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Student’s Participation Among Senior High School : What Hinders

them to Speak Up ?

A Research Project In Practical Research II

Presented to the Faculty of Senior High School

Lucena National High School

In Partial Fulfilment

Of the Requirements for the

General Academic Strand

Angielyn V. Montibon

Second Semester, 2019

Student’s Participation Among Senior High School : What Hinders

them to Speak up ?


Background of the Study

Since from the start, student’s participation is one of the best

tool to measure student’s ability aside from having quizes or other

form of tests. Participation usually means student’s speaking in class;

answer and ask questions, make comments, and join in discusssions.

Students who do not participate in those ways, are often considered to

be passive are generally penalized when participation is graded .(

Jacob & Chase, 1992 ). For this reason the information and ideas

taught by the teachers to the students would not obtained especially

for those student who does not give the value of participation and

remain passive and silent in class, although the teachers expect to

create an environment that engage the learners and ultimately

facilitates learning.

Most students can obtain benefits such as the enjoyment of

sharing ideas with others and learn more if they are active to

contribute in class discussion. Effective learning process occured

when both teachers and students interact and actively participate in

learning activities. ( Wade, 1994). However, in academic world there

are still students who are not active by participating in class

eventhough the teachers give them the exact and enough teaching

tools and strategies just to give them, the information that they need

to learn and understand.

The more they participate, the less memorization they do and

the more they engage in higher levels of tinking, including

interpretation, analysis,and synthesis. ( Smith, 1997 ). Students who

participate also show improvement in their communication skills.

(Dancer & Kamvounias, 2005). In like manner, engagement within the

learning environment generally refers to the relationship between the

learner and the content or topic being pursued. While the highest

levels of engagement are seen when the learner is passionate about

the topic, significant levels of engagement can be achieved through a

variety strategies that actively invo;ve in the learning both interesting

and challenging. Engagement with content leads to higher levels of

learning. ( Whelan, C. 1997).

Many teachers had experienced of teaching where students

participate frequently. The classes flow well, and all involved fell like

the class end with success but absolutely not. On the other hand ,

most of them have also quite and opposite experience, where it is a

struggle to get students to ask questions and participate in

discussions. Student engagement ( skills, participation or interaction,

emotional and performance. ( Handlesman, 2015 ).

Neither correctness nor effectiveness is achievable when

teachers fail to motivate students to participate in a process of

thought organization. When a teacher gives negative feedbacks on

learner’s written output they tend to withdraw if not show passive

response by showing the reluctance to write. Learners lose confidence

and are afraid to write especially when the teachers do not explain the
reason for the written output. Furthermore, this study will also focus

the relationship of teachers and students to collaborate and have a

good class environment for the improvement of the better learnings

and understandings through class participation.

Research Problem :

It was always been observed during class discussions that

student’s participation makes the teachers to be more motivated, and

alive to support the learnings of the students, to improve the student’s

communication skills and promote higher order thinking skills. But

the problem here, mostly the students in Senior High of Lucena

National High School , is that they do not participate in class or any

school activities, only those achievers and honor students in class

speak up and share their ideas in class. Some students doesn’t value

the importance of participation , they have low self-esteem to speak-

up and a fear to express their opinions and they could easily forget the

topic being discussed by the teachers and can only recall few ideas.

This study aims to answer the following questions :

1. Which factors in the classroom learning environment

affect the student participation in class ?

2. What are the different strategies to be implemented to

avoid lack of participation ?

3. How to convince students to participate in class ?

4. What would be the greatest impact of not participating in

class ?

bjectives of the study :

with the general objectives of the study of determining the

factors that hinders the students in class participation among Senior

High in Lucena National High School specifically aims to :

1. Determine the factors that affect the Senior High School

students in class participation.

2. Determine the strategies that should be implemented by

the teachers.

3. Determine the effective teaching styles to increase

student’s participation.

4. Determine the common interest of student to help them

engaged in class discussions.

Purpose of the study :

The purpose of this research was tto examine and analyze the

factors in classroom learning environment that affects student’s

participation among the Senior High ( Grade 11 and 12 ) at Lucena

National High School. This study will able to know the student’s traits,

classroom climate, and the impact of the readers on the level of

participation in classroom. Furthermore, this study will assist the

teachers in determining the hindering factors that are needed to take

action , in increasing class participation and provide further research

on how to implement strategies in the classroom environment in order

to achieve high average of student participation. Here, the researcher

will able to gain detailed views of student’s participation within the

classroom as they live through their experiences.

Importance of the study :

This study was highlighted the importance of participation

during class discussion in the laerning process, for knowing the

reasons what hinders the student to participate in class , it is

beneficial to the teachers in managing their classroom. The study has

useful insights to know the other ways to make evry students to be

more participative in class. With this understanding, the teachers can

plan strategies and employ proper technique for responsive classroom.

In a situation, where students are less active or passive in the

classroom, it is pertinent for the teachers to encourage active

involvement. Thus, this research will help theteachers to adjust and

improve their way of teaching and encourage ,ore students to be more

actively involve in classroom.

Significance of the study :

The study are intended to promote understanding by class

participation among Senior High students of Lucena National High

School. The researcher is confident that this study would help the

readers to accept and analyze the importance of participation in class

and become the priority item of students in Senior High. As well as

the different factors that hinder them to speak up in class. Also, the

study might be beneficial to the following :

To the students, whose the main focus of this study, it will serve

to them as a helpful way to engage and enhance their learning

process. By including class participation in their lessons, students will

benefit in lomg term. This study will also inform the students that

education is designed to help them improve upon their weaknesses.

Learning to actively communicate with others.

To the teachers, it will be beneficial for them for they are the

source of knowledge and learnings, and this study will help them to

discover the hindering factors and solution for it to apply for the class

discussions in order to have an active class environment. It will serve

as their guide in having effective teaching techniques, to encourage

students listen with the goal of understanding and improve student’s

communication skills.

Other beneficiary to this study are the DepEd Administrators,

they can use the result of the study for the possible programs and
implementations in school base on student’s participation, they can

use this study as a guide on how to promote student’s effective

learning process and to be able them aware among the hindering

factors of class participation.

Lastly, the future researchers, it would be beneficial for them for

they will already have a guide to conduct a qualitative research study

about the hindering factors of student’s participation. Thus, the future

researcher can have informative ideas that even the years will getting

longer, it will still applicable for them for it os very helpful especially

for the beginners and don’t have enoygh knowledge to start like this

kind of research.
Limitations of the study :

This research has different limitations. First, the study was

limited to and conducted within 3 weeks period only. If a longer period

of time were used, the results of the study related to the student’s

participation and their hindering factors to speak up might have been

very different and effective. Second, it was very difficult for the

researcher to manage and control students or respondents to get their

exact point or thoughts they are tryingt to deliver . Participant honesty

and interest in participating were also the limitations as some

students did not always feel comfortable enough to give detailed

response that involved their teachers as well as other students in their

classroom or they were not interested in the study, therefore unwilling

to provide detailed information on how they view classroom

participation. Finally, the study focused the student’s hindering

factors in participating in class and leaves opportunity for further

research to help teacher’s perspective and gain understanding on how

the absence of participation affects the learning environment.

The above mentioned limitations provide an opportunity for

future studies for the development of the existing studies for students.

Furthermore, it would be beneficial to include the component of

classroom observation in order to better understand the classroom

dynamics and classroom participation by the means of observation.

Delimitations :

The research was delimited to trhe 10 Senior High students

and 5 Senior High teachers of Lucena National High School. The

duration of research for making the study was 3 weeks and the

researcher have only a week for the interview and the rest was for the

observation and preparation for the said study.

Conceptual Framework

Discovering Learning System

Identifying the Hindering

Factors of class participation

Planned Action

Implementation and

Fig.1 the concept shows the basis for the said research.

The term “ active learning ‘ has been more understood

intuitively than defined in commonly accepted terms.

Further, the student must be engaged in such higher order

thinking tasks, analysis,synthesis, and evaluation to be actively

involved studentsin doing things and thinking about what they are,

may be called active learning. It is also recommendedthat teachers

make greater use of instructional techniques that require active

student. It would start from discovering Active learning System and

observing what should be the effective action in the problem studied

and then the implementation and evaluation will follow.

Theoritical Framework:

1.Need Hierarchy Theory

The main line of argument here is that participation depends on

the extent to which a person has been able to meet a range of primary

and secondary needs (after Maslow 1954) and the influence of positive

and negative forces (see, also, 'force-field analysis below). For example,

as basic primary needs are met (as one economic and social position

'improves'), higher needs are activated, and the balance between

negative and positive forces shifts. As a result people are more

prepared to take part in educational activities. (Miller 1967).

Congruence model: In this model it is suggested that people

are more likely to participate in educational activities where there is

some congruence between their perception of themselves (their self

concept) and the nature of the education programmed/environment.

One of the key findings in the North American literature which has

driven this is the correlation between the number of years spent at

school and college, and the likelihood of taking part in education

programmes after that. (Boshier 1973).

Force-field theory: This approach draws heavily on the work of

Lewin (1947; 1952). Miller (1967), in particular, sought to draw

together Maslow's and Lewin's theories to explain why socio-economic

status (class) is linked to participation in adult education. He charts

positive forces and negative forces and their relative strengths. This is
then taken a step further by Rubenson (1977). He argues that

education, like work, is an achievement-orientated activity, 'meaning

that people who want to get ahead will put effort into personal

achievement' (Cross 1981). Rubenson suggested that motivation

emerges from the interaction of two factors: expectancy and valence.

2.Life Transitions Theory

The notion of 'transition' has assumed a much larger role in

thinking about the take-up of education. This has been reflected, for

example, in shifts in UK research concerning young people's

participation in further education (Banks et al 1992). In North

America populist accounts of the impact of 'life-changes' (Sheehy

1976) have had a significant impact. The basic hypothesis involved is

that participation in education projects is frequently linked to changes

in life circumstances such as changes in job, the break-up of

relationships, having children, bereavement and retirement.

3.Reference Group Theory

This theory is based around the assertion that people identify

with the social and cultural group to which they belong - 'normative

reference group (NRG) - or with another to which they aspire to belong

– 'comparative' reference group (CRG) (McGivney 1993). A number of

studies point to the extent to which people's total environment and

group membership creates an orientation to involvement in

educational projects and programmes (Darkenwald and Merriam


4.Social Participation Theory

This approach has now been developed at some length by

(Courtney 1991). He argues that significant learning often takes place

in organizational settings (schools, community groups, work). Thus to

seek motivation for learning, 'we might seek for those factors which

motivate people to join or be part of organizations or for reasons why

organizations compel as well as encourage forms of voluntary

participation' (ibid: 99).

Definition of terms:

The following terms are defined as used in the study:

Active student participation: refers to both students as a resource

in each other's learning (peer-to-peer learning) and students who are

co-creators in the planning, implementation and evaluation of

education. It involves people from similiar social groupings who are

not professional teachers helping each other to learn and learning

themselves by so doing (Topping 2005:631).

Classroom environment :also called classroom ecology - describes

the overall climate or atmosphere of a classroom. This environment is

created by the interplay of the physical dimensions of a classroom

with the interpersonal interactions between students and teachers. As

such, a classroom's environment can have a strong influence on the

teaching and learning that occurs within it (Posner, 1989; Smith,

Smith, & De Lisi, 2001).

Comminication Skills :The ability to convey information to another

effectively and efficiently. Business managers with good verbal, non

verbal and written communication skills help facilitate the sharing of

information between people within a company for its commercial

benefit.( Business Dictionary )

Responsive Classroom: is a social curriculum, used side by side with

an academic curriculum, that fosters a sense of community in the

classroom. Used in many schools around the country, the program

puts students at the forefront of their learning and their discipline and

is proactive in that students buy into the plan that they create

together to have a successful year. ( Campbell, 2017)

Synthesis :is a written discussion that draws on one or more

sources. It follows that your ability to write syntheses depends on

your ability to infer relationships among sources - essays, articles,

fiction, and also nonwritten sources, such as lectures, interviews,

observations. This process is nothing new for you, since you infer

relationships all the time - say, between something you've read in the

newspaper and something you've seen for yourself, or between the

teaching styles of your favorite and least favorite instructors.

Active learning: is any activity that allows students to engage the

course materials during instruction so that the teacher and the

student can ascertain the students' mastery of the materials and

adjust the instruction to facilitate further learning.

Higher-order thinking skills: known as higher order thinking

skills (HOTS), is a concept of education reform based on

learning taxonomies(such as Bloom's taxonomy). The idea is that

some types of learning require more cognitive processing than others,

but also have more generalized benefits. In Bloom's taxonomy, for

example, skills involving analysis, evaluation and synthesis (creation

of new knowledge) are thought to be of a higher order, requiring

different learning and teaching methods than the learning of facts and

concepts (Wikipedia).

Instructional strategies: are techniques teachers use to help

students become independent, strategic learners. These strategies

become learning strategies when students independently select the

appropriate ones and use them effectively to accomplish tasks or meet