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1. If an organism is said to be a hybrid, that means they are…?

A. Homozygous dominant C. Homozygous recessive


B. Heterozygous D. True breeding'
2. A punnett square is used to determine the
A. Result of Meiosis 1 C. Result of segregation
B. Probable outcome of a cross D. actual outcome of a cross
3.

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1. Factors that control traits are called


a. genes.
b. purebreds.
c. recessives.
d. parents.

2. Scientists call an organism that has two different alleles for a trait a
a. hybrid.
b. trait.
c. purebred.
d. factor.

3. What does the notation TT mean to geneticists?


a. two dominant alleles
b. two recessive alleles
c. at least one dominant allele
d. one dominant and one recessive allelle

4. What does the notation Tt mean to geneticists?


a. two dominant alleles
b. two recessive alleles
c. at least one recessive allele
d. one dominant allele and one recessive allelle

5. What is probability?
a. the actual results from a series of events
b. the likelihood that a particular event will occur
c. the way the results of one event affect the next event
d. the number of times a coin lands heads up

6. What does a Punnett square show?


a. all the possible outcomes of a genetic cross
b. only the dominant alleles in a genetic cross
c. only the recessive alleles in a genetic cross
d. all of Mendel’s discoveries about genetic crosses
7. If a homozygous black guinea pig (BB) is crossed with a homozygous white guinea pig (bb),
what is the probability that an offspring will have black fur?
a. 25 percent
b. 50 percent
c. 75 percent
d. 100 percent

8. An organism’s physical appearance is its


a. genotype.
b. phenotype.
c. codominance.
d. heterozygous.

9. What does codominance mean in genetics?


a. Both alleles are dominant.
b. Both alleles are recessive.
c. The alleles are neither dominant nor recessive.
d. Each allele is both dominant and recessive.

10. What happens during meiosis?


a. Each sex cell loses half of its chromosomes.
b. Chromosome pairs separate to form new sex cells.
c. Each sex cell copies itself to form four new chromosomes.
d. Chromosome pairs remain together when new sex cells are formed.

11. When sex cells combine to produce offspring, each sex cell will contribute
a. one fourth of the normal number of chromosomes.
b. half the normal number of chromosomes.
c. the normal number of chromosomes.
d. twice the normal number of chromosomes.

12. What is a mutation?


a. any change that is harmful to an organism
b. any change in a gene or chromosome
c. any change that is helpful to an organism
d. any change in the phenotype of a cell

13. Which term refers to physical characteristics that are studied in genetics?
a. traits
b. offspring
c. generations
d. hybrids
14. The different forms of a gene are called
a. alleles.
b. factors.
c. masks.
d. traits.

15. Where does protein synthesis take place?


a. in the ribosomes in the nucleus of the cell
b. on the ribosomes in the cytoplasm of the cell
c. in the chromosomes in the nucleus of the cell
d. on the chromosomes in the cytoplasm of the cell

16. What does the notation tt mean to geneticists?


a. two dominant alleles
b. two recessive alleles
c. at least one dominant allele
d. one dominant and one recessive allelle

17. An organism’s genotype is its


a. genetic makeup
b. feather color
c. physical appearance
d. stem height

18. Which nitrogen base in RNA is NOT part of DNA?


a. adenine
b. guanine
c. cytosine
d. uracil

19. An organism that has two identical alleles for a trait is


a. codominant.
b. tall.
c. homozygous.
d. heterozygous.

20. A heterozygous organism has


a. three different alleles for a trait.
b. two identical alleles for a trait.
c. only one allele for a trait.
d. two different alleles for a trait.

21. Which of these traits is controlled by a gene with multiple alleles?


a. straight hairline
b. smile dimples
c. widow’s peak
d. blood type

22. Which combination of sex chromosomes results in a male human being?


a. XX
b. YY
c. XY
d. either XX or YY

23. Why are sex-linked traits more common in males than in females?
a. All alleles on the X chromosome are dominant.
b. All alleles on the Y chromosome are recessive.
c. A recessive allele on the X chromosome will always produce the trait in a
male.
d. Any allele on the Y chromosome will be codominant with the matching
allele on the X chromosome.

24. How does a geneticist use pedigrees?


a. to create genetic crosses
b. to replicate identical strings of DNA
c. to prove that sex-linked traits are caused by codominant alleles
d. to trace the inheritance of traits over generations of families

25. What is a pedigree?


a. a chart that tracks which members of a family have a particular trait
b. a geneticist who studies the inheritance of traits in humans
c. a picture of all of the chromosomes in a cell
d. an allele passed from parent to child on a sex chromosome

26. Genetic disorders are caused by


a. pedigrees.
b. mutations.
c. dominant alleles.
d. sickle-shaped cells.

27. Which genetic disorder causes the body to produce unusually thick mucus in the lungs and
intestines?
a. hemophilia
b. Down syndrome
c. cystic fibrosis
d. sickle-cell disease

28. Cloning results in two organisms that are


a. both adult mammals.
b. produced from cuttings.
c. genetically similar.
d. genetically identical.

29. Which of these is an example of the benefits of genetic engineering?


a. cross-breeding to create disease-resistant crops
b. creating human insulin to treat people with diabetes
c. analyzing karyotypes and pedigree charts
d. growing a new plant from a cutting

30. No two people have the same DNA, except for


a. crime suspects.
b. brothers.
c. sisters.
d. identical twins.

31. Sex-linked genes are genes on


a. the X chromosome only.
b. the Y chromosome only.
c. the X and Y chromosomes.
d. all 23 pairs of chromosomes.

32. A carrier is a person who has


a. one recessive and one dominant allele for a trait.
b. two recessive alleles for a trait.
c. two dominant alleles for a trait.
d. more than two alleles for a trait.

Short Answer

Use the diagram to answer each question.


33. Which trait - white flowers or purple flowers - is controlled by a dominant allele? Which is
controlled by a recessive allele? How do you know?

34. In which generation are the parents purebred? In which generation are they hybrids?

35. In the F1 generation, what is the genotype of the offspring? What is their phenotype?

Use the diagram to answer each question.


36. What do the circles in the pedigree represent? What do the squares represent?

37. Which pairs of individuals in the pedigree have children?

38. Which individuals have the trait that is traced by the pedigree?

39. Which individuals are carriers of the trait that is traced by the pedigree?
Essay

40. In pea plants, the allele for smooth pods (S) is dominant over the allele for pinched pods (s).
Construct a Punnett square that shows a cross between an SS plant and an Ss plant. Predict
what percent of the offspring are likely to have smooth pods.

41. Is it possible for a son to inherit an allele on an X chromosome from his father? Explain why
or why not.

Law of segregation
states that d ring meiosis, the factors that contro* each traitse(arate and on*y ______ from each (air is2are
(assed to the o s(ring.

The composition of an organism on the genetic level is its


a. genotype
b. phenotype
c. adaptations
d. evolution

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


Which of the following refers to the location where genes are typically found?
a. chromosomes
b. proteins
c. alleles
d. sex cells

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


What kind of plants did Mendel use in his study of heredity?
a. rose
b. pea
c. maize
d. tundra

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


Forms of a gene that are different are called .
a. genes
b. chromosomes
c. DNA
d. alleles

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


Another way that genetic variation is introduced into a population would
be .(Error occurs during the replication of DNA.)
a. Mutation
b. Meiosis
c. Mitosis

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


Genetics concerns itself with understanding which of the following?
a. heredity
b. dominance
c. pea plants

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


The science of heredity is called .
a. genetics
b. extinction
c. evolution
d. natural selection

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


According to Mendel, how many alleles coding for a specific trait does an offspring
inherent from a parent?
a. two
b. three
c. one
d. four

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


Passing traits from parents to offspring is called
a. genetics
b. heredity
c. evolution
d. gene

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


Which of the following refers to both an organism's individual genetic constitution and
the effects of the environment on the organism's genetic constitution?
a. phenotype
b. genotype
c. gene

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


Which process will result in the production of sex cells?
a. mitosis
b. photosynthesis
c. meiosis
d. probability

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


Which of the following terms correctly describes transferring a portion of DNA between
organisms?
a. selective breeding
b. natural selection
c. internal fertilization
d. genetic engineering

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


What is a Punnett square used to do?
a. to show all the possible combinations of hair colors
b. to show all possible shoe sizes
c. to show DNA type
d. to show all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


In a Punnett square, when a homozygous (aa) and homozygous (AA) combine, what
percent will get a dominant allele (Aa or AA)?
a. 25%
b. 50%
c. 75%
d. 100%

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


Which of the following correctly defines a pedigree?
a. A family tree
b. A chart organizing genetic conditions passed down in a family
c. A chart showing the family's DNA strains
d. A flow chart

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


Parents give traits to their offspring through .
a. genes
b. heredity
c. alleles
d. natural selection
Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics
Passing traits on from parents to offspring is known as
a. probability
b. heredity
c. recessive
d. meiosis

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


What is a phenotype?
a. an organism's genetic makeup or allele combination
b. an organism's physical appearance or visible traits

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


A Punnett square is a chart that shows possible gene
combinations.

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


Features that you inherit from your parents are called
a. heredity
b. genes
c. traits
d. dominant

In order to a female child to be born there must be


a. an X and Y chromosome
b. two X chromosomes
c. two Y chromosomes

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


Which of the following correctly describes an important result of the process known as
meiosis?
a. chromosomes are copied twice
b. the nucleus divides once
c. four cells are produced from a single cell
d. two cells are produced from a single cell

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


What are chromosomes?
a. consists of DNA and protein molecules coiled into a definite shape.
b. the process in which DNA is copied

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


Which of the following correctly describes the term "heterozygous"?
a. The alleles are the same
b. The alleles are different
c. There is no allele
d. There are two pairs of alleles
Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics
A gene is a series of base pairs, or rungs, on a strand of DNA.

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


Which of the following accounts for pink flowers being produced from a cross between a
red flower and a white flower?
a. multiple alleles
b. inbreeding
c. incomplete dominance
d. polygenic inheritance

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


A genotype with the alleles AA or Aa would be considered .
a. dominant
b. recessive
c. Punnett
d. evolved

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


The transmission of characteristics from one generation to the next is
called heredity .

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


Information that genes have plays an important role in determining
a. alleles
b. ribosomes
c. chromosomes
d. traits

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


If a cat cell has 38 chromosomes, how many chromosomes will the cat's sex cell
have? 19

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


Which is true of a human male?
a. he has only one sex chromosome
b. he has two X chromosomes
c. he has one X chromosome and one Y chromosome
d. he has two Y chromosomes

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


All genetic traits are visible.
a. True
b. False

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


The Punnett square represents a cross between two parent pea plants. The gene for
round shape (R) is
dominant over the gene for wrinkled shape (r).
What percentage of the offspring will have a round shape?

a. 25 %
b. 50 %
c. 75 %
d. 100 %

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


What is true about the offspring from asexual reproduction?
a. They are genetically distinct and different in their physical traits
b. They are always twins
c. They are genetically identical
d. They are very similar, but not identical

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


Which of these choices describes the purpose of a Punnett square?
a. to diagram family relationships that include several generations
b. to explain why some genes are recessive and others are dominant
c. to compare inherited traits to acquired traits
d. to illustrate how the alleles of parents might be passed on to their offspring

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


Differences among organisms that are passed on from parent to offspring that help them
survive better are known as .
a. Mutations
b. Genetic variations
c. Species
d. Genetic bottlenecking

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


In guinea pigs, short fur (S) is dominant, and long fur (s) is recessive. A female guinea
pig with short fur is mated with a male long fur. Half of the guinea pigs in the litter have
short fur, and the other half have long fur. What are the genotypes of the mother and
father guinea pigs?
a. SS and ss
b. Ss and Ss
c. ss and ss
d. Ss and ss

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


The study of heredity is called genetics .

Grade 8DNA, RNA, and Genetics


The majority of sex-linked genes can be found on the
a. X chromosome
b. dominant chromosome
c. Y chromosome
d. autosomes