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Aquatic Ecosystem

Aquatic Ecosystem is the ecosystem that environment physically the consist of the water.

The aquatic ecosystem can be divided into two, such as :

1. Sea water ecosystem

2. Fresh water ecosystem

1. Sea water ecosystems

The characteristic are :

a. Has Most (55%), but varied levels high mineral content, the ion is Cl of salt in the sea,
there are high (as in the tropics) and there is low (at sea cold climates).

b. Sea ecosystems are not influenced by climate and weather.

Distribution of sea water ecosystem area:

• (Based on the depth of sea), can divided into four as follow :

1. Littoral regions / Tidal Areas:

Littoral areas are areas directly adjacent to land. Solar radiation, temperature and salinity
variations have a more significant effect for this area compared to other marine areas.

2. Neritik Region:

Neritik Region is an area of shallow sea, this area can still be penetrated by light to the
bottom, the depth of this region can reach 200 m.

3. Regional or Local Batial dim:

Depths between 200 - 2000 m, there is no producer. Animals such as nekton.

4. Absial Region:

Abisal Region is an area of ocean depths of more than 2000 m. These dark regions over the
period, there were no producers.
• (Based on the intensity of light), can divided into three as follow :

1. Fotik areas: marine areas can still be penetrated by sunlight, the maximum depth of 200

2. Local twilight: dim areas, is not effective for photosynthetic activity, the depth between
200 - 2000 m.

3. Afotik areas: areas that are not translucent sunlight. So the dark over the period.

2. Freshwater Ecosystems

The characteristic are :

a. Salinity / salinity is very low, even lower than the salt content of protoplasm aquatic

b. Temperature variation is very low.

c. Less sunlight penetration.

d. Influenced by climate and weather.

The usual habitat of animals living in aquatic ecosystems:

Based on the habits of life, among others :

a. Plankton (phytoplankton and zooplankton comprised the base, usually floating (moving
passive) following the movement of water flow).

b. Nekton (active animals that swim in water, such as fish.)

c. Neuston (organisms that float or swim on the surface of the water or located on the surface of
water, such as water insects.

d. Periphytic (plant or animal is attached to / dependent on herbs or other object, such as snails).
e. Benthos (animals and plants that live on base or live in the sediment. Benthos can sessil
(attached) or move freely, such as worms and mussels).

The pictures :

The freshwater can divide into two, such as :

1. The calm water ecosystem , for the examples : lake and swamps

2. The flowing water ecosystem, for the examples : river and waterfall.

The picture of calm water and flowing water :

( Lake ) ( River )

The Calm water

The characteristic as follow :

• Ecosystems with stagnant or quiet water.


The lake is a body of water that stagnate and breadth ranging from a few square meters to
hundreds of square meters.

Based on the depth and distance from the edge, can classified :

1. Litoral Region

His area is shallow. Sunlight to penetrate to the optimum. communities that live
snails, mussels, insects, krustacea, fish, amphibians, etc.

2. Limnetik Region

This area is an area of free water that is far from the edge and can still be
penetrated by light matahari.terdapat phytoplankton, algae and sinobakteri.

3. Profundal Region

This area is an area that in, namely afotik area lakes. This area, inhabitants of
worms and microbes.

4. Bentis Region

This area is the lake bottom area where the presence of macroinvertebrates and
the remnants of dead organisms.

Look the picture below !

Based on the biological organic material to differentiate into:

a. Oligotropik Lakes

Oligotropik is a term for a deep lake and a lack of food, because phytoplankton in the area limnetik
unproductive. Ciricirinya, the water was clear as a bell, inhabited by a few organisms, and in the
bottom water there are a lot of oxygen throughout the year.

b. Eutropik Lakes

Eutropik is a term for a shallow lake and the rich content of foods, because phytoplankton is very
productive. Its characters are murky waters, there are a variety of organisms, and the oxygen
contained in profundal areas.

The Oligotropik Lake and eutropik Lake have relationship, as follow :

Oligotropik lake  Eutropik lake  Causes of Eutrofikasi

Lake oligotrofik can evolve into the lake eutrophic water due to organic materials that enter and
sediment. These changes can also be accelerated by human activities, such as the remnants of
agricultural fertilizers and enrich the city's garbage disposal a number of lakes with nitrogen and
phosphorus. The result is a population explosion, or bloom of algae, resulting in excessive production
of detritus which eventually spent it. Mutlipy supply of oxygen in the lake as the lake is called
"eutrophication". Eutrophication make the water unusable and reduce the value of the beauty of the

Flowing water ecosystem

Characteristic : Ecosystem with flowing water.

For Example : River and water fall.

1. River

The river is a body of water that flows in one direction. Cold and clear river water and
sediment, and foods containing small quantities. The flow of water and the waves are constantly
giving oxygen in the water. The water temperature varies with altitude and latitude.
Communities residing in different rivers of the lake. Flowing river water does not support the
presence of plankton communities to keep silence, because it will be swept away. Instead happened
photosynthesis of attached algae and rooted plants, so it can support the food chain.

Different between calm water ecosystem and flowing water ecosystem, as follow :

1.current or flow

2.Relationship soil & water

3.Pressure of oxygen

The advantages of aquatic ecosystem, such as :

Problem of aquatic ecosystem :

1.Crisis of water

2.Water Pollution

3. Eutrophication

Solving the problem and conservation efforts of aquatic ecosystem :

1. Development of groundwater resources

2. Rain-water harvesting methods, given the nearly six months, Indonesia received abundant rain,
create a method of pumping on the river bank.
3. Conservation of the lake so that a lake management.
4. Construction of reservoirs and dams

Solving the eutrophication :

1. Controlling population growth (birth control)

2.The Government encourages entrepreneurs detergents, food and beverages so that the products do
not contain phosphates.
3.The agricultural sector should be no excessive use of phosphate fertilizers.