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c = mean aerodynamic chord of wing (ft)

ude = derived gust ve

Flight Envelope

23.335 Design Airspeeds

If W/S < 20:

𝑉𝐶𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 33 √𝑊/𝑆 ; normal, utility, commuter
𝑉𝐶𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 36 √𝑊/𝑆 ; acrobatic

If W/S >20: multiplying factors may be decreased linearly with W/S to a value of 28.6
where W/S = 100.

VC need not be more than 0.9VH at S.L. At altitudes when an MD is established, a cruising
speed MC limited by compressibility may be selected.

Design Dive, VD

VD/MD may not be less than 1.25VC/MC

For W/S<20:
VD = 1.4VCmin ; normal & commuter
VD = 1.5VCmin ; utility
VD = 1.55VCmin ; acrobatic

For W/S>20: multiplying factors may be decreased linearly with W/S to a value of 1.35
where W/S = 100.

The speed increase resulting when, from the initial condition of stabilized flight at VC/MC,
the airplane is assumed to be upset, flown for 20 seconds along a flight path 7.5° below
the initial path, and then pulled up with a load factor of 1.5 (0.5 g acceleration
increment) At least 75 percent maximum continuous power for reciprocating engines,
and maximum cruising power for turbines, or, if less, the power required for VC/ MC for
both kinds of engines, must be assumed until the pullup is initiated, at which point
power reduction and pilot-controlled drag devices may be used; and either—

M = 0.05 for normal, utility, acrobatic

M = 0.07 for commuter

Design Maneuvering Speed, VA

VA may not be less than VS√𝑛

Where: VS = stalling speed w/ flaps retracted at the design weight

n = limit maneuvering load factor

Value of VA must not exceed VC

Design Speed for Max Gust Instensity , VB

VB should not be less than the speed determined by the intersection of CNmax, and the
line representing the rough air gust velocity on the gust V-n diagram or VSI√𝑛𝑔,
whichever is less.

Where: ng = positive airplane gust load factor due to gust, at speed VC, and at the
particular weight under consideration
VSI = stalling speed with the flaps retracted

VB must not be greater than VC.

23.347 Unsymmetrical Flight Conditions

Unbalanced aerodynamic moments about the center of gravity must be

reacted. Flick maneuvers performed by acrobatic airplanes must be designed for
additional asymmetric loads acting on the wing and the horizontal tail.

23.349 Rolling Conditions

Wing & wing bracing must be designed for the ff loading conditions:

 Unsymmetrical wing loads depending on the category

 For acrobatic, assume that 100% of the semispan wing airload acts on 1 side of
the plane of symmetry and 60% on the other side
 For normal, utility, and commuter, assume that 100% of the semispan wing
airload acts on 1 side and 75% on the other
 Loads resulting from the aileron deflections, in combination with the airplane
load factor of at least 2/3 of the +maneuvering load factor.
 The effect of aileron displacement on wing torsion may be compensated bu
adding the following increment to the basic airfoil moment coefficient over the
aileron portion of the span

Cm = -0.01

Cm is the moment coefficient increment
 is the down aileron deflection in degrees in the critical condition

23.351 Yawing Conditions

Airplane must be designed for yawing conditions on the vertical surfaces resulting from
the loads.

23.367 Unsymmetrical loads due to engine failure

Engine failure of turbopropeller airplanes will result in unsymmetrical loads, they must be
designed to deal with the said loads. Considering the probable pilot corrective action on the
flight controls:
 Speeds between VMC and VD, limit loads are the loads resulting from power failure
because of fuel flow interruption
 Ultimate loads are said to be the speeds between V MC and VC, the loads from the
disconnection of the engine compressor from the turbine or from loss of the turbine
 Engine failures due to the history of the thrust decay and drag buildup must be
substantiated by test
 Estimation of the timing and magnitude of the corrective action must be considered
 When max yawing velocity is reached, pilot corrective action may be assumed, but not
earlier than 2 secs after the engine failure.

23.369 Rear Lift Truss

Whenever rear lift truss is used, it must withstand conditions of reversed airflow at a design
speed of V= 8.7√( ) + 8.7(𝑘𝑛𝑜𝑡𝑠) , where W/S = wing loading at design max takeoff weight. A
value of -0.8 for CL with a chrodwise distribution that is triangular between a peak at the trailing
edge and zero at the leading edge must be used.


25.331 Symmetric maneuvering conditions

Following provisions must be applied for the analysis of maneuvering flight

Assumed rate of control surface displacement may not be less than the rate that
could be applied by the pilot through the control system. The effect of corresponding
pitching velocities must be considered when determining elevator angles & chordwise
load distribution.
For the maneuvering balanced conditions, assuming that airplane is in
equilibrium with zero pitching acceleration, all maneuvering envelope must be
investigated. The movement of the pitch control surfaces can be adjusted according
to the max pilot effort limitation specified by contro system stops and any indirect effect
imposed by the control system.
Maximum pitch control displacement at VA
The response of the airplane must be considered when defining the tail load.
Loads that occur when normal acceleration at the center of gravity exceeds the
positive limit maneuvering load factor or the resulting tailplane normal load reaches its
max, doesn’t need to be considered.

Specified control displacement

Pitching control motion vs. time profile must be established to not exceed design
limit load factor. Unless lesser values can’t be exceeded, the airplane response must
result in pitching accelerations not less than the following:
+ Pitching acceleration must reach airplane load factor of 1.0. the positive
acceleration must equal to at least

39𝑛 𝑅𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑛𝑠
(𝑛 − 1.5), ( )
𝑣 𝑠𝑒𝑐.2
n = + load factor
V = speed in knots

-Pitching acceleration must reach positive maneuvering load factor. The negative
pitching acceleration must be equal to at least

25.367Unsymmetrical loads due to engine failure

An airplane must be designed for the unsymmetrical loads resulting from the
failure of the critical engine. Turbopropeller airplanes should be designed for the
following conditions in combination with a single malfunction of the propeller
drag limiting system:

1) Between VMC and VD speeds, the loads became a power failure

because of fuel flow interruption are considered to be limit loads.
2) Between VMC and VC speeds, ultimate loads are considered as the loads
resulting from the disconnection of the engine compressor from the
turbine or from loss of the turbine blades.
3) Time history of thrust decay and drag build-up occurring as a result of the
prescribed engine failures must be substantiated by test or other data.
4) Timing and magnitude of the probable pilot corrective action must be
estimated and must consider the characteristics of a particular engine-
propeller-airplane combination.

Pilot corrective action may be assumed to be initiated at the time maximum

yawning velocity is reached.

25.397 Control system loads

a) General. The maximum and minimum pilot forces are assumed to act at
the appropriate control grips or pads and to be reacted at the
attachment of the control system to the control surface horn.

b) In control surface flight loading condition, the air loads on movable

surfaces and the corresponding deflections doesn’t need to exceed
those that would result in flight from the application of any pilot force.

c) The limit pilot forces and torques were as follows:

Control Maximum forces or Minimum forces or

torques torques
Stick 100lbs 40lbs
Wheel /1/ 80 D in. – lbs /2/ 40 D in. – lbs
Stick 250lbs 100lbs.
Wheel (symmetrical) 300lbs 100lbs.
Wheel (unsymmetrical) /3/ 300lbs 100lbs.
Rudder 300lbs 130lbs.
 The critical parts of the aileron control system must be designed for a
single tangential force with a limit value equal to 1.25 times the couple
force determined from these criteria.
 D= wheel diameter (inches).
 The unsymmetrical forces must be applied at one of the normal handgrip
points on the periphery of the control wheel.

25.427 Unsymmetrical loads

a) In designing the airplane for lateral gust namely yaw maneuver and roll
maneuver conditions, account must be taken of unsymmetrical loads on
the empennage arising from effects such as slipstream and aerodynamic.
b) The horizontal tail must be assumed to be subjected to unsymmetrical
loading conditions determined as follows:
 100 percent of the maximum loading from the symmetrical maneuver
conditions and the vertical gust conditions of acting separately on the
surface on one side of the plane of symmetry; and
 80 percent of these loadings acting on the other side.
c) For empennage arrangements where the horizontal tail surfaces have
dihedral angles greater than plus or minus 10 degrees, the surfaces and
the supporting structure must be designed for gust velocities.

d) Unsymmetrical loading on the empennage arising from buffet conditions

must be taken into account.

25.511 Ground load: unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units

a) General. Multiple-wheel landing gear units are assumed to be subjected to

the limit ground loads. In addition,
 A tandem strut gear arrangement is a multiple-wheel unit; and
 In determining the total load on a gear unit with respect to the provisions
of distribution of limit loads to wheels through towing conditions, the
transverse shift in the load centroid may be neglected.

b) The distribution of the limit loads among the wheels of the landing gear
must be established for each landing, taxiing, and ground handling
condition, taking into account the effects of the following factors:
 The number of wheels and their physical arrangements.
 Any differentials in tire diameters resulting from a combination of
manufacturing tolerances, tire growth, and tire wear.
 Any unequal tire inflation pressure, assuming the maximum variation
to be +/-5 percent of the nominal tire inflation pressure.
 A runway crown of zero and a runway crown having a convex
upward shape that may be approximated by a slope of 1 « percent
with the horizontal.
 The airplane attitude.
 Any structural deflections.

c) The effect of deflated tires on the structure must be considered with

respect to the loading conditions specified in landing conditions through
towing, taking into account the physical arrangement of the gear
 The deflation of any one tire for each multiple wheel landing gear unit,
and the deflation of any two critical tires for each landing gear unit using
four or more wheels per unit, must be considered; and
 The ground reactions must be applied to the wheels with inflated tires
except that a rational distribution of the ground reactions between the
deflated and inflated tires may be used.

d) The applied load to each gear for one and for two deflated tires unit is
assumed to be 60 percent and 50 percent, respectively, of the limit load
applied to each gear for each of the prescribed landing conditions.
e) For one and for two deflated tires.
 The applied side or drag load factor, or both factors, at the center
of gravity must be the most critical value up to 50 percent and 40
 For the braked roll conditions, the drag loads on each inflated tire
may not be less than those at each tire symmetrical load distribution
with no deflated tires;
f) The towing load for one and for two deflated tires, FTOW, must be 60
percent and 50 percent, respectively, of the load prescribed.

25.529 Hull and main float landing conditions

a) The limit water reaction load factors for symmetrical step, bow, and stern
are those computed under hull and main float load factors. In addition,
 The resultant water load must be applied at the keel for symmetrical
step landings through the center of gravity.
 The resultant water load must be applied at the keel for symmetrical
bow landings, one-fifth of the longitudinal distance from the bow to
the step.
 The resultant water load must be applied at the keel for symmetrical
stern landings at a point 85 percent of the longitudinal distance
from the step to the stern post.
b) Unsymmetrical step, bow, and stern landing conditions must be
investigated. In addition,
 The loading for each condition consists of an upward component and
aside component equal, respectively, to 0.75 and 0.25 tan <beta> times
the resultant load in the corresponding symmetrical landing condition;
 The point of application and direction of the upward component of the
load is the same as that in the symmetrical condition, and the point of
application of the side component is at the same longitudinal station as
the upward component.
c) The unsymmetrical loading consists of an upward load at the step of
each float of 0.75 and a side load of 0.25 tan <beta> at one float times
the step landing load reached.