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This chapter explains the methodology adopted by the researcher for the collection

and analysis of data. The tools of data collection, sources of data and scientific

methods of data analysis have been discussed in detail. Hypotheses have also been

framed as per the objectives of the study.

Foreign Multinational Companies operating in India during the Post

Liberalization Period along with making a comparative analysis with that of

domestic companies. In addition, an attempt has been made to analyze the policy

related issues governing foreign MNCs in India and to suggest future measures to

attract FDI in India will benefit both the host country (India) as well as MNCs

operating herein. ”

The universe of the study includes both foreign multinational companies 1 as well as

domestic Indian companies listed in Bombay Stock Exchange in the year 2009. The

financial database relating to these companies has been compiled from the electronic

database PROWESS developed by the Centre for Monitoring of Indian Economy

(CMIE). PROWESS is the largest database providing financial information for large

and medium domestic as well as foreign companies operating in India. The database

contains detailed information for over 27,122 companies (www.prowess.cmie.com).

These comprise all companies traded on India's major stock exchanges and several

1

The word, corporation and company have been used as synonyms for the purpose of the present study

throughout.

63

others including the central public sector enterprises (CMIE, 2012). The Prowess

database is built from Annual Reports, quarterly financial statements, Stock

Exchange feeds and other reliable sources. CMIE normalizes this database in order to

enable inter-company as well as inter-temporal comparisons for the purposes of

researchers and analysts, which further enhances the usefulness of this database.

Following sectors are covered by PROWESS:

Banking; and

Organized financial and other service sectors in India.

covered by it account for:

Over 95 per cent of excise duty collected by the Government of India (CMIE,

2012); and

Companies covered by Prowess companies account for more than half of

India's external trade i.e. for about 62 per cent of India's exports and nearly 82

per cent of India's imports.

disclosures practices currently prevailing in India. The data covered by the prowess

includes most of the financial information required to be reported by incorporated

companies in their annual reports, such as Profit and Loss account and a Balance

Sheet along with information contained in the schedules and annexures (CMIE,

2012).

As the study aims to attain its objectives through firms operating at micro level,

therefore, the most suitable unit of the analysis is company/firm/corporation as

drawn from the review of literature. The sample of the study is based on both

64

foreign multinational and Indian domestic companies. Though these companies were

operating in various sectors such as “chemical sector”, “food sector”, “machinery

sector”, “metal sector”, “non-metallic sector”, “textile sector”, “transport sector”

and “miscellaneous sector” etc. yet, it was decided to limit the present study only

three sectors namely “Chemical sector”, “Food sector”, “Machinery sector”. This is

so because, these sectors represent 60 per cent of data available on Indian

manufacturing, whereas the data available for other sectors was not sufficient to

form a reliable comparative base. Secondly, an attempt has been made to study

those companies whose financial information for at least 5 consecutive years was

available, whereas majority of the companies of the left-out sectors failed to meet

this criteria. The sampled companies include all companies operating in these three

sectors of Indian manufacturing.

As per the objectives of the study, secondary data was considered to be the more

suitable to draw the results. As the study relates to post-liberalization period,

therefore, a comprehensive period of 18 years starting from 1992 to 2009 was chosen

to attain the objectives. 1992 was selected as the base year, as the reforms were

initiated in the year 1991 in India. The period of the study finds its justification as it

covers the post reforms period when large scale policy reforms had been introduced

in the industrial and foreign trade policy.

In order to study the dynamics related to performance of the companies, the data

pertains to financial indicators comprising of both foreign multinational as well as

domestic companies operating in India on the basis of Profit and Loss Accounts and

Balance Sheets in the form of annual reports of the sampled companies.

65

3.5 COLLECTION OF SECONDARY DATA

worldwide attention. In past few decades, the liberalization and economic reform

process initiated by many developing countries has further broadened the area of

research in this field. As a result, a comprehensive literature covering various

aspects of multinational corporations is available in various books, journals, reports,

dissertations and articles etc. Therefore, to collect this diverse literature both offline

as well as online sources have been accessed. Among these online sources of data,

databases such as CiteSeer, Elsevier, Emerald, Inflibnet, Ingenta, JSTOR, National

Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), Proquest, RePEc (Research Papers in

Economics), Science Direct, Scopus, Social Science and Research Network(SSRN),

Springer, Taylor and Francis and Wiley Interscience are a few to mention.

Among offline data sources, many national as well as regional libraries such as

National Council of Applied Economic Research; New Delhi, Indian Council for

Social Science Research; New Delhi, Jawaharlal National University; New Delhi,

IIM Udaipur, Punjabi University; Patiala, Guru Nanak Dev University; Amritsar and

Panjab University; Chandigarh have been consulted from time to time for the

collection of secondary data.

Data Arrangement

Used of pooled data has been made for the purpose of the present study . The data

set, considers observations related to n individuals (companies) over a t period of

time. In simple words, each individual carries observations ranging from first year to

t years. Hence, the total number of observations in pooled data set should be nt. The

data arrangement has been presented in table 3.1. The illustrated data shown

hereunder shows various variables for two set of companies i.e. foreign an d Indian

for a 5 year period for 5 companies i.e. I T C Ltd.; V S T Industries Ltd.; Nestle

India Ltd.; Glaxo-Smithkline Healthcare Ltd.; and Agro Tech Foods Ltd.

66

TABLE 3.1

S.

COMPANY YEAR STATUS INDUSTRY SALES PROFIT

No.

10. Agro Tech Foods Ltd. 1993 Indian Food 143.5 20.0

15. Agro Tech Foods Ltd. 1994 Indian Food 163.5 15.32

20. Agro Tech Foods Ltd. 1995 Indian Food 153.5 16.20

25. Agro Tech Foods Ltd. 1996 Indian Food 183.5 18.52

67

Following the same pattern, the data for all the Indian and multinational corporations has

been arranged. The data set was framed in excel file format which was further used for

determining statistical output in E-views, a statistical software used for statistical,

forecasting, and modeling tools through an innovative, easy-to-use object-oriented

interface. Furthermore, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 16.0) has also been

used to analyse the data.

To attain the objectives of the study, the following hypotheses have been designed:

Foreign Multinational Corporations and Domestic companies operating in India

in Chemical sector.

performance of Foreign Multinational Corporations and Domestic companies

operating in India in Chemical sector.

Foreign Multinational Corporations and Domestic companies operating in India

in Food sector.

performance of Foreign Multinational Corporations and Domestic companies

operating in India in Food sector.

Foreign Multinational Corporations and Domestic companies operating in India

in Machinery sector.

performance of Foreign Multinational Corporations and Domestic companies

operating in India in Machinery sector.

68

H7 = There is no difference in mean of export intensity of Foreign Multinational

Corporations and Domestic companies operating in India in Chemical sector.

Multinational Corporations and Domestic companies operating in India in

Chemical sector.

Corporations and Domestic companies operating in India in Food sector.

Multinational Corporations and Domestic companies operating in India in Food

sector.

Corporations and Domestic companies operating in India in Machinery sector.

Multinational Corporations and Domestic companies operating in India in

Machinery sector.

Foreign Multinational Corporations and Domestic companies operating in India

in Chemical sector.

intensity of Foreign Multinational Corporations and Domestic companies

operating in India in Chemical sector.

Foreign Multinational Corporations and Domestic companies operating in India

in Food sector.

69

H16 = There exists a difference mean of Research and Development intensity of

Foreign Multinational Corporations and Domestic companies operating in India

in Food sector.

Foreign Multinational Corporations and Domestic companies operating in India

in Machinery sector.

Foreign Multinational Corporations and Domestic companies operating in India

in Machinery sector.

The data collected from different sources have been analyzed with various statistical,

econometric as well as accounting tools and techniques. These techniques have been

analyzed in the following direction:

The application of t-test is based on the assumption that the samples have been randomly

drawn and are normally distributed over the population, with unknown variances 2. This

assumption states that the variables to be considered should be of such a nature whose

values should change randomly. Furthermore, the value of one variable should be

independent of the value of other variables. T-test further assumes random sampling

without any selection bias. Therefore, if any research, knowingly selects some samples

with properties that best suits the requirements of the study and compares these values

with other samples, then the conclusions drawn from non-random sampling will neither

be reliable nor generalized. However, according to the type of data considered in the

study, the researcher has to select the appropriate method of t-test. The methods of t-test

can generally be studied under Independent one-sample t-test, Independent two-sample t-

test, and Dependent t-test for paired samples.

2

If population variances are known then z-test with σ2 can be determined and there is no need of

determining variances.

70

In statistical terminology, t-test is a statistical hypothesis test in which the test statistic

follows a Student's t-distribution if the null hypothesis is true (Wikipedia, 2009).

The Student's t-test is used for determining the statistical significance of the difference

between two sample means, and for confidence intervals for the difference between two

population means. In probability and statistics, Student's t-distribution (t-distribution) is a

probability distribution that arises in the problem of estimating the mean of a normally

distributed population. The Student's t-distribution is a special case of the generalized

hyperbolic distribution. The general formation of data under t-distribution can be

depicted with the help of following diagram.

The above diagram shows the normal distribution of the data. Like other probability

distributions, the total area under the curve of t-distribution is equal to one. As the

number of degrees of freedom increases, the shape of the t-distribution converges to that

of the standard normal distribution. In the above diagram the student's-t distribution has

been depicted with the help of blue hyperbola whereas, the normal distribution has been

depicted through red hyperbola.

71

The researchers frequently use one-sample t-test or two sample t-test. Where, one-sample

t-test determines if the mean of a normally distributed population has a value specified in

a null hypothesis or the population mean is same as the hypothesized value or not, two

sample t-test attempts to test the null hypothesis that the means of two normally

distributed populations are equal. As the data in the present study was related to two

group of companies i.e. Indian and multinational, therefore, independent two-sample t-

test was found to be most suitable.

possible difference between the means of two groups on some independent variable i.e. t-

test helps to determine if the samples have been drawn from populations having different

mean values or not. Hence, under t-test application the two samples are desired to be

independent of each other. Therefore, observations considered in group one will not be

linked with the observations considered in group two and vice-a-versa. The suitability of

t-test is based on the satisfaction of following assumptions that:

Both the populations should have same variances. In case the sample sizes of both

the groups are roughly equal and their variances are also equal then the

application of Student's original t-test is highly recommended. However, Welch's

t-test is recommended where the variances are not equal irrespective of the size of

the samples (Elliott and Woodward, 2006); and

The data used to apply the test must be sampled independently from the two

populations. However, this assumption is not testable but in case the data are

known to be collected from mutually dependent sources, then the results derived

may not be conclusive.

H0 : µ 1 = µ 2

72

or

µ 1- µ 2= 0

Sx1x2 is an estimator of the common standard deviation of the two samples. The objective

of defining Sx1x2 is to assure that its square is an unbiased estimator of the common

variance whether or not the population means are the same. In these formulae, n =

number of participants, 1 = group one, 2 = group two. n − 1 is the number of degrees of

freedom for either group, and the total sample size minus two (that is, n1 + n2 − 2) is the

total number of degrees of freedom, which is used in significance testing. However, to

test and satisfy the second assumption of homogeneity of variances, Levene test for

homogeneity of variances was applied.

the variances. Therefore, the application of the test will not provide reliable results when

this assumption is violated. In such a case, another form of t-test is applied namely

Welch’s t-test (Welch, 1947). This form of t-test is particularly for the situations where

the samples share unequal variances. This is because it has an in-built application called

the Welch correction designed with the objective of applying a valid t-test when the

population variances are not equal. In Welch’s t-test:

The degrees of freedom are modified to account for the unequal sample sizes and

the unequal variances as well as small sample sizes.

The Standard Error does not ‘pool’ the sample variances to estimate a common

population variance.

73

Welch’s t-test uses following equation to derive conclusive results from the data with

unequal variances.

Variance1 + Variance2

Sample Size 1 Sample Size2

Under Welch’s t-test, a corrected number of degrees of freedom are utilized to assess the

significance of the t-statistic computed as usual. This number of degree of freedom is

determined by applying the formula given hereunder:

Variance1 + Variance2

Sample Size 1 Sample Size2

Welch’s d.f. =

2 2

Variance1 Variance2

Sample Size 1 Sample Size2

+

Sample Size1 – 1 Sample Size2 –1

However, while calculating the degree of freedom under Welch t-test, the researcher must

keep in mind that it cannot be larger than n1+n2-2 and it cannot be smaller than n1-1 and

n2-2. The application of Welch’s t-test is based on two assumptions which states that:

both the samples have been drawn from normal populations.

However, there may arise certain cases where the assumptions of Welch’s t-test are not

satisfied. In those particular cases, the researcher can overlook the second assumption of

drawing of samples from normal populations but in no case the test can be applied where

the samples turn out to be dependent on each other.

74

3.7.3 Levene's Test for Homogeniety of Variances

used to assess the equality of variances in different samples. Equal variances across

samples are called homogeneity of variance. Some common statistical procedures such

as T-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) assume that variances of the populations

from which different samples or groups have been drawn are equal. Levene's test is

used to verify this assumption. The tests such as F test or the Bartlett test may be

applied to test the differences in variances. However, these tests tend to be highly

sensitive towards the assumption that the population is normally distributed. Therefore,

application of Levene’s test for measuring the differences in variances has been widely

suggested.

The suitability of Levene’s test over other test is due to the reason that Levene (1960)

proposed to compare the mean values of absolute deviations from sample means rather

than variances. Schultz (1983) proposed Levene test to be among the best of the tests

for determining the differences in variation. Also, Hines and O’Hara Hines (2000)

termed it as a widely used and robust test. Furthermore, Milliken and Johnson (1984)

also recommended the use of Levene test, subject to the condition that there is

confidence that the data are nearly normal or the data set is very large.

the test to be quite robust but further emphasized on the suitability of t-test in the cases

where observations were drawn from a normal distribution. As Levene's test is used for

comparing the means, it tests the null hypothesis that the population variances are

equal. If the resulting p-value of Levene's test is less than some critical value (typically

.05), the obtained differences in sample variances are unlikely to have occurred based

on random sampling. Thus, the null hypothesis of equal variances is rejected and one

may conclude that there is a difference between the variances in the population. Given a

variable Y with sample of size N divided into k subgroups, where Ni is the sample size

of the ith subgroup, the Levene test statistic is defined as:

75

H0:

Where,

k is the number of different groups to which the samples belong,

N is the total number of samples,

Ni is the number of samples in the ith group,

Yij is the value of the jth sample from the ith group,

where Zij can have one of the following three definitions:

1.

2.

3.

76

The significance of W is tested against F (α, k − 1, N − k) where F is a quantile of

the F test distribution, with (k−1) and (N−k) are

its degrees of freedom, and α is the chosen level of significance (usually 0.05 or 0.01).

The rejection of null hypothesis will tend to the inability of Student’s t-test to derive

accurate results. In such cases, Welch’s t-test is highly recommended which ignores the

differences in variances and provides direction to apply valid t-test.

The simple meaning of ratios is to express one number in terms of another. A ratio is

regarded as a statistical yardstick which attempts to compare and measure relationship

between two or more variables. In finance, the term accounting ratios is used to describe

relationship between the figures shown in financial statements i.e. Balance Sheet and

Profit and Loss Account. In the present study various ratios have been used wherever

required to determine the relationship between the variables considered under different

sectors.

The term "trend analysis" refers to the concept of collection of data and attempts to spot a

pattern, or trend in the data. As the data related to financial indicators has been processed

for a period of 18 years, therefore, the trend analysis has been carried out in order to

know the change over this period while making a comparative analysis of the financial

indicators.

analysis to research situations in which the outcome variable is categorical. The model

for logistic regression analysis assumes that the outcome variable, Y, is categorical

(e.g., dichotomous), but LRA does not model this outcome variable directly. Rather,

77

LRA is based on probabilities associated with the values of Y. For simplicity, and

because it is the case most commonly encountered in practice, we assume that Y is

dichotomous, taking on values of 1 (i.e., the positive outcome, or success) and 0 (i.e.,

the negative outcome, or failure). For theoretical, mathematical reasons, LRA is based

on a linear model for the natural logarithm of the odds (i.e., the log-odds) in favor of Y

= 1 (Dayton, 1992)

function, which, like probabilities, always takes on values between zero and one:

The input is z and the output is ƒ(z). The logistic function is useful because it can take

as an input any value from negative infinity to positive infinity, whereas the output is

confined to values between 0 and 1. The variable z represents the exposure to some set

of independent variables, while ƒ(z) represents the probability of a particular outcome,

given that set of explanatory variables. The variable z is a measure of the total

contribution of all the independent variables used in the model and is known as

the logit.

where is called the "intercept" and , , , and so on, are called the "regression

coefficients" of , , respectively. The intercept is the value of z when the value of

all independent variables are zero (e.g. the value of z in someone with no risk factors).

Each of the regression coefficients describes the size of the contribution of that risk

factor. A positive regression coefficient means that the explanatory variable increases

the probability of the outcome, while a negative regression coefficient means that the

variable decreases the probability of that outcome; a large regression coefficient means

78

that the risk factor strongly influences the probability of that outcome, while a near-

zero regression coefficient means that that risk factor has little influence on the

probability of that outcome.

Instead of finding the best fitting line by minimizing the squared residuals, as we did with

OLS regression, we use a different approach with logistic Maximum Likelihood (ML).

ML is a way of finding the smallest possible deviance between the observed and

predicted values (kind of like finding the best fitting line) using calculus (derivatives

specifically). With ML, the computer uses different "iterations" in which it tries different

solutions until it gets the smallest possible deviance or best fit.

called the Likelihood Ratio Index [LRI]):

2 1

LL( B)

LL(0)

McFadden’s R square tends to be smaller than R-square. This is because the Likelihood

Ratio Index (LRI) depends on the ratio of the beginning and ending log-likelihood

functions, it is very difficult to "maximize the R2" in logistic regression. and the values

between 0.2 to 0.4 are considered to be highly satisfactory (McFadden, 1979).

Heteroscedasticity

Most of the basic forms of models make use of the assumption that the errors or

disturbances ui have the same variance across all observation points. However, when the

variance of errors differs at different values of the independent variables, the

presence of heteroscedasticity is indicated. Heteroscedasticity is reflected in the

residuals estimated from a fitted model. To deal with this problem, heteroscedasticity-

79

consistent standard errors are used to allow the fitting of a model containing

heteroscedastic residuals. One of such approaches is White's (1980) estimator, which

explicitly tests forms of heteroscedasticity i.e. the relation of u2 with all independent

variables (Xi), squares of independent variables (Xi2) and all cross products (XiXj for i=j).

The present study makes use of White Heteroscedasticity Consistent Covariances to deal

with problem of existence of any heteroscedasticity in the data as this test is also

particularly suitable for large sample sizes.

Multicollinearity

a multiple regression model are highly correlated. In this situation, the coefficient

estimates may change erratically in response to small changes in the model or the data

(Donald and Glauber, 1967). To detect the presence of multicollinearity in data, two

statistical measures have been employed. These are:

Variance Inflation Factor (VIF): The Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) quantifies

the severity of multicollinearity in an ordinary least squares regression analysis. It

provides an index that measures how much the variance of an estimated

regression coefficient is inflated because of collinearity. Usually, the VIF values

ranging from 4 to 10 indicate the presence of higher multicollinearity between the

predictors (Rogerson, 2001; and Pan & Jackson, 2008). In order to check the

presence of multicollinearity in the data, VIF’s have been used in all regression

models.

Tolerance: Tolerance is a measure of collinearity reported by most statistical

programs such as SPSS. A small tolerance value indicates that the variable under

consideration is almost a perfect linear combination of the independent variables

already in the equation and that it should not be added to the regression equation

(Cohen et al., 2003). All variables involved in the linear relationship will have a

small tolerance. If a low tolerance value is accompanied by large standard errors

80

and non significance, multicollinearity may be an issue (Fox, 1991). The measure

of tolerance is given as

all the other predictors. Tolerance values of less than 0.20 or 0.10 and indicates a

multicollinearity problem (O'Brien 2007). In other words, a tolerance close to 1

means existence of modest multicollinearity in the data, whereas a value close to

0 suggests that multicollinearity may be a severe threat.

This study has universal applicability as the data for the study consists of all the Indian

and foreign corporations operating in India which have been listed with Bombay Stock

Exchange. Moreover, the study has attempted to measure the performance of

multinationals in India and also attempts to compare their performance with Indian

counterparts, the study provides a base for the policy makers to estimate the impact of

foreign companies on domestic companies. This will help them in formulating the

policies keeping in mind the interest of domestic companies. This study will further help

the Indian entrepreneurs to know the areas where foreign companies are not performing

well or where less competition is posed by foreign companies and hence guide them to

invest in such areas and to earn profits.

Limitations have always been a part and parcel of any analytical research work. This

study is also not free from the ambit of the same. Some of the limitations are listed

below:

81

1. The study is based on secondary data; therefore, the study suffers from all

limitations suffered by a research based on secondary data.

2. As the topic of the research is too comprehensive to cover all the units as well as

sectors in the universe in the given time frame, however, the study remained

confined to three main corporate sectors of India i.e. chemicals, food and

machinery. Therefore, the findings of the study may not be generalized to

excluded sectors and a separate research is required to be conducted for these

sectors.

3. Due to limitation of time and resources, the study excluded tertiary sector which

constitutes a significant share of Indian GDP. As policy guidelines are favoring

increasing share of foreign participation in Indian service sector, therefore,

research in this area can be pursued in future.

4. Limitations concerning to time, also denied a possibility of collection of primary

data to know the manager’s perception of Indian policy framework concerning

smooth growth of MNCs for mutual benefit.

82

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