>

> if wf1 < hei 6 wf

>

> Ejdt ðwf wf1 Þ r1 jdt2 h in Kupfer et al. (1969). Parameter qh0 is the dimensionless ratio

>

:

0 if wf < hei qh0 ¼ f c0 =fc , where fc0 is the compressive stress at which the initial

yield limit is reached in the plasticity model for uniaxial compres-

These expressions are used when the constitutive model is com- sion. Its default value is qh0 ¼ 0:3. For the hardening modulus the

pared to experimental results in the next section. However, the evo- default value is Hp ¼ 0:01. Furthermore, the default value of the

lution law for compressive damage is kept to be independent of the parameter of the ﬂow rule is chosen as Df ¼ 0:85, which yields a

element size, as compressive failure is often accompanied by mesh- good agreement with experimental results in uniaxial compression.

independent zones of localised displacements. The determination of parameters Ah ; Bh ; C h and Dh that inﬂuence

4. Implementation

the framework of the nonlinear ﬁnite element method, where

the continuous loading process is replaced by incremental time

steps. In each step the boundary value problem (global level) and

the integration of the constitutive laws (local level) are solved.

For the boundary value problem on the global level, the usual

incremental-iterative solution strategy is used, in the form of a

modiﬁed Newton–Raphson iteration method. For the local prob-

lem, the updated values ðÞðnþ1Þ of the stress and the internal vari-

ables at the end of the step are obtained by a fully implicit

(backward Euler) integration of the rate form of the constitutive

equations, starting from their known values ðÞðnÞ at the beginning

of the step and applying the given strain increment De ¼ eðnþ1Þ Fig. 7. Uniaxial tension: Model response compared to experimental results in

eðnÞ . The integration scheme is divided into two sequential steps, Gopalaratnam and Shah (1985).

3812 P. Grassl et al. / International Journal of Solids and Structures 50 (2013) 3805–3816

the hardening ductility measure is more difﬁcult. The effective Furthermore, the element size h in the damage laws in Section 3

stress varies within the hardening regime, even for monotonic load- was chosen as h ¼ 0:1 m.

ing, so that the ratio of axial and lateral plastic strain rate is not con- The ﬁrst analysis is a uniaxial tensile setup with unloading. The

stant. Thus, an exact relation of all four model parameters to model response is compared to the experimental results reported

measurable material properties cannot be constructed. In Grassl in Gopalaratnam and Shah (1985) (Fig. 7). The relevant model

and Jirásek (2006a), it has been shown that a reasonable response parameters for this experiment are E ¼ 28 GPa, m ¼ 0:2; f c ¼

is obtained with parameters Ah ¼ 0:08; Bh ¼ 0:003; C h ¼ 2 and 40 MPa, ft ¼ 3:5 MPa, GFt ¼ 55 J/m2.

Dh ¼ 1 106 . These values were also used in the present study. The next example is an uniaxial compression test with unload-

ing, for which the model response is compared to experimental

results reported in Karsan and Jirsa (1969) (Fig. 8). The model

parameters are E ¼ 30 GPa, m ¼ 0:2; f c ¼ 28 MPa, ft ¼ 2:8 MPa.

Furthermore, the model constants for compression are As ¼ 5 and

efc ¼ 0:0001. The value of the tensile fracture energy GFt does not

inﬂuence the model response in compression, which also applies

reported in Karsan and Jirsa (1969).

in Imran and Pantazopoulou (1996).

tal results reported in Kupfer et al. (1969).

reported in Caner and Bažant (2000).

Fig. 10. Conﬁned compression: Model response compared to experiments used in Fig. 13. Three point bending test: Geometry and loading setup. The out-of-plane

Caner and Bažant (2000). thickness is 0.1 m. The notch thickness is 5 mm.

P. Grassl et al. / International Journal of Solids and Structures 50 (2013) 3805–3816 3813

Fig. 16. Four point shear test: Geometry and loading setup. The out-of-plane

thickness is 0.15 m. A zero notch thickness is assumed.

Fig. 14. Load-CMOD curves of analyses with three mesh sizes compared to the

experimental bounds reported in Kormeling and Reinhardt (1982).

graphs. Therefore, only the compressive fracture energy is stated.

Next, the model is compared to uniaxial and biaxial compres-

sion tests reported in Kupfer et al. (1969). For these experiments,

the model parameters are set to E ¼ 32 GPa,

m ¼ 0:2; f c ¼ 32:8 MPa, ft ¼ 3:3 MPa. Furthermore, the model con-

stants for compression are As ¼ 1:5 and efc ¼ 0:0001. The compar-

ison with experimental results is shown in Fig. 9 for uniaxial,

equibiaxial and biaxial compression. For the biaxial compression

case, the stress ratio of the two compressive stress components

Fig. 17. Load-CMSD curves of analyses with three mesh sizes compared to the

is r1 =r2 ¼ 1= 0:5. experimental bounds reported in Arrea and Ingraffea (1982).

Furthermore, the performance of the model is evaluated for tri-

axial tests reported in Caner and Bažant (2000). The material

parameters for this test are E ¼ 25 GPa, m ¼ 0:2; f c ¼ 45:7 MPa, very similar to CDPM1, a very good agreement with experimental

ft ¼ 4:57 MPa. Furthermore, the model constants for compression results.

are As ¼ 15 and efc ¼ 0:0001. The model response is compared to

experimental results presented in Fig. 10. 6. Structural analysis

Next, the model response in triaxial compression is compared

to the experimental results reported in Imran and Pantazopoulou The performance of the proposed constitutive model is further

(1996) (Fig. 11). The material parameters for this test are evaluated by structural analysis of three fracture tests. The main

E ¼ 30 GPa, m ¼ 0:2; f c ¼ 47:4 MPa, ft ¼ 4:74 MPa. Furthermore, objective of this part of the study is to demonstrate that the struc-

the model constants for compression are As ¼ 15 and efc ¼ 0:0001. tural response obtained with the model is mesh-independent. This

Finally, the model response in hydrostatic compression is com- is achieved by adjusting the softening modulus with respect to the

pared to the experimental results reported in Caner and Bažant element size (Section 3).

(2000) (Fig. 12). The material parameters are the same as for the

triaxial test shown in Fig. 10. 6.1. Three point bending test

Overall, the agreement of the model response with the experi-

mental results is very good. The model is able to represent the The ﬁrst structural example is a three-point bending test of a

strength of concrete in tension and multiaxial compression. In single-edge notched beam reported by Kormeling and Reinhardt

addition, the strains at maximum stress in tension and compres- (1982). The experiment is modelled by triangular plane strain ﬁ-

sion agree well with the experimental results. The bilinear stress- nite elements with three mesh sizes. The geometry and loading

crack opening curve that was used results in a good approximation set up is shown in Fig. 13. The input parameters are chosen as

of the softening curve in uniaxial tension and compression. With E ¼ 20 GPa, m ¼ 0:2; f t ¼ 2:4 MPa, Gft ¼ 100 N/m, fc ¼ 24 MPa

the above comparisons, it is demonstrated that CDPM2, provides, (Grassl and Jirásek, 2006b). All other parameters are set to their

Fig. 15. Tensile damage patterns for the coarse, medium and ﬁne mesh for the three point bending test. Black indicates a tensile damage variable of 1.

3814 P. Grassl et al. / International Journal of Solids and Structures 50 (2013) 3805–3816

Fig. 18. Four point shear test: Tensile damage patterns for the coarse, medium and ﬁne mesh compared to the experimental crack patterns reported in Arrea and Ingraffea

(1982). Black indicates a tensile damage variable of 1.

Fig. 20. Comparison of the analysis of the eccentric compression test with the

experiment.

Fig. 19. (a) Geometry and loading setup of the eccentric compression test. (b) The

default values described in Section 5. The global responses of

coarse ﬁnite element mesh.

analyses and experimental results are compared in the form of

load-Crack Mouth Sliding Displacement (CMSD) curves in Fig. 17.

default values described in Section 5. For this type of analysis, local Furthermore, the damage patterns for the three meshes at loading

stress–strain relations with strain softening are known to result in stages marked in Fig. 17 are compared to the experimental crack

mesh-dependent load–displacement curves. The capability of the patterns in Fig. 18.

adjustment of the softening modulus approach presented in Sec- The load-CMSD curves obtained with the three meshes are in

tion 3 to overcome this mesh-dependence is assessed with this good agreement with the experimental results. The coarse mesh

test. The global response in the form of load-Crack Mouth Opening overestimates the load levels obtained with the medium and ﬁne

Displacement (CMOD) is shown in Fig. 14. The local response in the mesh. However, the two ﬁner meshes are in good agreement.

form of tensile damage patterns at loading stages marked in Fig. 14 Again, the width of the damaged zone depends on the element size.

for the three meshes is shown in Fig. 15. Furthermore, the damage zones are inﬂuenced by the mesh orien-

Overall, the load-CMOD curves in Fig. 14 are in good agreement tation. In particular, for the ﬁne mesh the damage zone follows the

with the experimental results and almost mesh independent. On regular element arrangement, so that the crack is less curved than

the other hand, the damage zones in Fig. 15 depend on the mesh reported in the experiments. This is a well known behaviour of

size. models using the adjustment of the softening modulus approach,

which has been studied in more detail in Jirásek and Grassl

(2008) and Grassl and Rempling (2007).

6.2. Four point shear test

6.3. Eccentric compression test

The second structural example is a four point shear test of a sin-

gle-edge notched beam reported in Arrea and Ingraffea (1982). The third structural example studies the failure of a concrete

Again, the experiment is modelled by triangular plane strain ﬁnite prism subjected to eccentric compression, tested by Debernardi

elements with three different mesh sizes. The geometry and load- and Taliano (2001). The geometry and loading setup are shown

ing setup are shown in Fig. 16. The input parameters are chosen as in Fig. 19(a). The specimen with a relatively great eccentricity of

E ¼ 30 GPa, m ¼ 0:18; f t ¼ 3:5 MPa, Gft ¼ 140 N/m, fc ¼ 35 MPa 36.8 mm is modelled by a thin layer of linear 3D elements to re-

(Jirásek and Grassl, 2008). All other parameters are set to their duce the computational time compared to a full 3D analysis. Three

P. Grassl et al. / International Journal of Solids and Structures 50 (2013) 3805–3816 3815

Acknowledgements

‘‘Dynamic behaviour of reinforced concrete structures subjected

to blast and fragment impacts’’, which in turn is ﬁnancially spon-

sored by MSB – the Swedish Civil Contigencies Agency. The ﬁrst

author would also like to thank Prof. Bořek Patzák of the Czech

Technical University for kind assistance with his ﬁnite element

package OOFEM (Patzák, 1999; Patzák and Bittnar, 2001). In addi-

tion, the ﬁrst author acknowledges funding received from the UKs

Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) under

Grant EP/I036427/1.

References

Arrea, M., Ingraffea, A.R., 1982. Mixed-mode crack propagation in mortar and

concrete. Department of Structural Engineering 81-83, Cornell University,

Ithaca, NY.

Caner, F.C., Bažant, Z.P., 2000. Microplane model M4 for concrete. II: Algorithm and

calibration. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE 126, 954–961.

Carol, I., Rizzi, E., Willam, K.J., 2001. On the formulation of anisotropic elastic

degradation. I: Theory based on a pseudo-logarithmic damage tensor rate.

International Journal of Solids and Structures 38, 491–518.

Fig. 21. Contour plots of the damage variable for the (a) coarse, (b) medium and (c) CEB, 1991. CEB-FIP Model Code 1990, Design Code, Thomas Telford, London.

ﬁne mesh of the eccentric compression test. Debernardi, P.G., Taliano, M., 2001. Softening behaviour of concrete prisms under

eccentric compressive forces. Magazine of Concrete Research 53, 239–249.

Etse, G., Willam, K.J., 1994. A fracture-energy based constitutive formulation for

different mesh sizes with element lengths of 7.5, 5 and 2.5 mm inelastic behavior of plain concrete. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE

120, 1983–2011.

were chosen (see Fig. 19(b) for the coarse mesh). Fichant, S., Borderie, C.L., Pijaudier-Cabot, G., 1999. Isotropic and anisotropic

The model parameters were set to E ¼ 30 GPa, m ¼ 0:2; f t ¼ descriptions of damage in concrete structures. Mechanics of Cohesive-Frictional

4 MPa, fc ¼ 46 MPa, GFt ¼ 100 N/m, As ¼ 10 and efc ¼ 0:0001. The Materials 4, 339–359.

Folino, P., Etse, G., 2012. Performance dependent model for normal and high

model response in terms of the overall load versus the mean strength concretes. International Journal of Solids and Structures 49, 701–719.

compressive strain of the compressed side obtained on the ﬁne Gopalaratnam, V.S., Shah, S.P., 1985. Softening response of plain concrete in direct

mesh is compared to the experimental result in Fig. 20. The load tension. ACI Journal Proceedings 82.

Grassl, P., 2009. On a damage-plasticity approach to model concrete failure.

capacity and the strain at peak are underestimated by the model. Proceedings of the ICE – Engineering and Computational Mechanics 162, 221–

The overall behaviour, however, is captured well. The comparison 231.

of the load-compressive strain relations for the analyses on meshes Grassl, P., Jirásek, M., 2006a. Damage-plastic model for concrete failure.

International Journal of Solids and Structures 43, 7166–7196.

of different sizes indicates that the description of this type of

Grassl, P., Jirásek, M., 2006b. A plastic model with nonlocal damage applied to

compressive failure is nearly mesh-independent. The evolution of concrete. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in

the damage zone for the analysis on the coarse mesh is depicted Geomechanics 30, 71–90.

Grassl, P., Lundgren, K., Gylltoft, K., 2002. Concrete in compression: a plasticity

in Fig. 21 for the ﬁnal stage of the analyses in Fig. 20. On the tensile

theory with a novel hardening law. International Journal of Solids and

side several zones of localised damage form, whereas the failure on Structures 39, 5205–5223.

the compressive side is described by a diffuse damage zone. Grassl, P., Rempling, R., 2007. Inﬂuence of volumetric-deviatoric coupling on crack

prediction in concrete fracture tests. Engineering Fracture Mechanics 74, 1683–

1693.

7. Conclusions Imran, I., Pantazopoulou, S.J., 1996. Experimental study of plain concrete under

triaxial stress. ACI Materials Journal 93, 589–601.

Jason, L., Huerta, A., Pijaudier-Cabot, G., Ghavamian, S., 2006. An elastic plastic

The present damage plasticity model CDPM2, which combines a

damage formulation for concrete: application to elementary tests and

stress-based plasticity part with a strain based damage mechanics comparison with an isotropic damage model. Computer Methods in Applied

model, is based on an enhancement of an already exisiting dam- Mechanics and Engineering 195, 7077–7092.

age-plasticity model called CDPM1 (Grassl and Jirásek, 2006a). Jirásek, M., Bažant, Z.P., 2002. Inelastic Analysis of Structures. John Wiley and Sons,

Chichester.

Based on the work presented in this manuscript, the following con- Jirásek, M., Grassl, P., 2008. Evaluation of directional mesh bias in concrete fracture

clusions can be drawn on the improvements that this constitutive simulations using continuum damage models. Engineering Fracture Mechanics

model provides: 75, 1921–1943.

Jirásek, M., Zimmermann, T., 1998. Rotating crack model with transition to scalar

damage. Journal of Engineering Mechanics 124, 277–284.

1. The model is able to describe realistically the transition from Ju, J.W., 1989. On energy-based coupled elastoplastic damage theories: constitutive

tensile to compressive failure. This is achieved by the introduc- modeling and computational aspects. International Journal of Solids and

Structures 25, 803–833.

tion of two separate isotropic damage variables for tension and Kachanov, M., 1980. Continuum model of medium with cracks. Journal of the

compression. Engineering Mechanics Division 106, 1039–1051.

2. The model is able to reproduce stress inelastic strain relations Karsan, I.D., Jirsa, J.O., 1969. Behavior of concrete under compressive loadings.

Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE 95, 2543–2563.

with varying ratios of reversible and irreversible strain compo- Kormeling, H.A., Reinhardt, H.W., 1982. Determination of the fracture energy of

nents. The ratio can be controlled by the hardening modulus of normal concrete and epoxy-modiﬁed concrete. Stevin Laboratory 5-83-18, Delft

the plasticity part. University of Technology.

Kupfer, H., Hilsdorf, H.K., Rüsch, H., 1969. Behavior of concrete under biaxial

3. The model gives meshindependent load–displacement curves

stresses. Journal of the American Concrete Institute 66, 656–666.

for both tensile and compressive failure. Lee, J., Fenves, G.L., 1998. Plastic-damage model for cyclic loading of concrete

structures. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE 124, 892–900.

In addition, the model response is in good agreement with Leon, A., 1935. Über die Scherfestigkeit des Betons. Beton und Eisen 34.

Mazars, J., 1984. Application de la mécanique de l’endommagement au

experimental results for a wide range of loading from uniaxial ten- comportement non linéaire et à la rupture du béton de structure. Thèse de

sion to conﬁned compression. Doctorat d’Etat, Université Paris VI, France.

3816 P. Grassl et al. / International Journal of Solids and Structures 50 (2013) 3805–3816

Mazars, J., Pijaudier-Cabot, G., 1989. Continuum damage theory-application to Resende, L., 1987. A damage mechanics constitutive theory for the inelastic

concrete. Journal of Engineering Mechanics 115, 345. behaviour of concrete. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and

Menétrey, P., Willam, K.J., 1995. A triaxial failure criterion for concrete and its Engineering 60, 57–93.

generalization. ACI Structural Journal 92, 311–318. Sánchez, P., Huespe, A., Oliver, J., Diaz, G., Sonzogni, V., 2011. A macroscopic

Nguyen, G.D., Houlsby, G.T., 2008. A coupled damage-plasticity model for concrete damage-plastic constitutive law for modeling quasi-brittle fracture and ductile

based on thermodynamic principles. Part I: Model formulation and parameter behavior of concrete. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical

identiﬁcation. International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Methods in Geomechanics 36, 546–573.

Geomechanics 32, 353–389. Tao, X., Phillips, D.V., 2005. A simpliﬁed isotropic damage model for concrete under

Nguyen, G.D., Korsunsky, A.M., 2008. Development of an approach to constitutive bi-axial stress states. Cement and Concrete Composites 27, 716–726.

modelling of concrete: isotropic damage coupled with plasticity. International Valentini, B., Hofstetter, B.V., 2013. Review and enhancement of 3D concrete models

Journal of Solids and Structures 45, 5483–5501. for large-scale numerical simulations of concrete structures. International

Ortiz, M., 1985. A constitutive theory for the inelastic behavior of concrete. Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics 37, 221–246.

Mechanics of Materials 4, 67–93. Červenka, J., Papanikolaou, V.K., 2008. Three dimensional combined fracture-plastic

Papanikolaou, V.K., Kappos, A.J., 2007. Conﬁnement-sensitive plasticity constitutive material model for concrete. International Journal of Plasticity 24, 2192–2220.

model for concrete in triaxial compression. International Journal of Solids and Voyiadjis, G.Z., Kattan, P.I., 2009. A comparative study of damage variables in

Structures 44, 7021–7048. continuum damage mechanics. International Journal of Damage Mechanics 18,

Patzák, B., 1999. Object oriented ﬁnite element modeling. Acta Polytechnica 39, 99– 315–340.

113. Voyiadjis, G.Z., Taqieddin, Z.N., Kattan, P.I., 2008. Anisotropic damage-plasticity

Patzák, B., Bittnar, Z., 2001. Design of object oriented ﬁnite element code. Advances model for concrete. International Journal of Plasticity 24, 1946–1965.

in Engineering Software 32, 759–767. Willam, K.J., Warnke, E.P., 1974. Constitutive model for the triaxial behavior of

Pivonka, P., 2001. Nonlocal plasticity models for localized failure. Ph.D. Thesis, concrete. In: Concrete Structures Subjected to Triaxial Stresses, IABSE Report,

Technische Universität Wien, Austria. vol. 19, International Association of Bridge and Structural Engineers, Zurich, pp.

Pramono, E., Willam, K., 1989. Fracture energy-based plasticity formulation of plain 1–30.

concrete. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE 115, 1183–1203.

- Capping Beam Design 1Încărcat demassive85
- tension test on hot rolled plain steel bar (ASTM-A615/615-M)Încărcat deAdil Javed Chaudhary
- BEHAVIOUR OF BUILT – UP COLD FORMED STEEL SECTIONSÎncărcat deijaert
- Mechanics of Materials lecture notesÎncărcat deHowl Solomon
- Plastic Data for 7075_SciecedirectÎncărcat deSathi Mech
- Evaluation LibreÎncărcat dePeng Ter
- Funda-SMÎncărcat debindhu2010
- Full TextÎncărcat deEveraldo Afonso
- muh-29-6-4-0506-7 (1)Încărcat deSneh Yadav
- Lecture 9Încărcat deChandana Karumanchi
- Presentation Lecture 1Încărcat demalumius
- AMIE SyllabusÎncărcat deKhalid Sheikh
- Paper 519Încărcat deJorge David
- VSN & SNIPS Wall Thickness10-Inch Gas Reinjection 95CÎncărcat deDave M Michael
- 1-s2.0-S0141029607003239-mainÎncărcat debhargavisattar
- Elastic Settlement CalculationÎncărcat deSam Jandali
- Exta Class PptÎncărcat depraphul4u
- 4102- Chap 9 Creep Notes.pdfÎncărcat dejonthemes
- werÎncărcat derazvanfcs
- Part 1_Constitutive ModelsÎncărcat deJorge Lecona
- Shakedown LoadÎncărcat degutian259
- 18 Mechanical Properties Which Every Mechanical Engineer Should Know - Material Science - Mechanical Engineering CommunityÎncărcat deKaran Singh
- Adhesive Bonded JointsÎncărcat deAmir Iskandar
- 2005 Direct Finite Element Route for Design-By-Analysis of Pressure ComponentsÎncărcat deBib Gmz
- Johnson Cook DeterminationÎncărcat deHourglass1
- Chapter 2 - Materials in ManufacturingÎncărcat deDevin Thio
- 1.0 Equilibrium of a Deformable BodyÎncărcat deAngelo Painitan Bautista
- RPT PHYSICS LOWER 6 2015 SEM 1.docÎncărcat deNorhazli Ibrahim
- Tugas Lili 2Încărcat deAfifa Yhulandari
- Energy Density GgÎncărcat deTanmay Singh

- Provino 3d Flow1 to ABAQUS MeshÎncărcat defrecciaaa
- Study Plan Master Programme at China University of Petroleun (1)Încărcat deអេង ភារម្យ
- Concrete Technology and Design of Concrete Structures .docÎncărcat deKavya Prashant
- reidch10Încărcat deNiharika Kasliwal
- EQ2615_Epoxy_Adhesive.pdfÎncărcat dePedro Rosa
- Cement KilnÎncărcat deamir
- Seeds and FertilizersÎncărcat deMagdy
- 10.1016@j.jclepro.2018.05.181Încărcat deAndrew Pi
- PROJECT REPORT ON Streamlining the Sewing Floor LayoutÎncărcat deApurv Sinha
- REVIEW-OF-RELATED-STUDIES.docxÎncărcat deasdfghjkl
- Manufacturing of FB2 Material for RotorÎncărcat deEdwardt Sinaga
- JNTU old question papers 2007Încărcat deSrinivasa Rao G
- COMPOSITE SMART MATERIALS PPT.pptxÎncărcat deraja
- Types of Production SystemÎncărcat deJyoti Nawlani
- PolymersÎncărcat deGail Rocx
- Introduction to Plant LayoutÎncărcat deSavant
- IMPACT AND CRASH MODELLING OF COMPOSITE STRUCTURESÎncărcat deesamco
- Taf RaouiÎncărcat deGaneshbabu Kodeboyina
- Gamma Compatible Materials ListÎncărcat deSoothingSoul72
- compuestos.pdfÎncărcat deLucas Romani
- FMS Handout (2)Încărcat de9716533745
- Chrysotile & Its Substitutes-A Critical EvaluationÎncărcat depuiying80
- Report Floating Concrete...Încărcat deAnkit
- Developing-Underwater-Concrete-Properties-with-and-without-Anti-washout-Admixtures1.pdfÎncărcat dearjun
- M+E+Thesis+of+Alok+KhanduriÎncărcat deSujay Tg
- Effect of clamping force on fretting fatigue behaviour of bolted assemblies_ Case of couple steelâ€“aluminium.pdfÎncărcat deshafra_zul
- Imp 4.2 Structural Applications of Hybrid Fiber Engineered Cementitious Composites - A ReviewÎncărcat dedrp
- Composite Material PropertiesÎncărcat deraajaah
- EDGE 48-705 Cut and OilÎncărcat deQueenie Flores
- Concrete Pouring Plan - 01102016Încărcat deKhuda Buksh

## Mult mai mult decât documente.

Descoperiți tot ce are Scribd de oferit, inclusiv cărți și cărți audio de la editori majori.

Anulați oricând.