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Traffic Characterization 1 Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering Dept.
Traffic Characterization
1
Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering Dept.
- Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering Dept. Traffic Loading • Primary input to any

Traffic Loading

Primary input to any design procedure

Issues:

Vehicle Characteristics

Weight

Wheel and axle configuration

Frequency of occurrence

Traffic Volume

Current

Future (traffic growth)

Other

Lateral wander

Often not well-defined in practice

2

Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering Public Works Engineering Dept.

Traffic Loads Characterization Pavement Thickness Design Are Developed To Account For The Entire Spectrum Of
Traffic Loads Characterization
Pavement Thickness Design Are Developed
To Account For The Entire
Spectrum Of Traffic Loads
Cars
Pickups
Buses
Trucks
Trailers
Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering Dept.
Critical Response Values e e t t e e c c e t at surface
Critical Response Values
e
e
t
t
e
e
c
c
e t at surface + bottom of all bound layers (cracking)
e c at midthickness of all layers + top of subgrade (rutting)
Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering Dept.
Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering Dept.
Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering Dept.

Traffic Composition

6
6
Axle Configuration Single Axle Single Axle Tandem Axle Tridem Axle Single Tires Dual Tires Dual
Axle Configuration
Single Axle
Single Axle
Tandem Axle
Tridem Axle
Single Tires
Dual Tires
Dual Tires
Dual Tires
7
Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering Dept.
Axle Configuration 8 Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering Dept.
Axle
Configuration
8
Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering Dept.
Axle Configuration Parameters Wheel Base Tire Axle Pressure Spacing Dual Tire Spacing Axle Width Mansoura
Axle Configuration Parameters
Wheel Base
Tire
Axle
Pressure
Spacing
Dual Tire
Spacing
Axle Width
Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering Dept.
Vehicle Classes 10 Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering Dept. (NCHRP
Vehicle
Classes
10
Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering Dept.
(NCHRP 1-37A, 2001)
FHWA Vehicle Classes 1 5 2 6 4 3 7 8 9     10
FHWA Vehicle Classes 1 5 2 6 4 3 7 8 9     10
FHWA Vehicle Classes 1 5 2 6 4 3 7 8 9     10

FHWA Vehicle Classes

1FHWA Vehicle Classes 5 2 6 4 3 7 8 9     10    

5
5

2FHWA Vehicle Classes 1 5 6 4 3 7 8 9     10    

6
6
4 3
4
3
7
7
8
8

9

 
9     10     11  
 

10

 
9     10     11  
 

11

 
9     10     11  
     
     
 
     
     
 
     
     
     
 
     
   

12

 
    12       13  
   

13

 
    12       13  
       
       
       
 
       
 
       
       
       
 
       
       
 

Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering Public Works Engineering Dept.

Normalized Truck Distribution by Truck Class El-Badawy, et al. TRB, 2012 Mansoura University - Faculty
Normalized Truck Distribution by Truck Class
El-Badawy, et al. TRB, 2012
Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering Dept.
Sources of Traffic Data • Weigh-in-motion (WIM) • Automatic vehicle classification (AVC) • Traffic counts

Sources of Traffic Data

Weigh-in-motion (WIM)

Automatic vehicle classification

(AVC)

Traffic counts

Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering Public Works Engineering Dept.

• , Delta Highway Graduation Project 2011, Delta Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering –
• , Delta
Highway Graduation Project 2011,
Delta
Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering Dept.
Design Approach (Fixed Vehicle) • Thickness design governed by number of traffic repetitions • Vehicle

Design Approach

(Fixed Vehicle)

Thickness design governed by number of traffic repetitions

Vehicle type/load is not a variable

18 kip (80 kN) single axle load (SAL)

Standard aircraft

Multiple axles converted to equivalent single axle load (ESAL)

Most common current design procedure

17

Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering Public Works Engineering Dept.

Important Definitions • Standard Axle Load (SAL): A single axle with dual tires that has
Important Definitions • Standard Axle Load (SAL): A single axle with dual tires that has
Important Definitions • Standard Axle Load (SAL): A single axle with dual tires that has

Important Definitions

Standard Axle Load (SAL): A single axle with dual tires that has a weight of 18,000 lb (80 KN).

SAL 18,000 lb
SAL 18,000 lb
SAL 18,000 lb
SAL 18,000 lb

SAL

18,000 lb

SAL 18,000 lb
SAL 18,000 lb
SAL 18,000 lb
SAL 18,000 lb

ESAL: The number of repetitions of an 18,000 lb single axle load

Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering Public Works Engineering Dept.

18

Equivalent Single Axle Load (ESAL) • Most common standard load • Developed at the AASHO

Equivalent Single Axle Load (ESAL)

Most common standard load

Developed at the AASHO Road Test

1 ESAL = damage caused by one 18,000 lb single axle load

Load equivalency factors (LEFs)

The number of ESALs needed to cause the same damage as the load in question

19

Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering Public Works Engineering Dept.

Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering Dept. Load Equivalency Factors (LEF) LEFs Can Be Based

Load Equivalency Factors (LEF)

LEFs Can Be Based On:

Equivalent Stress or Strain at a Given Location (Mechanistic)

Equivalent Deflection at a Given Location (Mechanistic)

Equivalent Serviceability Loss (AASHTO)

Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering Public Works Engineering Dept.

LEF = EALF • Ratio of damage caused by a certain axle to that caused

LEF = EALF

Ratio of damage caused by a certain axle to that caused by the standard one.

Based on Fatigue,

LEF {Wi / Ws} 4 , where W = weight of axle

Based on AASHTO Equation:

For Flexible Pavements

For Rigid Pavements

Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering Public Works Engineering Dept.

Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering Dept. AASHTO Load Equivalency Factors Load Equivalency Factor

AASHTO Load Equivalency Factors

Load Equivalency Factor (LEF):

No. of repetitions of 18-k SAL Load causing given PSI

No. of repetitions of X- k Y-Axle Load for a same PSI

Change for each:

Pavement Type Thickness Terminal Serviceability.

Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering Public Works Engineering Dept.

ESALF • Ratio of damage caused by a certain axle to that caused by the

ESALF

Ratio of damage caused by a certain axle to that caused by the standard one.

Based on Fatigue,

ESALF ≈ {Wi / Ws} 4 , where W = weight of axle

Based on AASHTO Eqn,

For Flexible Pavements, see Equation in Next Slide

Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering Public Works Engineering Dept.

AASHTO 1993 Equation for LEF for Flexible Pavement   tx  4.79log(18  1)
AASHTO 1993 Equation for LEF for Flexible Pavement   tx  4.79log(18  1)

AASHTO 1993 Equation for LEF for Flexible Pavement

tx

4.79log(18

1)

4.79log(L

L

)

W t18

 

 

x

2

4.2 p

log

t

β

0.40

0.08(L

x

 

L

2

)

3.23

G

t

4.2 1.5

x

 

SN

1

5.19

L

2

3.23

Where:

G

G

 t  t 2 β β x 18 W LEF  t18 W tx
t
t
2
β
β
x
18
W
LEF 
t18
W
tx

W tx = number of applications of given axle W t18 = number of standard axle passes (18-kips single axle) L x = load of axle group being evaluated, kips L 2 = axle code (1 for single, 2 for tandem, and 3 for tridem, 4 for quad) b 18 = value of b x when L x = 18 and L 2 = 1

p t = terminal serviceability index SN = structural number LEF = load equivalency factor

ESALs

ESALs

SN = structural number LEF = load equivalency factor ESALs 12,000 lbs 28,000 lbs   LEF
SN = structural number LEF = load equivalency factor ESALs 12,000 lbs 28,000 lbs   LEF
SN = structural number LEF = load equivalency factor ESALs 12,000 lbs 28,000 lbs   LEF

12,000 lbs

28,000 lbs

 

LEF = 0.189

28,000

lbs

LEF = 0.495

LEF = 0.495

log

= 0.189 28,000 lbs LEF = 0.495 LEF = 0.495 log Mansoura University - Faculty of

Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering Public Works Engineering Dept.

W

 

4.33log(L )

(Huang, 2004) Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering Dept.
(Huang, 2004)
Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering Dept.
قرطلل يرصملا دوكلل اقبط اهب حومسملا تلاومحلاو رواحملا نازوأ Mansoura
قرطلل يرصملا دوكلل اقبط اهب حومسملا تلاومحلاو رواحملا نازوأ
Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering Dept.
قرطلل يرصملا دوكلل اقبط اهب حومسملا تلاومحلاو رواحملا نازوأ Mansoura
قرطلل يرصملا دوكلل اقبط اهب حومسملا تلاومحلاو رواحملا نازوأ
Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering Dept.
Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering Dept.
Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering Dept.
Approximate Relations to Compute LEF Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering
Approximate Relations to Compute LEF
Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering Dept.
REGULAR MIXED TRAFFIC Equivalent Number of 18k Single Axle Loads Mansoura University - Faculty of
REGULAR MIXED TRAFFIC
Equivalent Number of 18k Single Axle
Loads
Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering Dept.
Truck Factors ESALs 12,000 lbs LEF = 0.189 28,000 lbs LEF = 0.495 28,000 lbs
Truck Factors
ESALs
12,000 lbs
LEF = 0.189
28,000 lbs
LEF = 0.495
28,000 lbs
LEF = 0.495
Truck Factor (TF) = sum of all LEFs for each truck
Truck Factor = S (Number of axles * LEF)/number of vehicles
Truck Factor = S LEF = 0.189 + 0.495*2 = 1.179
31
Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering Dept.
Truck Factor TF = 1.5 to 2.5 According to Egyptian Code 32 Mansoura University -
Truck
Factor
TF = 1.5 to 2.5
According to Egyptian Code
32
Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering Dept.
  Truck Factors – Urban  
 

Truck Factors Urban

 
 

Other

Minor

 

Vehicle Type

Interstate

Freeways

Principal

Arterials

Collectors

Single-unit trucks

2-axle, 4-tire

0.002

0.015

0.002

0.006

-

2-axle, 6-tire

0.17

0.13

0.24

0.23

0.13

3-axle or more

0.61

0.74

1.02

0.76

0.72

All single units

0.05

0.06

0.09

0.04

0.16

Tractor semi-

trailers

4-axle or less

0.98

0.48

0.71

0.46

0.40

5-axle

1.07

1.17

0.97

0.77

0.63

6-axle or more

1.05

1.19

0.90

0.64

-

All multiple units

1.05

0.96

0.91

0.67

0.53

ALL TRUCKS

0.39

0.23

0.21

0.07

0.24

 

From MS-1, Table IV-5

 

Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering Public Works Engineering Dept.

 
  Truck Factors – Rural  
 

Truck Factors Rural

 
 

Other

Minor

Major

Minor

 

Vehicle Type

Interstate

Principal

Arterials

Collector

Collector

Single-unit trucks

2-axle, 4-tire

0.003

0.003

0.003

0.017

0.003

2-axle, 6-tire

0.21

0.25

0.28

0.41

0.19

3-axle or more

0.61

0.86

1.06

1.25

0.45

All single units

0.06

0.08

0.08

0.12

0.03

Tractor semi-trailers

4-axle or less

0.62

0.92

0.62

0.37

0.91

5-axle

1.09

1.25

1.05

1.67

1.11

6-axle or more

1.23

1.54

1.04

2.21

1.35

All multiple units

1.04

1.21

0.97

1.52

1.08

ALL TRUCKS

0.52

0.38

0.21

0.30

0.12

   

34

Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering Public Works Engineering Dept.

From MS-1, Table IV-5

 
Truck Distribution - Rural  

Truck Distribution - Rural

 
 

Other

Minor

Major

Minor

Vehicle Type

Interstate

Principal

Arterials

Collector

Collector

Single-unit trucks

2-axle, 4-tire

43

60

71

73

80

2-axle, 6-tire

8

10

11

10

10

3-axle or more

2

3

4

4

2

All single units

53

73

86

87

92

Tractor semi-trailers

4-axle or less

5

3

3

2

2

5-axle

41

23

11

10

6

6-axle or more

1

1

<1

1

<1

All multiple units

47

27

14

13

8

ALL TRUCKS

100

100

100

100

100

 

From MS-1, Table IV-1

 

Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering Public Works Engineering Dept.

 
Truck Distribution – Urban

Truck Distribution Urban

 

Other

Minor

Major

Minor

Vehicle Type

Interstate

Principal

Arterials

Collector

Collector

Single-unit trucks

2-axle, 4-tire

52

68

67

84

86

2-axle, 6-tire

12

12

15

9

11

3-axle or more

2

4

3

2

<1

All single units

66

82

85

95

97

Tractor semi-trailers

4-axle or less

5

5

3

2

1

5-axle

28

13

12

3

2

6-axle or more

1

<1

<1

<1

<1

All multiple units

34

18

15

5

3

ALL TRUCKS

100

100

100

100

100

   

36

Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering Public Works Engineering Dept.

From MS-1, Table IV-1

 
Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering Dept.
Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering Dept.
- Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering Dept. Traffic Analysis ESAL = 365(f d )(

Traffic Analysis

ESAL = 365(f d )(d f )(G jt )S(AADT i )(N i )(F Ei )using LEF

ESAL = 365(f d )(d f )(G jt )S(AADT i )(T i ) using Truck Factor

ESAL

= Equivalent 18,000 lb single axle load

AADT i = First year annual average daily traffic for axle i in both directio

G jt

f d

d f

N i

F Ei

T i

= growth factor for growth rate j and design period t

= lane distribution factor = directional distribution factor = Number of axles = Load equivalency factor for axle i = Truck Factor

38

Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering Public Works Engineering Dept.

Directional Distribution Percentage of truck traffic traveling in one direction 47% 53% Mansoura University -
Directional Distribution
Percentage of truck traffic traveling
in one direction
47%
53%
Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering Dept.
Lane Distribution ADT 20,000 ADT 60,000 25% trucks 8% trucks 75% trucks 39% trucks 53%
Lane Distribution
ADT 20,000
ADT 60,000
25% trucks
8% trucks
75% trucks
39% trucks
53% trucks
Design for
worst case!!
Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering Dept.
Lane Distribution Factor N o. of Traffic Lanes % Trucks in in each Direction Design
Lane Distribution Factor N o. of Traffic Lanes % Trucks in in each Direction Design
Lane Distribution Factor N o. of Traffic Lanes % Trucks in in each Direction Design

Lane Distribution Factor

N o. of Traffic Lanes

% Trucks in

in each Direction

Design Lane

1

100

2

80100

3

6080

4 or more

5075

Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering Public Works Engineering Dept.

Direction and Lane Factors (d f Xf d ) Number of Traffic Lanes (Two Directions)
Direction and Lane Factors (d f Xf d ) Number of Traffic Lanes (Two Directions)
Direction and Lane Factors (d f Xf d ) Number of Traffic Lanes (Two Directions)

Direction and Lane Factors (d f Xf d )

Number of Traffic Lanes (Two Directions)

% Trucks in design lane

2

50

4

45

6 or more

40

42

Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering Public Works Engineering Dept.

Growth Factor (G) Based on standard compound growth equations. G     r

Growth Factor (G)

Based on standard compound growth equations.

G

r

n

1

1

r

r = growth rate n = Design period, years

For annual growth rate (r=0), G = n

r = 2 -7 % Egyptian Code

(Huang, 1993)

43

Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering Public Works Engineering Dept.

Example of Single Axle Growth 400000 300000 200000 100000 0 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040
Example of Single Axle Growth 400000 300000 200000 100000 0 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040
Example of Single Axle Growth 400000 300000 200000 100000 0 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040
Example of Single Axle Growth 400000 300000 200000 100000 0 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040
Example of Single Axle Growth
400000
300000
200000
100000
0
2000
2010
2020
2030
2040
Year
Projected number of
single axles

Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering Public Works Engineering Dept.

  Example 1 - Calculation of ESALS
 

Example 1 - Calculation of ESALS

 

Axle Load, kips

# of Axles per 1000 trucks

 

Axle Load, kips

# of Axles per 1000 trucks

 
 

Tandem Axles

 

Single Axles

 

14

1

2

753

16

5

4

299

18

15

6

105

20

20

8

34

22

36

10

42

24

42

12

30

26

84

14

41

28

92

16

93

30

50

18

110

32

12

20

80

34

8

22

50

36

4

24

11

38

2

 

40

1

     

42

1

 

Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering Public Works Engineering Dept.

 
Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering Dept.
Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering – Public Works Engineering Dept.
Axle Load Spectra 000169-South, VC 9, Tandem Axles 18% January 16% February March 14% April
Axle Load Spectra 000169-South, VC 9, Tandem Axles 18% January 16% February March 14% April
Axle Load Spectra 000169-South, VC 9, Tandem Axles 18% January 16% February March 14% April

Axle Load Spectra

000169-South, VC 9, Tandem Axles 18% January 16% February March 14% April 12% May June
000169-South, VC 9, Tandem Axles
18%
January
16%
February
March
14%
April
12%
May
June
10%
July
August
8%
September
6%
October
November
4%
December
2%
0%
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
70000
80000
90000
Axle Load, lb
Percent Axles

El-Badawy, et al. TRB, 2012

Mansoura University - Faculty of Engineering Public Works Engineering Dept.