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FAR PART 23 & 25

PART 23

AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER

CATEGORY AIRPLANES

Flight Loads

23.321 General

Flight load factors is the ratio of the aerodynamic force component to the

weight of the airplane. When load factor is positive, aerodynamic force acts upward.

Compliance with the flight load requirements must be shown at each critical altitude

the airplane operates, at each weight from the design minimum weight to the design

max weight and for each required altitude and weight.

When determining the wing loads & linear inertia loads corresponding to any of

the symmetrical flight conditions, the appropriate balancing horizontal tail load must be

accounted for in a rational or conservative manner. The additional horizontal tail loads

die to maneuvering and gusts must be reacted by the angular inertia of the airplane,

and when determining flight loads influence of the aerodynamic surfaces must be

taken into account.

Compliance shall be shown at any combination of airspeed and load factor on

and within the boundaries of a flight envelope.

Maneuvering envelope

Except where limited by maximum (static) lift coefficients, the airplane is assumed to be

subjected to symmetrical maneuvers resulting in the following limit load factors:

24000

= 2.1 + 𝑊+10000

Where: W = Design max takeoff weight, except that n need not be more than 3.8

(for normal & commuter category airplanes)

Utility: 4.4

Acrobatic: 6.0

= -0.5(n) ; acrobatic

Gust Envelope

50,000 ft: Vc = 25 fps VD = 12.5 fps

S.L. – 20,000 ft: VB = 66 fps

50,000 ft: VB = 38 fps

Where:

s = distance penetrated into gust (ft)

c = mean aerodynamic chord of wing (ft)

ude = derived gust velocity

Flight Envelope

23.335 Design Airspeeds

𝑉𝐶𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 33 √𝑊/𝑆 ; normal, utility, commuter

𝑉𝐶𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 36 √𝑊/𝑆 ; acrobatic

If W/S >20: multiplying factors may be decreased linearly with W/S to a value of 28.6

where W/S = 100.

VC need not be more than 0.9VH at S.L. At altitudes when an MD is established, a cruising

speed MC limited by compressibility may be selected.

Design Dive, VD

For W/S<20:

VD = 1.5VCmin ; utility

VD = 1.55VCmin ; acrobatic

For W/S>20: multiplying factors may be decreased linearly with W/S to a value of 1.35

where W/S = 100.

The speed increase resulting when, from the initial condition of stabilized flight at VC/MC,

the airplane is assumed to be upset, flown for 20 seconds along a flight path 7.5° below

the initial path, and then pulled up with a load factor of 1.5 (0.5 g acceleration

increment) At least 75 percent maximum continuous power for reciprocating engines,

and maximum cruising power for turbines, or, if less, the power required for VC/ MC for

both kinds of engines, must be assumed until the pullup is initiated, at which point

power reduction and pilot-controlled drag devices may be used; and either—

M = 0.07 for commuter

n = limit maneuvering load factor

VB should not be less than the speed determined by the intersection of CNmax, and the

line representing the rough air gust velocity on the gust V-n diagram or VSI√𝑛𝑔,

whichever is less.

Where: ng = positive airplane gust load factor due to gust, at speed VC, and at the

particular weight under consideration

VSI = stalling speed with the flaps retracted

reacted. Flick maneuvers performed by acrobatic airplanes must be designed for

additional asymmetric loads acting on the wing and the horizontal tail.

Wing & wing bracing must be designed for the ff loading conditions:

For acrobatic, assume that 100% of the semispan wing airload acts on 1 side of

the plane of symmetry and 60% on the other side

For normal, utility, and commuter, assume that 100% of the semispan wing

airload acts on 1 side and 75% on the other

Loads resulting from the aileron deflections, in combination with the airplane

load factor of at least 2/3 of the +maneuvering load factor.

The effect of aileron displacement on wing torsion may be compensated bu

adding the following increment to the basic airfoil moment coefficient over the

aileron portion of the span

Cm = -0.01

Where:

Cm is the moment coefficient increment

is the down aileron deflection in degrees in the critical condition

Airplane must be designed for yawing conditions on the vertical surfaces resulting from

the loads.

Engine failure of turbopropeller airplanes will result in unsymmetrical loads, they must be

designed to deal with the said loads. Considering the probable pilot corrective action on the

flight controls:

Speeds between VMC and VD, limit loads are the loads resulting from power failure

because of fuel flow interruption

Ultimate loads are said to be the speeds between V MC and VC, the loads from the

disconnection of the engine compressor from the turbine or from loss of the turbine

blades

Engine failures due to the history of the thrust decay and drag buildup must be

substantiated by test

Estimation of the timing and magnitude of the corrective action must be considered

When max yawing velocity is reached, pilot corrective action may be assumed, but not

earlier than 2 secs after the engine failure.

Whenever rear lift truss is used, it must withstand conditions of reversed airflow at a design

𝑊

speed of V= 8.7√( ) + 8.7(𝑘𝑛𝑜𝑡𝑠) , where W/S = wing loading at design max takeoff weight. A

𝑠

value of -0.8 for CL with a chrodwise distribution that is triangular between a peak at the trailing

edge and zero at the leading edge must be used.

PART 25

AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES

conditions:

Assumed rate of control surface displacement may not be less than the rate that

could be applied by the pilot through the control system. The effect of corresponding

pitching velocities must be considered when determining elevator angles & chordwise

load distribution.

For the maneuvering balanced conditions, assuming that airplane is in

equilibrium with zero pitching acceleration, all maneuvering envelope must be

investigated. The movement of the pitch control surfaces can be adjusted according

to the max pilot effort limitation specified by contro system stops and any indirect effect

imposed by the control system.

The response of the airplane must be considered when defining the tail load.

Loads that occur when normal acceleration at the center of gravity exceeds the

positive limit maneuvering load factor or the resulting tailplane normal load reaches its

max, doesn’t need to be considered.

Pitching control motion vs. time profile must be established to not exceed design

limit load factor. Unless lesser values can’t be exceeded, the airplane response must

result in pitching accelerations not less than the following:

+ Pitching acceleration must reach airplane load factor of 1.0. the positive

acceleration must equal to at least

39𝑛 𝑅𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑛𝑠

(𝑛 − 1.5), ( )

𝑣 𝑠𝑒𝑐.2

Where:

n = + load factor

V = speed in knots

-Pitching acceleration must reach positive maneuvering load factor. The negative

pitching acceleration must be equal to at least

An airplane must be designed for the unsymmetrical loads resulting from the

failure of the critical engine. Turbopropeller airplanes should be designed for the

following conditions in combination with a single malfunction of the propeller

drag limiting system:

because of fuel flow interruption are considered to be limit loads.

2) Between VMC and VC speeds, ultimate loads are considered as the loads

resulting from the disconnection of the engine compressor from the

turbine or from loss of the turbine blades.

3) Time history of thrust decay and drag build-up occurring as a result of the

prescribed engine failures must be substantiated by test or other data.

4) Timing and magnitude of the probable pilot corrective action must be

estimated and must consider the characteristics of a particular engine-

propeller-airplane combination.

yawning velocity is reached.

25.397 Control system loads

a) General. The maximum and minimum pilot forces are assumed to act at

the appropriate control grips or pads and to be reacted at the

attachment of the control system to the control surface horn.

surfaces and the corresponding deflections doesn’t need to exceed

those that would result in flight from the application of any pilot force.

torques torques

Aileron:

Stick 100lbs 40lbs

Wheel /1/ 80 D in. – lbs /2/ 40 D in. – lbs

Elevator:

Stick 250lbs 100lbs.

Wheel (symmetrical) 300lbs 100lbs.

Wheel (unsymmetrical) /3/ 300lbs 100lbs.

Rudder 300lbs 130lbs.

The critical parts of the aileron control system must be designed for a

single tangential force with a limit value equal to 1.25 times the couple

force determined from these criteria.

D= wheel diameter (inches).

The unsymmetrical forces must be applied at one of the normal handgrip

points on the periphery of the control wheel.

25.427 Unsymmetrical loads

a) In designing the airplane for lateral gust namely yaw maneuver and roll

maneuver conditions, account must be taken of unsymmetrical loads on

the empennage arising from effects such as slipstream and aerodynamic.

b) The horizontal tail must be assumed to be subjected to unsymmetrical

loading conditions determined as follows:

100 percent of the maximum loading from the symmetrical maneuver

conditions and the vertical gust conditions of acting separately on the

surface on one side of the plane of symmetry; and

80 percent of these loadings acting on the other side.

c) For empennage arrangements where the horizontal tail surfaces have

dihedral angles greater than plus or minus 10 degrees, the surfaces and

the supporting structure must be designed for gust velocities.

must be taken into account.

the limit ground loads. In addition,

A tandem strut gear arrangement is a multiple-wheel unit; and

In determining the total load on a gear unit with respect to the provisions

of distribution of limit loads to wheels through towing conditions, the

transverse shift in the load centroid may be neglected.

b) The distribution of the limit loads among the wheels of the landing gear

must be established for each landing, taxiing, and ground handling

condition, taking into account the effects of the following factors:

The number of wheels and their physical arrangements.

Any differentials in tire diameters resulting from a combination of

manufacturing tolerances, tire growth, and tire wear.

Any unequal tire inflation pressure, assuming the maximum variation

to be +/-5 percent of the nominal tire inflation pressure.

A runway crown of zero and a runway crown having a convex

upward shape that may be approximated by a slope of 1 « percent

with the horizontal.

The airplane attitude.

Any structural deflections.

c) The effect of deflated tires on the structure must be considered with

respect to the loading conditions specified in landing conditions through

towing, taking into account the physical arrangement of the gear

components.

The deflation of any one tire for each multiple wheel landing gear unit,

and the deflation of any two critical tires for each landing gear unit using

four or more wheels per unit, must be considered; and

The ground reactions must be applied to the wheels with inflated tires

except that a rational distribution of the ground reactions between the

deflated and inflated tires may be used.

d) The applied load to each gear for one and for two deflated tires unit is

assumed to be 60 percent and 50 percent, respectively, of the limit load

applied to each gear for each of the prescribed landing conditions.

e) For one and for two deflated tires.

The applied side or drag load factor, or both factors, at the center

of gravity must be the most critical value up to 50 percent and 40

percent

For the braked roll conditions, the drag loads on each inflated tire

may not be less than those at each tire symmetrical load distribution

with no deflated tires;

f) The towing load for one and for two deflated tires, FTOW, must be 60

percent and 50 percent, respectively, of the load prescribed.

a) The limit water reaction load factors for symmetrical step, bow, and stern

are those computed under hull and main float load factors. In addition,

The resultant water load must be applied at the keel for symmetrical

step landings through the center of gravity.

The resultant water load must be applied at the keel for symmetrical

bow landings, one-fifth of the longitudinal distance from the bow to

the step.

The resultant water load must be applied at the keel for symmetrical

stern landings at a point 85 percent of the longitudinal distance

from the step to the stern post.

b) Unsymmetrical step, bow, and stern landing conditions must be

investigated. In addition,

The loading for each condition consists of an upward component and

aside component equal, respectively, to 0.75 and 0.25 tan <beta> times

the resultant load in the corresponding symmetrical landing condition;

The point of application and direction of the upward component of the

load is the same as that in the symmetrical condition, and the point of

application of the side component is at the same longitudinal station as

the upward component.

c) The unsymmetrical loading consists of an upward load at the step of

each float of 0.75 and a side load of 0.25 tan <beta> at one float times

the step landing load reached.

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