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Integrated Skills in English (ISE) Guide for Teachers — ISE II (B2) Reading & Writing

Integrated Skills in English (ISE) Guide for Teachers — ISE II (B2)

Reading & Writing | Speaking & Listening

Trinity College London www.trinitycollege.com

Charity number 1014792 Patron HRH The Duke of Kent KG

Copyright © 2015 Trinity College London Published by Trinity College London First edition, January 2015

Contents

ISE II Reading & Writing exam

Contents

Overview of the ISE Reading & Writing exam 6 Who is ISE Reading & Writing
Overview of the ISE Reading & Writing exam
6
Who is ISE Reading & Writing for?
6
Introduction to ISE Reading & Writing tasks
Glossary of reading skills for ISE II
7
8
Glossary of writing aims for ISE II
Candidate profile
9
10
Content of ISE II Reading & Writing
11
Task 1 — Long reading
11
Task 2 — Multi-text reading
12
Task 3 — Reading into writing
Task 4 — Extended writing
13
13
Preparation ideas for ISE II Reading & Writing
14
Task 1 — Long reading: Reduce, reuse, recycle
14
Task 2 — Multi-text reading: Mysterious monsters
Task 3 — Reading into writing: Happiness report
18
23
Task 4 — Extended writing: The advantages and disadvantages of using mobile phones
31
ISE II Speaking & Listening exam
Overview of the ISE Speaking & Listening exam
40
Who is ISE Speaking & Listening for?
40
Introduction to ISE Speaking & Listening tasks
Glossary of speaking skills for ISE II
41
43
Glossary of listening skills for ISE II
Candidate profile
43
44
Content of ISE II Speaking & Listening
45
Topic task
45
Collaborative task
45
Conversation task
46
Independent listening task
47
Preparation ideas for ISE II Speaking & Listening
48
Topic task: Talking about various topics from healthy eating to extreme sports
Collaborative task: Talking about school uniforms
48
52
Conversation task: A conversation about living in society today
55
Appendices
Appendix 1 — Sample Reading & Writing exam paper
62
Appendix 2 — Information on the Speaking & Listening exam
Appendix 3 — Suggested grammar for ISE II
73
75

333

Guide for Teachers — ISE II

Foreword

Trinity’s Integrated Skills in English (ISE) exam assesses all four language skills — reading, writing, speaking and listening. In the ISE exam, all four skills are tested in an integrated way, reflecting how skills are used in real-life situations.

This guide will:

give you a brief overview of the two modules of the ISE II exam — Reading & Writing and Speaking & Listening

offer some practical advice for preparing students for each task in the exam

provide some example activities that you can use in the classroom.

For more classroom activities to help prepare your students for ISE as well as the exam specifications documents see www.trinitycollege.com/ISE

Please note that ISE IV has a different format — see www.trinitycollege.com/ISE for details.

ISE II Reading & Writing exam

Overview of the ISE Reading & Writing exam

Trinity’s ISE Reading & Writing exam tests reading and writing skills through an integrated approach, reflecting the way reading and writing interact in the real world. The ISE Reading & Writing exam is currently offered at four levels of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) from A2 to C1. The purpose of the exam is to assess candidates’ skills in reading and writing in the English language in a context which reflects their real world activity and their reason for learning English.

The reading texts reflect the range of sources a student may encounter in an educational or academic context and the way that they need to find, select and report relevant and appropriate information.

The writing tasks reflect the kind of activities a student does in a school or college context, such as essay writing.

Who is ISE Reading & Writing for?

The intended candidate is a young person or adult, typically at secondary school or college who is using English as a second or foreign language as part of their studies in order to develop their skills and improve their knowledge of a range of subject areas. The typical ISE candidate is aged between 11 and 19, but may be older.

Candidates at the lower levels of the exam (ISE Foundation and ISE I) are generally young people or adults in school or college who are taking ISE as part of their preparation for entrance into university or as evidence to progress to a higher level of English study within their mainstream or English language school. At the higher levels of the exam (ISE II and ISE III), candidates are typically young people or adults preparing for further education who are required to prove their English language proficiency levels within an educational context.

ISE II Reading & Writing exam

Introduction to ISE Reading & Writing tasks

The Reading & Writing exam consists of four tasks.

Task 1 is the Long reading task, where candidates read a single text and answer 15 questions. The aims of this task are to understand the main idea of a paragraph or text and to understand specific information at sentence, phrase and word levels.

Task 2 is the Multi-text reading task, where candidates read three texts (in ISE Foundation) or four texts (in ISE I, II and III) and answer 15 questions. The aims of this task are to understand the main idea of a paragraph or text, to understand specific information at sentence, phrase and word levels and to find specific information in different texts in order to create a text summary.

Task 3 is the Reading into writing task, where candidates produce a piece of writing based on the three or four texts in Task 2.

Task 4 is the Extended writing task, where candidates produce a piece of writing in
Task 4 is the Extended writing task, where candidates produce a piece of writing in response to a question.
ISE Foundation
ISE I
ISE II
ISE III
CEFR level
A2
B1
B2
C1
Time
2 hours
2 hours
2 hours
2 hours
Task 1
Long reading
Long reading
Long reading
Long reading
◗ 300 words
◗ 400 words
◗ 500 words
◗ 700 words
◗ 15 questions
◗ 15 questions
◗ 15 questions
◗ 15 questions
Task 2
Multi-text reading
Multi-text reading
Multi-text reading
Multi-text reading
◗ 3 texts
◗ 4 texts
◗ 4 texts
◗ 4 texts
◗ 300 words
◗ 400 words
◗ 500 words
◗ 700 words
◗ 15 questions
◗ 15 questions
◗ 15 questions
◗ 15 questions
Task 3
Reading into writing
Reading into writing
Reading into writing
Reading into writing
70–100 words
100–130 words
150–180 words
200–230 words
Task 4
Extended writing
Extended writing
Extended writing
Extended writing
◗ 70–100 words
◗ 100–130 words
◗ 150–180 words
◗ 200–230 words

Please see pages 8 and 9 for glossaries of reading skills and writing aims for ISE II.

ISE II Reading & Writing exam

Glossary of reading skills for ISE II

Reading for general comprehension ◗ Reading the details of a wide range of lengthy, complex
Reading for general
comprehension
◗ Reading the details of a wide range of lengthy, complex texts likely to be
encountered in social, professional or academic life
Skimming
◗ Reading to get the general meaning of the paragraph, text or infographic
(illustration with text)
Reading for gist
◗ Reading to get the main idea of the paragraph, text or infographic
◗ Quickly identifying the content and relevance of news items, articles and
reports on a wide range of professional topics and decide if closer study
is
worthwhile
Scanning
◗ Reading long and complex texts or infographics to find relevant details
◗ Finding information, ideas and opinions from highly specialised sources
on a familiar topic or within his/her field of interest
Careful reading to
understand specific
facts, information
and significant points
◗ Reading to understand specific, factual information at the word, phrase
or sentence level
◗ Reading to understand important points in a text
◗ Looking for main points and clues from context
◗ Identifying which information is factual, which is opinion
◗ Identifying which information is the main point and which information is
an example, or details
◗ Comparing and evaluating information at sentence, phrase and word level
◗ Adapting style and speed of reading to different texts and purposes
Deducing meaning
◗ Inferring meaning, eg the writer’s attitude, line of argument, mood and
intentions, and anticipate what will come next
◗ Guessing the meaning of unknown sentences, phrases and words from
their context
Understand a range
of texts
◗ Reading specialised articles outside his/her field, with occasional use of
a
dictionary to confirm understanding
◗ Reading articles and reports concerned with contemporary problems in
which the writers adopt particular positions or points of view
Summarising
◗ Reading to understand specific, factual information at word, phrase,
sentence and paragraph levels
◗ Reading to identify the main conclusions in clearly structured and
signposted argumentative texts
◗ Synthesising and evaluating information and arguments from a number
of different types of texts
◗ Summarising a wide range of factual and imaginative texts
◗ Commenting on and discussing contrasting points of view and the
main themes

Glossary of writing aims for ISE II

ISE II Reading & Writing exam

Reading for writing ◗ Showing understanding of reading texts ◗ Identifying common themes in reading
Reading for writing
◗ Showing understanding of reading texts
◗ Identifying common themes in reading texts
◗ Summarising or paraphrasing ideas from reading texts
Task fulfilment
◗ Answering the question fully
◗ Using the correct number of words to answer the question
◗ Showing awareness of the reader and the purpose for writing
Organisation and structure
◗ Presenting ideas and arguments clearly
◗ Using the best format to fulfil the task
◗ Structuring the writing appropriately, eg using beginnings and
endings and using paragraphs
Language control
◗ Using a range of grammar and vocabulary
◗ Using grammar and vocabulary accurately
◗ Using spelling and punctuation accurately

ISE II Reading & Writing exam

Candidate profile

Reading

A candidates who passes ISE II can understand a range of texts on familiar subjects and from a range of

specialised fields. In task 1 and task 2, they are assessed on their ability to read across several texts and demonstrate a range of reading skills including skimming, scanning, reading for gist, reading for main ideas or purpose, reading for detail, reading for specific information, inferring and summarising.

A candidate who successfully passes ISE II Reading can:

read with a large degree of independence, adapting style and speed of reading to different texts and purposes, using appropriate reference sources selectively

scan quickly through long and complex texts, locating relevant details

quickly identify the content and relevance of news items, articles and reports on a wide range of professional topics, deciding whether closer study is worthwhile

obtain information, ideas and opinions from highly specialised sources within his/her field

use a variety of strategies to achieve comprehension, including listening for main points and checking comprehension by using contextual clues

summarise a wide range of factual and imaginative texts, commenting on and discussing contrasting points of view and the main themes

use a broad active reading vocabulary, but may experience some difficulty with low-frequency idioms

understand specialised articles outside his/her field, provided he/she can use a dictionary occasionally to confirm his/her interpretation of terminology

understand articles and reports concerned with contemporary problems in which the writers adopt particular stances or viewpoints

paraphrase/summarise ideas, opinions, arguments and discussion

Reading into writing

In addition to the reading skills for task 1 and task 2 (above) and the writing competences for task 4

(below), a candidate who successfully passes ISE II Task 3 — Reading into writing can:

identify connections and themes between multiple texts in task 2

identify content from the text in task 2 that is relevant to task 3

synthesise information in task 2 to produce coherent responses to suit the purpose for writing in task 3 (eg to offer solutions to a problem and/or evaluation of the ideas)

Writing

In task 3 and task 4, candidates are assessed on their ability to write according to four categories:

Reading for writing

Task fulfilment

Organisation and structure

Language control

A candidate who successfully passes ISE II Task 3 — Reading into writing and Task 4 — Writing can:

synthesise and evaluate information and arguments from a number of sources

express news and views effectively in writing and relate to the views of others

write clear, detailed texts on a variety of subjects related to his/her interests, following established conventions of the genre concerned

write clear, detailed descriptions of real or imaginary events and experiences, marking the relationship between ideas in clear, connected text

write an essay or report that develops an argument systematically, with appropriate highlighting of significant points and relevant supporting detail, giving reasons in support of or against a particular point of view, and explaining the advantages and disadvantages of various options

evaluate different ideas or solutions to a problem

summarise a wide range of factual and imaginative texts, eg news items, interviews or documentaries containing opinions, commenting on, discussing and contrasting points of view arguments and the main themes

summarise the plot and sequence of events in a film or play.

These reading and writing profiles are based on the level Independent User, B2, of the Council of Europe’s Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR).

The candidate profile above is a simplified version for quick reference for teachers.

Content of ISE II Reading & Writing

ISE II Reading & Writing exam

Task 1 — Long reading

 

Task

One reading text followed by 15 questions

Text

Genre: The text is complex with factual ideas, opinions, argument and/or discussion. It is the type of text that the candidate sees in their own educational context (eg textbook, article, review, magazine, website).

Subject areas for ISE II:

Society and living standards

National customs

Personal values and ideals

Village and city life

The world of work

National and local produce and products

Natural environmental concerns

Public figures past and present

Early memories

Education

Pollution and recycling

Text length

500 words (approximately), divided into five paragraphs

Number of

15 questions in three sections

questions

Question types

Title matching (Questions 1–5)

These require the candidate to choose the most appropriate titles for each paragraph of the text. The text has five paragraphs and there are six titles to choose from. Some useful reading subskills to practise for this section are:

skimming

scanning

reading for gist

understanding the main ideas of each paragraph.

Selecting the true statements (Questions 6–10)

These require the candidate to select the five true statements from a list of eight possible answers. Five statements will be true according to the text and three will be false. Some useful reading subskills to practise for this section are:

careful reading for specific information

understanding specific, factual information at the sentence level

comparing, evaluating and inferring

distinguishing principal statement from supporting examples or details

distinguishing fact from opinion.

Completing sentences (gap fill) (Questions 11–15)

In this section, the candidate completes sentences with a word or phrase taken from the text (up to three words). Some useful reading subskills to practise for this section are:

careful reading for comprehension

understanding cohesion via lexico-grammar patterns or collocation

understanding specific, factual information at the word and/or phrase level OR inferring and understanding across paragraphs (eg writers’ attitude, line of argument etc).

Assessment

Each question is worth one mark.

Timing

Candidates are recommended to spend 20 minutes on this part of the exam.

ISE II Reading & Writing exam

Task 2 — Multi-text reading

 

Task

Four reading texts followed by 15 questions.

Text

Genre: The texts are complex with factual ideas, opinions, argument and/or discussion of the kind that would be familiar to the candidate from their own educational context. One text is a mainly visual representation of information with some text (for example a diagram, drawing, map or table, taken from a textbook, an encyclopaedia or an online discussion).

Subject areas for ISE II:

Society and living standards

National customs

Personal values and ideals

Village and city life

The world of work

National and local produce and products

Natural environmental concerns

Early memories

Public figures past and present

Pollution and recycling

Education

All four texts are on the same topic and should be thematically linked.

Text length

500 words (approximately) across the four texts. One text is mainly visual with some written language.

Number of

15 questions

questions

Question

Multiple matching (Questions 16–20)

types

In this section, the candidate chooses the most appropriate sentence to describe each text. Some useful reading subskills to practise for this section are:

skimming

scanning

reading for gist

reading for purpose or main ideas.

Selecting the true statements (Questions 21–25)

In this section, the candidate selects the five true statements from a list of eight possible answers. Five statements will be true according to the text and three will be false. Some useful reading subskills to practise for this section are:

careful reading for specific information

understand specific, factual information at the sentence level

Inferring

scanning.

Completing summary notes from a bank of options (gap fill) (Questions 26–30)

In this section, the candidate completes sentences with a word or phrase taken from the text (up to three words). Ten possible answers are given, out of which the candidate selects the correct five. Some useful reading subskills to practise for this section are:

careful reading for comprehension at the word and/or phrase level across the texts

inferring

summarising.

Assessment

Each question is worth one mark.

Timing

Candidates are recommended to spend 20 minutes on this part of the exam.

ISE II Reading & Writing exam

Task 3 — Reading into writing Task A writing task in which the four texts
Task 3 — Reading into writing
Task
A
writing task in which the four texts from task 2 are used to respond to a prompt.
The response should only take information from the texts in task 2.
There is space for planning the response.
The candidate should go back and check the response when they have finished.
Task focus
This section assesses the ability to:
◗ identify information that is relevant to the writing task and common themes and
links across multiple texts
◗ paraphrase/summarise factual ideas, opinions, arguments and/or discussion
◗ synthesise such information to produce coherent responses to suit the purpose
for writing (eg to offer solutions to a problem and/or evaluation of the ideas).
Output length
150–180 words
Genre
The writing genre will be one of the following:
◗ descriptive essay
◗ discursive essay
◗ argument essay
◗ report
◗ article (magazine or online).
Timing
Candidates are recommended to spend 40 minutes on this part of the exam.
Task 4 — Extended writing Task A writing task in which the candidate responds to
Task 4 — Extended writing
Task
A writing task in which the candidate responds to a prompt.
There is space for planning the response.
The candidate should go back and check the response when they have finished.
Task focus
This section assesses the ability to produce a clear and detailed text following the
instructions. The target language functions that the candidates are expected to use
are: express opinions, evaluation, making suggestions.
Output length
150–180 words
Genre
The writing genre will be one of the following:
◗ descriptive essay
◗ informal letter
◗ discursive essay
◗ formal letter or email
◗ argument essay
◗ review
◗ article (magazine or online)
◗ report.
◗ informal email
Topic
The writing prompt will be on one of the topics for ISE II:
◗ Society and living standards
◗ National customs
◗ Personal values and ideals
◗ Village and city life
◗ The world of work
◗ Natural environmental concerns
◗ National and local produce
and products
◗ Public figures past and present
◗ Early memories
◗ Education
◗ Pollution and recycling.
Timing
Candidates are recommended to spend 40 minutes on this part of the exam.
For a sample ISE Reading & Writing exam, please see Appendix 2.

ISE II Reading & Writing exam

Preparation ideas for ISE II Reading & Writing

Task 1 — Long reading: Reduce, reuse, recycle

Level: ISE II

Focus: Task 1 — Long reading

Aims : To develop reading strategies by reading a short article about the three Rs (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) and answer three sets of questions

Objectives : To scan an article for gist, to skim an article and answer ‘true/false/not given’ questions and to skim an article to complete sentences with information from the text

Skill: Skimming and scanning

Topic: Recycling and environmental concerns

Language functions: Giving advice, giving reasons, opinions and preferences

Lexis: Environmental concerns

Materials needed: Whiteboard, pens, slips of paper, one student worksheet per student and dictionaries

Timing: 60 minutes

Procedure

Preparation

1. Print or copy one worksheet per student.

2. Prepare slips of paper and write one of the following categories on each slip of paper: a group of teenagers, a group of elderly people, a group of very young children, a group of students, a group of soldiers, a group of housewives/husbands. There needs to be one slip of paper per two students. You can repeat the categories if necessary.

In class

1. Explain to the class that today in class they will be doing a reading activity that will help them to prepare for the Long reading task of the ISE II test.

2. Tell the class they are going to learn about what we should do with the waste and rubbish we produce. Write ‘waste’ and ‘rubbish’ on the whiteboard and elicit the meanings. Ask students to work in pairs and discuss what they do in their daily life to reduce waste. Carry out feedback as a group. Write suggestions on the board.

3. Put the following words on the board: ‘deal with’, ‘packaging’, ‘refuse’, ‘borrow’, ‘durable’, ‘collection points’, ‘create’, ‘fibre’. These words are in a text about the environment they are going to read later. Tell the students to discuss the meaning of each word in pairs. Let them look up any unknown words in a dictionary, if possible.

4. Go over the answers in open-class. Ask concept-check questions for one or two more challenging words. [Examples of concept-check questions: ‘do you say “yes” or “no” when you refuse to do something?‘ ‘What is another word for “create”?’]

5. Tell the students they are going to read about the three Rs of the environment. Write ‘The three Rs’ on the board. Give each student one worksheet and tell them they have two minutes to read the article. Tell the students they need to answer ‘A. What are the three Rs of the environment?’ Stop the students after two minutes and let them write down the answers. Then ask the students to compare their answers in pairs.

6. Go over the answer together as a class. [Answer: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle]

7. Tell the students they are going to read the article again but now they have more time. Ask the students to do task B. Tell the students that there are five statements and that they need to say whether each statement is true, false or not given. Check the students’ understanding of true, false and not given.

ISE II Reading & Writing exam

8. After four to five minutes, ask the students to compare their answers with their partner. Ask five students to come to the whiteboard and tell them to each write down one answer.

9. Go over the answers together as a class.

10.Tell the class they now need to complete task C which involves them completing the sentences at the bottom of the page by looking for the information in the text. Do one example together as a class. Ask the students to compare answers once they have finished.

11. Write the following words on the board: ‘teenagers’, ‘the elderly’, ‘very young children’, ‘students’, ‘soldiers’, ‘housewives/husbands’. Elicit for each group of people one example of items they use or buy on a regular basis and write it under the corresponding heading. [Examples: teenagers — fashionable clothes, the elderly — newspapers, very young children — toys, soldiers — bullets, housewives/husbands — a mop.]

12. Now ask the students to work in pairs. Give each pair one of the slips of paper that you prepared before the class. Tell them they cannot show their slip of paper to the other students. Ask each pair to brainstorm ideas on what this particular group uses on a daily basis. Then ask the students to brainstorm ideas on how this particular group can reduce, reuse and recycle.

13. After 5 to 10 minutes ask the students to do present their ideas for the class. The other students guess which group the presentation is for.

Extension activity

For students who finish the task early, tell them to write one or two True/False questions for the text. They can then ask their partner the questions and feedback on their answers.

Further support activity

1. Ask stronger students to check the answers of students who are finding the task difficult.

2. Number the lines in the text and ask the students finding the task more challenging to locate the answers in the text. Alternatively ask them to underline the answers in the text.

3. Tell the students finding the task more challenging that the answer for the gist task can be found in the first paragraph.

4. Give students finding the task more challenging more time to complete the True/False/Not Given questions.

Homework

1. Ask the students to look online or in a book for more ideas on how to reduce, reuse and recycle. Ask the students to report back in the next class.

2. Ask students to find the video of the song ‘Reduce, Reuse, Recycle’ by Jack Johnson and the lyrics on the internet. Tell the students to listen to the song while following the lyrics. Ask the students in the next class if they liked the song.

ISE II Reading & Writing exam

ISE II Reading & Writing exam Student worksheet: The three Rs The three Rs of the

Student worksheet: The three Rs

The three Rs of the environment

People everywhere in the world produce a lot of rubbish but there is not enough space and landfills are filling up quickly. If we want to save our planet, then the so-called three Rs are essential for learning how to deal with the waste we produce. The three Rs are reduce, reuse, and recycle. Here are a number of tips on what you can do to save the environment.

Reduce

A good place to start is by buying things that don’t have a lot of packaging. Then there are items

you may not use very often, so you might as well borrow them from someone instead of buying them. Nowadays, newspapers can be read online so buying the paper edition is not necessary. The same goes for emails and hence it is usually not necessary to print them out. Generally, the use of electricity can be greatly reduced by, for example, turning off lights that are not used.

Reuse When you go shopping, refuse plastic bags and bring a bag with you instead. If you’re not buying a lot, a bag is not necessary to begin with. Reusable bags should be heavier and more durable. If you

prepare your lunch at home, put it in a plastic lunch box. I always keep shoe boxes as they are great

to store stuff. Many cities have collection points for used clothes. If you have clothes that are still in

good shape, you can bring them to the collection points rather than throwing them away.

Recycle Recycling is a process that makes it possible to create new products out of old ones. Paper, aluminum, glass and plastic can often be recycled.

Glass has been used for thousands of years and is relatively easy to recycle. Aluminium can be recycled quickly and easily. Paper is recyclable but it cannot be recycled forever. The small fibres

in paper eventually become very weak so that they can’t be recycled into good paper anymore.

Also, not every type of paper is recyclable as some high-quality paper is too expensive to recycle.

A. Read the text quickly. What are the three Rs of the environment?

B. Read the text again. Are the statements True, False or Not Given?

Statements True, False or Not Given? 1. The author suggests borrowing certain items rather than
Statements
True, False or Not Given?
1. The author suggests borrowing certain items rather than buying them.
2. According to the author, shoe boxes can be very useful to store things.
3. Used clothes can be donated.
4. It’s not possible to recycle aluminum over and over again.
5. Empty plastic bottles are relatively easy to recycle.

C.

Complete the sentences with information from the text.

 

1.

are almost to full capacity.

 

2.

If possible, try to buy items with little or no

 

.

3.

Bring your own bag but make sure it is

 

and

.

4.

It’s a waste of paper if you print your

 

.

5.

Many cities have

where people can take used garments that are then

redistributed to people in need.

 

6.

There is a limit to how many times paper can be recycled because it is made of

.

ISE II Reading & Writing exam

Answer key

A. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle

B. 1. True 2. True 3. True 4. False 5. Not Given

C. 1. Landfills 2. Packaging 3. Heavy, durable 4. Emails 5. Collection points 6. Fibre

ISE II Reading & Writing exam

Task 2 — Multi-text reading: Mysterious monsters

Level: ISE II

Focus: Task 2 — Multi-text reading

Aims : To develop reading strategies by reading texts about mysterious monsters and answering three sets of questions

Objectives : To scan and skim the four texts and decide which text each question refers to, to show understanding at sentence level by selecting true statements from a list and to complete summary notes

Skill: Skimming, scanning and summarising

Topic: Unexplained phenomena and events

Language functions: Speculating and expressing and expanding ideas and opinions

Lexis: Lexis related to mysteries

Materials needed: Whiteboard, pens, one worksheet per student and dictionaries

Timing: 1 hour

Procedure

Preparation

Print or copy one student worksheet per student.

In class

1. Explain to the class that today they will be doing a reading activity that will help them to prepare for Reading Task 2 — Multi-text reading of the ISE II exam. Tell the students that in this part of the exam they are given four short reading texts with a total length of 450–500 words to read and answer questions on. They have 20 minutes to complete the task. They then use this information in task 3 to complete a writing task.

2. Tell the students they are going to read about four mysterious monsters. Write monsters on the board and elicit its meaning.

3. Give each student one worksheet. Ask the students to read the texts quickly to find out what the four mysterious monsters are. Ask the students to compare their answers in pairs and then give feedback as a group. [Answers: 1. A giant worm or slug 2. A lake creature 3. An enormous fish 4. A huge lizard]

4. Write the following questions on the board and ask students to discuss them in pairs for five minutes:

What makes a mysterious monster?

Where is a good place for a mysterious monster to live?

Do you have any mysterious monster stories from your country?

Carry out group feedback.

5. Give each student one worksheet and tell them to complete task A. Tell the students that they need to decide which text each question is referring to. Tell the students that they are practising their skimming skills and that this means that they need to read quickly without focusing on details or words they don’t know. Tell the students that they have only three minutes to complete the task. Stop the students after three minutes and let them write down the answers. Then ask the students to compare their answers in pairs.

6. Go over the answers together as a class and write the answers on the board.

ISE II Reading & Writing exam

7. Tell the students that they are going to read the texts again. Ask them to carry out task B. Tell the students that they need to put a tick () next to the five statements that are true according to the information in the texts. Tell the students that they are now practising their scanning skills, which means that they look for specific details in the text. Tell the students that they now have four to five minutes to complete the task because they need to read more carefully. After four to five minutes, ask the students to compare their answers in pairs. Go over the answers together as a class.

8. Ask students if they found the task difficult and if they felt they had enough time to complete the task.

9. Tell the class they now need to complete task C which involves the students completing the summary notes by looking for specific information in the text. Tell the students they have seven minutes to complete this task. Do one example together as a class. Ask the students to compare answers once they have finished. Go over the answers and put them up on the board.

10.Elicit from the students what the different parts of the reading task are. Tell them that each task focuses on different reading skills. Explain to the students that they can prepare for the exam tasks by finding short texts online and carrying out three different tasks. Tell the students that for the first task they should read quickly and answer the question: ‘What is the text about?’ Then they should read the text again but more carefully and find five details in the text. The third time they read they should give themselves more time and write a short summary.

Extension activities

1. Ask the class to discuss, in pairs, different kinds of mysterious monsters. Carry out feedback as a group.

2. Ask students to find a new word in the text and use it in a sentence.

Further support activities

Ask the students finding the task more challenging to underline the answers in the text.

Homework

Ask the students to look online or in a book for another mysterious monster. Ask the students to report back in the next class.

ISE II Reading & Writing exam

ISE II Reading & Writing exam Student worksheet: Mysterious Monsters Read the following text and answer

Student worksheet: Mysterious Monsters

Read the following text and answer the questions below.

Mysterious Monsters

1. Uruguay, a country in South America is not short of mysteries. This time the mystery is about what seems to be a really scary creature. There have been sightings of a terrifying subterranean monster. The creature looks like a giant worm or slug that crawls out of the earth. It is believed to be about 4 metres in length. There have been similar eyewitness reports in other South American countries. It is believed that the snake-like creatures have large tentacles which would make it look like a very scary monster indeed. The skin is reported as being smooth and the colour is supposed to be dark. Scientists speculate that the creatures could be some kind of amphibian without limbs.

2. Vancouver Island is a mysterious island off the coast of North America. Why is it mysterious?

It has wild nature with mountains, woodlands and extremely deep lakes. The deepest lake at

600 metres is called Cameron Lake. Several scientists are investigating the big lake following reports of a mysterious lake creature. A number of people are sceptical and suggest the large creature is just a beaver or perhaps an otter. However, researchers used special scanners to explore the depths of the lake and discovered something big that moves around deep under water. There is a possibility that it is a subterranean river. It has also been suggested that it is something both more exciting and terrifying: a lake creature.

3. Lake Iliamana is a huge lake in Alaska in North America. The lake is over 120 kilometres long. Gigantic lakes are often thought of as mysterious; think for example of the famous Loch Ness monster in Scotland. Now Lake Iliamana has its own monster. Airplanes flying over the lake claim to have seen an enormous fish of about 9 metres long. The fish is reported to be silver-coloured and to resemble a shark. Different theories were put forward, some more plausible than others. One of the more credible ones is that the fish are sleeper sharks. The mystery remains though as how could they have adapted to freshwater?

4. Australia is famous for its many unique animals. It does not come as a surprise then that sightings of mysterious monsters have been reported in Australia. It is known that a huge lizard of 6 metres in length called the Megalania lived in Australia. The dinosaur has been extinct for thousands of years or so it is believed. The original people of Australia, the Aboriginals claim the huge lizard still exists. There have indeed been several sightings that sound very much like what the Megalania would have looked like. A number of farmers for example have reported a huge lizard of over 4 metres in length. In the late seventies,

a scientist was returning to his vehicle after a long day working in the field when he saw

something big. He thought it might just be a log so he got into his car and started the engine. Then the object began to move…

ISE II Reading & Writing exam

A. Read the four texts and decide which text each question refers to — A, B, C or D.

Which text

1.

describes how technology was used to look for monsters?

Text:

2.

implies that an eye witness saw a monster when driving?

Text:

3.

refers to a creature with a frightening appearance?

Text:

4.

mentions a country that has more mysteries than most?

Text:

5.

gives scientific evidence of movement under water?

Text:

B.

Read the text again. Tick () the five statements from 1–8 below that are true according to the information given in the four texts.

C.

Statements True? 1. Giant worms or slugs have been seen in more than one country.
Statements
True?
1. Giant worms or slugs have been seen in more than one country.
2. Scientists in Uruguay are not convinced that a monster exists.
3. Scientific research in Vancouver has been inconclusive.
4. Lake creatures usually live in shallow water.
5. A sleeper shark has been spotted in Lake Iliamana.
6. There are several likely explanations for what people have seen
in Alaska.
7. Australia has wildlife that is not seen in other countries.
8. A scientist has recently reported seeing a lizard-like creature
Summary notes: Mysterious monsters ◗ Uruguay is thought to be the home of an underground
Summary notes: Mysterious monsters
◗ Uruguay is thought to be the home of an underground living creature without any
(1.)
.
◗ Scientists have discovered something moving in the depths of a lake in Vancouver.
◗ People often believe that (2.)
lakes are mysterious.
◗ In Alaska, the creature looks like a (3.)
.
◗ In Australia, there have been several sightings of a creature which looks like a lizard.
◗ (4.)
the local people in Australia, believe the monster exists.
◗ The monster in Australia is thought to be a dinosaur which everyone believed was
(5.)
.
C. Complete the summary notes below with suitable words or phrases from the texts.

ISE II Reading & Writing exam

Answer key

A.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

= text B = text D = text A = text A = text B

B.

True statements: 1, 2, 3, 6, 7

C.

1.

limbs

2.

gigantic

3.

shark

4.

Aboriginals

5.

extinct

ISE II Reading & Writing exam

Task 3 — Reading into writing: Happiness report

Level: ISE II

Focus: Task 3 — Reading into writing

Aims: Students practise writing a report based on four input texts

Objectives: Students can demonstrate their understanding of the input texts in a short written text, students can write a coherent text in the required format and students can locate and summarise/paraphrase ideas and attitudes provided in the texts

Skill: Incorporate information from input texts into a written report

Topic: Personal values and ideals

Language functions: Expressing agreement and disagreement, speculating, predicting and expressing certainty and uncertainty, eliciting further information and expressing and expanding ideas and opinions

Lexis: Vocabulary related to feelings and emotions and vocabulary related to research projects

Materials needed: Whiteboard, paper and pens and one student worksheet per student

Timing: 80 minutes

Procedure

Preparation

1. Print or copy one worksheet per student.

2. Think about how to explain the vocabulary in step 3 below.

In class

1. Tell students they are going to perform a writing task similar to task 3 of the ISE II Reading & Writing exam. Tell them the subject of their writing task will be ‘happiness’.

2. Write ‘happiness’ on the board. Ask students individually to list five things that make them happy. Ask the students to compare what they have written with a partner. Elicit some answers from the class, and write on the board.

3. Tell students they are going to take a happiness survey. Give each student a worksheet. Before they read text A, check the students understand the following words: rewarding, optimistic, sense of purpose, satisfied, committed, involved, in control. Now ask the students to complete the survey individually and read what their score means. Tell students they will not be asked to share their answers, as they may find the topic sensitive.

4. Write on the board ‘Are men or women happier?’ Divide the class into groups of three or four students. If possible, group students with members of the same sex. Ask them to discuss the question and try to come to an agreement. After five minutes, stop the discussion and ask each group to briefly give feedback to the class.

5. Tell students they are going to read three more texts about happiness. Put students in pairs. Give each pair one text to read, either B, C or D. Ask them to discuss what kind of text they think it is and where they would expect to find it. After two minutes, discuss as a class.

Example answers:

Text B — Part of a research report comparing men and women’s happiness. It could be found as an appendix to an undergraduate essay. Text C — An online forum on men and women’s happiness. It could be found following an online article about the same topic. Text D — An article about men and women’s happiness. It could be found in a magazine or newspaper.

6. Put students back in the same groups as in step 4. Ask them to discuss the evidence they can find in the three texts to support the argument that men are happier than women, and the opposing argument that women are happier than men. After 10 minutes, stop them and ask if anyone has changed their opinion.

ISE II Reading & Writing exam

7. Ask the students to read the Writing task instructions on the worksheet. Ensure the students are aware of what they have to do. Before they start writing, ask the students some questions to check their knowledge of reports, for example:

How is a report typically structured?

How is it different from an essay?

What kind of language is used?

8. Tell the students they have 10 minutes to plan the task. Monitor and make sure they plan in note form, not full sentences.

9. Tell students they have 30 minutes to write the task. After 25 minutes, ask students to stop writing and to check their work for errors.

10.Collect in their writing and mark for the next lesson.

Extension activity

Students who finish more quickly can be asked to invent and write more entries for the forum in text C.

Further support activity

For students finding the tasks difficult, the writing task can be broken down into stages. Firstly, ask them to write two or three sentences summarising the information for each of the texts B, C and D. Secondly, ask them to link these sentences together to form a paragraph. Finally, ask them to write an introductory and a concluding sentence.

Homework

Students write a questionnaire similar to that in text A about values and ideals in general. You can elicit some example questions at the end of the lesson to help them. In the following lesson, they can carry out the questionnaire and write a report on their findings.

Student worksheet: Happiness report Aim : To practice task 3 of the ISE II Reading

Student worksheet: Happiness report

Aim : To practice task 3 of the ISE II Reading & Writing exam.

ISE II Reading & Writing exam

Reading texts

Read the following texts about happiness and then perform the writing task below.

Text A How happy are you?

Questionnaire to discover how happy you are. How Happy Are You? Take this Happiness Questionnaire
Questionnaire to discover how happy you are.
How Happy Are You?
Take this Happiness Questionnaire to discover how happy you are.
Instructions:
Read the sentences about happiness then rate how much you agree or disagree with each one by
ticking the appropriate box. When you have finished, add up your total points and read what your
score means.
Strongly
Slightly
Neither
Slightly
Strongly
disagree
disagree
agree nor
agree
agree
(1 point)
(2 points)
disagree
(4 points)
(5 points)
(3 points)
I think that the world is a
good place
I feel that life is very
rewarding
I am very optimistic about
the future
I have warm feelings
towards almost everyone
I have a sense of purpose
in my life
I am satisfied about
everything in my life
I have happy memories of
the past
I feel pleased with the
way I am
I am always committed
and involved
I feel that I am in control
of my life

ISE II Reading & Writing exam

What your score means:

35–50

Your happiness levels are above average. You are satisfied with most aspects of your life.

20–34

Your happiness levels are average. There are some aspects of your life that could be improved, but generally you are happy.

0–19

Your happiness levels are below average. This does not necessarily mean you are unhappy, but there could be an imbalance in your life and particular areas may need attention.

Text B

Results of the happiness survey at Burlesbrook University

Participants = 15 male and 15 female third year Sociology undergraduate students 12 10 8
Participants = 15 male and 15 female third year Sociology undergraduate students
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
35–50
20–34
0–19
Male
Female
Text C Are men or women happier? Rachel (female) Definitely men. Women worry too much
Text C
Are men or women happier?
Rachel (female)
Definitely men. Women worry too much – about the way they look,
what other people think of them, getting old. Men don’t bother about
stuff like that.
Amy (female)
@Rachel – I agree. I often think I’d be happier if I was a man!
Carlo (male)
I think men are happier. My girlfriend is always upset about
something, and my mum and my sister aren’t much better.
Kaya (female)
I think women are happier. We are more focused and ambitious.
We also make better use of our time.
Jon (male)
@Kaya – I’d have to disagree with you. I think women are less happy
precisely because they take on too much and they don’t know how
to relax!
Divia (male)
I’m not sure that’s something men normally think about…

Text D

ISE II Reading & Writing exam

Are men or women happier?

According to a recent study, men are happier than women. The study compared the amount of time each sex spent relaxing with the amount of time they spent worrying. The results showed that women spend two hours per week more than men worrying, and men spend more hours per week relaxing.

However, a similar study carried out in the same month revealed that women are happier. Women rated their happiness as an average of 7 out of 10 compared to just 6.5 out of 10 for men. One in five said that they were a 10 out of 10 in terms of happiness, compared to one in eight of men.

The question that arises is whether more studies are needed, or whether it is impossible for research to prove that one sex is happier than the other.

Writing task

Use the information from the four texts you have read to write a short report (150–180 words) entitled:

A comparison of men and women’s happiness levels

Plan your report before you start writing. Think about what to include and make some notes in this box:

Planning notes:

Now write your report of 150–180 words. Try to use your own words as far as possible.

ISE II Reading & Writing exam

ISE II Reading & Writing exam

ISE II Reading & Writing exam

Model answer to essay question

A comparison of men and women’s happiness levels

This report will start by looking at what makes men and women happy. It will then show the results of our in-class survey.

What makes men and women happy?

Men are generally satisfied when they have a steady and challenging job which has optimistic job prospects. Men tend to be a lot happier when they have time for their hobbies.

Women are happy when they have a comfortable job working with friendly people. They are happier when they have time to chat with their closest friends about everything.

Survey results

The results of the survey showed that:

Women don’t feel in control of their lives

Women find their jobs more rewarding than men

Men have a strong sense of purpose

Men worry more about the future than women

Neither men or women feel they have enough free time

Conclusion

The results show that neither men nor women are happier and that it is evident that they all need more free time available to increase their levels of happiness.

ISE II Reading & Writing exam

Task 4 — Extended writing: The advantages and disadvantages of using mobile phones

Level: ISE II

Focus: Task 4 — Extended writing

Aims : To write an essay on the advantages and disadvantages of using mobile phones and also give an opinion

Objectives: Planning an essay, writing an introduction, giving advantages and disadvantages, writing a conclusion and giving an opinion

Skill: Writing an essay in four paragraphs

Topic: Technology

Language functions: Highlighting advantages and disadvantages and giving reasons, opinions and preferences

Lexis: Essay writing

Materials needed: Student worksheet, board, plain paper and pens

Timing: 1 hour

Procedure

Preparation

Print or copy one worksheet per student.

In class

1. Tell the class they are going to do an activity which will help them prepare for ISE II Task 4 — Extended writing. For this part of the exam, they have to write an essay of between 150–180 words in 40 minutes.

2. Write ‘Mobile Phones’ on the board. Ask the class to think of one word which they think of when they see those words. Ask the students to whisper to their partner what that word is.

3. Ask 5–10 students for examples of words their partner thought of. Write some of the good examples on the board (eg ‘great’, ‘convenient’, ‘essential’, ‘expensive’, ‘easy’, ‘fun’, ‘Blackberry’, ‘iPhone’, ‘apps’, ‘friends’, ‘Facebook’, ‘music’).

4. Give each student a number from 1–4 (depending on the class size — max of six students per group). Now ask all number 1s to work together, all the number 2s to work together, all the number 3s and the number 4s to work together. Give them a few minutes to find their groups and ask them to sit in different parts of the room.

5. Give each student one student worksheet and tell the groups of 1s and 3s they are going to work on advantages of mobile phones, and the groups of 2s and 4s are going to work on disadvantages of mobile phones. Ask students if they know the meaning of advantages (eg good or positive things), and disadvantages (eg bad or negative things). For 10 minutes, each group talks together and writes down their ideas under A on the worksheet. Ask them to write at least five advantages or disadvantages.

6. Now ask the groups to present their ideas to the class. Write down the
6. Now ask the groups to present their ideas to the class. Write down the ideas on the board under two
columns: Advantages and Disadvantages.
Advantages
Disadvantages

ISE II Reading & Writing exam

7. Ask the class which ideas they think are the best. Choose four good ideas for advantages and four for disadvantages. Leave only the good ideas on the board. Now ask the students to look at B on the worksheet which introduces an essay question. Tell the students that this is a typical exam question.

8. Ask the students the following questions about essays:

What is an essay?

What is the purpose of an essay?

Who do you write an essay for?

What types of language do you use in an essay?

First ask the students to discuss the questions with their partner and then give feedback in open-class.

9. Explain to the class that before writing any essay, it is essential that they think carefully about the essay question for 10 minutes and write down any ideas they may have in note form. Ask them why they think this is important. [Answer: It gives them time to think about the topic and focus on the best ideas.]

10.Elicit from the students how many paragraphs they think is best for this type of essay. Explain that four paragraphs are appropriate for this type of essay and this is how it should be structured:

Paragraph 1 — an Introduction, Paragraph 2 — a paragraph on the advantages, Paragraph 3 — a paragraph on the disadvantages and Paragraph 4 — the conclusion. Ask the students to complete C on the worksheet and feedback in open-class.

11. Now ask the students to discuss with their partner what the purpose of the introduction is and what they should include. Elicit some ideas from the students. Then tell the students that in the introduction they should:

introduce the topic — for example, ‘There are a number of advantages and disadvantages to using mobile phones’

Then tell the audience what the purpose of the essay is — for example, ‘In this essay I will discuss both the advantages and disadvantages of using mobile phones and finally I will give my opinion.’ Ask the students to complete D on the worksheet.

12. Draw the students’ attention to some of the common expressions used to express the advantages or disadvantages of something. See E on the worksheet. Ask the students to place the expressions in the correct column. Students to complete the task individually and then feedback in open-class.

13. Ask the students to discuss what they should include in paragraph 2 (the first paragraph of the main body). In paragraph 2, they should discuss the advantages (or disadvantages) of using a mobile phone. Elicit some ideas from the students. For example, ‘One advantage of having a mobile phone is that you can contact anyone at any time, this has made life much easier because you can be more flexible and you can contact people at the last minute to change plans’. Ask the students to complete the first part of F on the worksheet.

14.Ask the students to discuss what they should include in paragraph 3 (the second paragraph of the main body). In paragraph 3, they should discuss the disadvantages (or advantages) of using a mobile phone. Elicit some ideas from the students. For example, ‘One disadvantage of having a mobile phone is that you might become addicted to using it and you use it too much, you stop talking to people and instead play games on your phone or use Facebook’. Ask the students to complete the second part of F on the worksheet.

15. Draw the students’ attention to ‘linking expressions’ on the worksheet. Explain they are words or ’

Ask the student to complete G

phrases used to connect or join language. For example, ‘this is because on the worksheet.

16. Finally, ask the students to discuss what they should include in paragraph 4 (the conclusion). The final paragraph should be a short conclusion. Elicit from the students what they should include. (For example, it should state both the advantages and disadvantages of mobile phones and their opinion. For example, ‘In conclusion, there are both advantages and disadvantages to using a mobile phone. In my opinion the advantages outweigh (are more than), the disadvantages and are essential for our lives today, we could not live without them’. Draw the student’s attention to key phrases such as ‘in conclusion’ and ‘in my opinion’. The students should complete H on the worksheet. Feedback in open-class.

17. Give students feedback on their writing and review the main focus of the lesson.

ISE II Reading & Writing exam

Extension activity

More advanced students can write down the advantages and disadvantages of something else (eg going to university).

Further support activity

Students finding the task difficult can practise writing the notes for longer, and writing fewer words.

Homework

Ask the students to write an essay (150–180 words) (four paragraphs) on the advantages and disadvantages of going to university.

ISE II Reading & Writing exam

ISE II Reading & Writing exam Student worksheet: Advantages and disadvantages of using mobile phones You

Student worksheet: Advantages and disadvantages of using mobile phones

You are going to do an activity which will help you prepare for ISE II Task 4 — Extended writing. For this part of the exam you have to write an essay. The topic of the essay is mobile phones.

A. Introduction to the topic

What is the first word you think of when you see these words?

Tell your partner quietly what the word is. Tell your teacher what your partner’s word is.

Working with your group, think of some advantages (good things), or disadvantages (bad things), about mobile phones. Write down your best ideas.

You should spend 10 minutes on this activity. Think of five or more ideas.

Ideas

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

B. An essay question

Look at the essay question below:

Write an essay (150–180 words) for the school magazine about the advantages and disadvantages of using mobile phones. Give your opinion about whether there are more advantages than disadvantages.

C. Overview of an essay (fill in the gaps)

An essay this length should have

A. An i

B. A paragraph about

C. A paragraph about

D. A c

paragraphs

D. Writing the introduction

Paragraph 1

With your partner, discuss what the purpose of an introduction is and what it should include.

Write an introduction to an essay on mobile phones using the following model.

There are a number of

and

to

in this essay. I will discuss

both and give my opinion.

ISE II Reading & Writing exam

E. Common expressions

Here are some expressions used for expressing advantages and disadvantages

A negative effect

A good point

The downside

A drawback

An objection

A positive aspect

An argument in favour of

A negative aspect

A criticism of

Decide which expressions can be used for advantages, and which ones are used for disadvantages.
Decide which expressions can be used for advantages, and which ones are used for disadvantages. Write
them in the box.
Advantages
Disadvantages

F. Main body paragraphs

Paragraph 2

In the next paragraph you should discuss the advantages of using mobile phones.

For example, ‘One advantage of using a mobile phone is that you can contact anyone at any time, this has made life much easier because you can be more flexible and you can contact people at the last minute to change plans.’

Now you write a paragraph about the advantages of using mobile phones. Write three advantages.

Begin like this, ‘One advantage of using a mobile phone is that you learned in section E.

Try to use some of the expressions

Paragraph 3

In the next paragraph you should discuss the disadvantages of using mobile phones. For example, ‘One disadvantage of having a mobile phone is that you might become addicted to using it and you use it too much, so you stop talking to people and instead play games on your phone or use Facebook.’

Now you write a paragraph about the disadvantages of using mobile phones. Write three disadvantages. ’

Begin like this ‘One disadvantage of using a mobile phone is that you learned in section E.

Try to use some of the expressions

ISE II Reading & Writing exam

G. Linking expressions

Now here are some linking expressions. What is a linking expression? What does ‘link’ mean? Decide together or look it up in a dictionary.

Link means

Here are some common linking expressions: A common example of this is when This is
Here are some common linking expressions:
A common example of this is when
This is because
In other words
So
Therefore
Another objection to
(this) is that
However

Write three sentences explaining the advantages of using mobile phones with your best ideas. Use an expression from the box and a linking expression from the box. You have 10 minutes to do this.

Now write three sentences explaining the disadvantages of using mobile phones with your best ideas. Use an expression from the box and a linking expression from the box. You have 10 minutes to do this.

H. The conclusion

Paragraph 4

The final paragraph should be a short conclusion stating both the advantages and disadvantages of mobile phones and giving your opinion.

For example ‘In conclusion there are both advantages and disadvantages to using mobile phones. In my opinion the advantages outweigh the disadvantages and they are essential for our lives today, we could not live without them. What do you think outweigh means?’

Now we are going to work on a conclusion to your essay. Begin like this ‘In conclusion, there are both advantages and disadvantages to using mobile phones. In my opinion ’

ISE II Reading & Writing exam

Answer key

Advantages: A good point, a positive aspect, an argument in favour of

Disadvantages: A negative effect, the downside, a drawback, an objection to, a negative aspect, a criticism of

Model answer to essay question

There are a number of advantages to using mobile phones, in this essay I will discuss both the advantages and the disadvantages and give my opinion.

An argument in favour of using mobile phones is that you can contact anyone at any time. A common example of this is when you are going to be late and you can tell people about it so they are not kept waiting. Another positive aspect is that we are all better informed as we can check the internet whenever.

On the other hand, there are various drawbacks of using mobile phones. One is that people can no longer have so much privacy, so, they may be busy with something important but their phone rings and disturbs everybody. A further objection is that people just use them so much they become addicted, this is a problem.

In conclusion, there are both advantages and disadvantages to using mobile phones. In my opinion the advantages outweigh the disadvantages and they are absolutely vital for our lives today, we simply could not live without them.

ISE II Speaking & Listening exam

Overview of the ISE Speaking & Listening exam

Trinity’s ISE Speaking & Listening exam tests speaking and listening skills through an integrated approach, reflecting the way the two skills interact in the real world. The ISE Speaking & Listening exam is currently offered at four levels of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) from A2 to C1. The purpose of the exam is to assess candidates’ English language skills in speaking and listening in a context which reflects their real world activities and their purpose for learning English.

The integrated speaking and listening tasks reflect the kind of activities a student will do in the school or college context. Additionally, the recordings used in the Independent listening task reflect the way that students find, select and report relevant and appropriate information in an educational or academic context.

Who is ISE Speaking & Listening for?

The intended candidate is a young person or adult, typically at secondary school or college who is using English as a second or foreign language as part of their studies in order to develop their skills and improve their knowledge of a range of subject areas. The typical ISE candidate is aged between 11 and 19, but may be older.

The candidate, at the lower levels of the exam (ISE Foundation and ISE I), would generally be a young person or adult in school or college who would be taking ISE as part of their preparation for entrance into university or as evidence to progress to a higher level of English study within their mainstream or English language school. At the higher levels of the exam (ISE II and ISE III) the candidates are young people or adults preparing for further education where they are required to prove their English language proficiency levels within an educational context.

ISE II Speaking & Listening exam

Introduction to ISE Speaking & Listening tasks

The Speaking & Listening exam consists of several tasks and increases in length as the level increases. The table below shows the progression across the levels.

ISE Foundation ISE I ISE II ISE III CEFR level A2 B1 B2 C1 Time
ISE Foundation
ISE I
ISE II
ISE III
CEFR level
A2
B1
B2
C1
Time
13 minutes
14 minutes
20 minutes
25 minutes
Topic task
4
minutes
4
minutes
4
minutes
8
minutes
Collaborative task
4
minutes
4
minutes
Conversation task
2
minutes
2
minutes
2
minutes
3
minutes
Independent listening task
6
minutes
7
minutes
8
minutes
8
minutes
Examiner administration time
1 minute
1 minute
2
minutes
2
minutes

The Topic task (ISE Foundation, ISE I, ISE II, ISE III)

What is the Topic task? Before the exam, the candidate prepares a topic of his or her own choice and in the exam this topic is used as a basis for a discussion.

What language skills can the candidate demonstrate in the Topic task? The Topic task provides the candidate with the opportunity to:

talk about a topic which is of personal interest or relevance to them and which they feel confident about

have a degree of autonomy and control over this task

show they can link sentences together to talk about a subject at some length

demonstrate the language functions of the level

show that they can engage in one-to-one, unscripted discussion with an expert speaker of English

demonstrate that they can understand and respond appropriately to examiner questions and points

Can the candidate bring notes with them? In the ISE Foundation and ISE I exams, candidates are required to complete a topic form which they give to the examiner at the beginning of the exam. The topic form contains notes that helps to support the candidate in their preparation for the exam and also in their discussion of the topic with the examiner. It is important to tell the candidate that the examiner will choose the sequence in which the points on the topic form are discussed, not the candidate. The topic form is also used by the examiner to ask questions of the candidate. This encourages spontaneous conversation and discourages recitation by the candidate.

In the ISE II exam, candidates do not need to complete a topic form but they are encouraged to bring notes or mind maps with them to the exam.

In the ISE III exam, the candidate must prepare a formal handout to accompany their
In the ISE III exam, the candidate must prepare a formal handout to accompany their formal topic
presentation. They must give the handout to the examiner.
Level
Support
ISE Foundation
Topic form with four points
ISE I
Topic form with four points
ISE II
Candidate may use notes or a mind map
ISE III
Formal handout must accompany presentation

For example topic forms see Appendix 1.

ISE II Speaking & Listening exam

The Collaborative task (ISE II and ISE III only)

What happens in the Collaborative task? The examiner reads the candidate a prompt. The candidate responds to the prompt by starting, leading and maintaining the interaction. For example, the candidate can ask questions to find out further information, respond to information and comments from the examiner, demonstrate skills in turn-taking in a conversation, etc. It is essential for the candidate to interact and collaborate with the examiner. The candidate should not wait for the examiner to lead the conversation and monologues from the candidate will receive a low mark.

What is the examiner’s prompt? The prompt presents a dilemma, some circumstances, or an opinion. The candidate then needs to take the initiative to find out more about the background of the examiner’s circumstances or position and engage the examiner in a sustained discussion about his/her circumstances or views. All of the examiner’s prompts are prepared in advance by Trinity. Examiners are all trained to add their own standardised backstory to the prompt in order to personalise it and support the interaction. By asking the examiner for further information, in the Collaborative task, the candidate finds out more about the examiner’s backstory and the prompt.

What language skills can the candidate demonstrate in the Collaborative task? The task provides the opportunity for the candidate to demonstrate his or her ability to take control through the use of questioning techniques and language functions like requesting information, getting clarification and asking for further detail. The Collaborative task gives the candidate the opportunity to show that they can initiate ‘turns’ in the conversation and control the direction of the interaction. This task requires an authentic exchange of information and opinions, with the language functions listed at each grade arising naturally out of the task.

There is no Collaborative task at ISE Foundation or ISE I.

The Conversation task (ISE Foundation, ISE I, ISE II, ISE III)

What is the Conversation task? The Conversation task is a meaningful and authentic exchange of information, ideas and opinions. It is not a formal ‘question and answer’ interview. In the Conversation task, the examiner selects one subject area for discussion with the candidate.

What are the possible subjects for discussion? The lists of possible subjects for each ISE level are written in the guide for teachers for the particular level. The subject areas have been carefully selected to offer a progression through the levels from the ‘concrete’ subjects at ISE Foundation to the ‘abstract’ at ISE III.

What about the interaction in the Conversation task? The examiner will ask some questions, but at each ISE level, the candidate is expected to take more responsibility for initiating and maintaining the conversation. The candidate is also expected to ask the examiner questions in order to develop the interaction. These questions should arise naturally out of the conversation.

The Independent listening task

What is the Independent listening task? Listening skills are tested in an integrated way together with speaking skills in the Topic task, Collaborative task and Conversation task. The Independent listening task is different. In this task, the candidate has the opportunity to demonstrate the kind of listening skills that are required in lectures and lessons, for example. In this Independent listening task, the candidate listens to recordings and responds to questions. The candidate then gives written responses and also answers questions in conversation with the examiner, depending on the level.

What is the procedure for the Independent listening task? The examiner plays one or two recordings to the candidate, and the candidate writes the answers to some questions on a worksheet, or they respond to prompts from the examiner about what they have heard. The candidate listens to the same recording(s) twice.

While the candidate is listening to the recordings, they are encouraged to take notes to support their listening and study skills. However, the candidate’s notes are not assessed as part of the exam.

ISE II Speaking & Listening exam

Glossary of speaking skills for ISE II Communicative ◗ Responding appropriately to interaction effectiveness ◗
Glossary of speaking skills for ISE II
Communicative
◗ Responding appropriately to interaction
effectiveness
◗ Initiating and maintaining conversation
Interactive listening
◗ Showing understanding of other speakers
◗ Following the speech of others
Language control
◗ Using a range of grammar and vocabulary
◗ Using grammar and vocabulary accurately
◗ Avoiding making errors which effect the understanding of the listener
Delivery
◗ Using clear and understandable pronunciation
◗ Using stress and intonation
Glossary of listening aims for ISE II Intensive listening — in detail to gather as
Glossary of listening aims for ISE II
Intensive listening —
in detail to gather as
much information as
possible
◗ Understanding specific, factual information at the word and/or phrase level
◗ Listening for explicitly stated ideas and information
Intensive listening
◗ Listening to understand all or most of the information the recording
— for detailed
provides
understanding
Extensive listening
◗ Listening to get the topic and main ideas of the recording
— for gist, for main
ideas and for global
understanding
Deducing meaning
◗ Guessing the meaning of unknown utterances, phrases and words from
their context
◗ Inferring meaning, eg the speaker’s attitude, line of argument, mood
and intentions
Inferring attitude,
◗ Identifying which information is factual and which information is opinion
intentions,
viewpoints and
implications
Identifying the
difference between
main and subsidiary
points, supporting
examples or details;
Identifying the
difference between
facts and opinions
◗ Identifying which information is key information, and which information
is a supporting example or detail
◗ Identifying which information is the main point and which information is
an example, or details

ISE II Speaking & Listening exam

Candidate profile

Speaking

A candidate who successfully passes ISE II can:

initiate, maintain and end discourse appropriately in unprepared one-to-one conversations, using effective turn-taking

engage in extended conversation on most general topics in a clearly participatory fashion, even in a noisy environment

communicate spontaneously with good grammatical control without much sign of having to restrict what he/she wants to say

use a level of formality appropriate to the circumstances

use the language fluently, accurately and effectively on a wide range of general, academic, vocational or leisure topics, demonstrating the relationships between ideas

interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity with a native speaker without creating communication difficulties

highlight the personal significance of events and experiences

explain views clearly by providing relevant explanations and arguments

convey degrees of emotion and highlight the personal significance of events and experiences

outline an issue or a problem clearly, speculating about causes or consequences, and weighing advantages and disadvantages of different approaches

give clear, detailed descriptions on a wide range of subjects of interest, expanding and supporting ideas with subsidiary points and relevant examples

develop a clear argument, expanding and supporting his/her points of view at some length with subsidiary points and relevant examples

explain a viewpoint on a topical issue giving the advantages and disadvantages of various options

intervene appropriately in discussion, exploiting appropriate language to do so

ask follow-up questions to check that he/she has understood what a speaker intended to say, and get clarification of ambiguous points

use circumlocution and paraphrase to cover gaps in vocabulary and structure.

Listening

A candidate who successfully passes ISE II can:

understand standard spoken language, live or broadcast, on both familiar and unfamiliar topics from personal, social, academic or vocational life

understand the main ideas of complex speech in standard English on both concrete and abstract topics, including technical discussions

understand extended speech and complex lines of argument on familiar topics signposted by explicit markers

understand recordings in standard English from social, professional or academic life

identify information content, speaker viewpoints, attitudes, mood and tone

understand most recorded or broadcast audio material delivered in standard English and identify the speakers

use a variety of strategies to achieve comprehension, including listening for main points, and checking comprehension by using contextual clues

understand a clearly structured lecture on a familiar subject, and take notes on points he/she considers important

summarise extracts from news items, interviews or documentaries containing opinions, argument and discussion.

These speaking and listening profiles are based on the level Independent User, B2, of the Council of Europe’s Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR). The rating scales and language functions of ISE II have been linked to the CEFR level B2.

ISE II Speaking & Listening exam

Content of ISE II Speaking & Listening Topic task Task type and format The Topic
Content of ISE II Speaking & Listening
Topic task
Task type and
format
The Topic task is an integrated speaking and listening task.
The candidate prepares a topic for discussion. It is recommended that the
candidate prepares some notes for the examiner, for example, some bullet points
or a mind map.
The examiner and the candidate discuss the prepared topic and any notes in an
authentic exchange of information and ideas.
Timing
4 minutes
Task focus
and language
The candidate is expected in this task and throughout the speaking exam to show
their ability to use the language functions of the level. These functions are:
functions
◗ initiating and maintaining the conversation
◗ highlighting advantages and disadvantages
◗ speculating
◗ giving advice
◗ expressing agreement
◗ expressing disagreement
◗ eliciting further information
◗ negotiating meaning (establishing common ground).
Examiner role
The examiner poses questions to the candidate. The examiner will ask questions
to elicit the language functions of the level (see sample exam for example stem
questions). The examiner is also expected to interrupt the candidate where
appropriate to discourage recitation and encourage spontaneous conversational flow.
Collaborative task Task type and format The Collaborative task is an integrated speaking and listening
Collaborative task
Task type and
format
The Collaborative task is an integrated speaking and listening task. The examiner
reads a prompt which creates an information gap. The prompt may express a
dilemma or opinion. The candidate needs to ask the examiner questions to find
out more information and keep the conversation going.
Timing
4
minutes
Task focus
The candidate is expected in this task and throughout the speaking exam to show
their ability to use the language functions of the level. These functions are:
◗ highlighting advantages and disadvantages
◗ speculating
◗ giving advice
◗ expressing agreement
◗ expressing disagreement
◗ eliciting further information
◗ negotiating meaning (establishing common ground).
Examiner role
The examiner reads a prompt containing an opinion or dilemma. The examiner also
has two alternative back stories which contain the background information that
the candidate is expected to find out through the course of the conversation. The
examiner is expected to respond naturally to the candidate’s questioning and to
encourage them to keep the conversation going. The examiner is not expected to
give away too much information in one turn, or to unnaturally restrict information.
ISE II Speaking & Listening exam Conversation task Task type and format The Conversation task
ISE II Speaking & Listening exam
Conversation task
Task type and
format
The Conversation task is an integrated speaking and listening task. The examiner
selects one conversation topic from a list and asks the candidate questions to
start a conversation about the topic.
Timing
2 minutes
Task focus
and language
The candidate is expected in this task and throughout the speaking exam to show
their ability to use the language functions of the level. These functions are:
functions
◗ highlighting advantages and disadvantages
◗ speculating
◗ giving advice
◗ expressing agreement
◗ expressing disagreement
◗ eliciting further information
◗ negotiating meaning (establishing common ground)
◗ asking for opinions
◗ negotiating meaning.
Examiner role
The examiner uses the list of subject areas and their own test plans to ask
questions and elicit the target language functions of the level (see sample test
for example stem questions).
List of subject
areas
◗ Society and living standards
◗ Personal values and ideals
◗ The world of work
◗ National environmental concerns
◗ Public figures past and present
Assessment
This task, together with the Topic task and Collaborative task, is assessed in
four categories:
◗ Communicative effectiveness
◗ Interactive listening
◗ Language control
◗ Delivery.

ISE II Speaking & Listening exam

Independent listening task Task Candidates listen twice to a recording. They listen once and report
Independent listening task
Task
Candidates listen twice to a recording. They listen once and report the gist of
what they have heard. They listen a second time and report the detail. They are
encouraged to take notes during the second listen only.
The recording is approximately 2 minutes and 45 seconds long.
Timing
8 minutes
Task focus
and language
◗ Candidates show that they are able to process and report information,
including main points and supporting detail
functions
◗ Placing information in a wider context
◗ Inferring information not expressed explicitly
◗ Reporting speaker’s intentions.
◗ Inferring word meaning.
Examiner role
The examiner plays the recordings and reads an instructional rubric including a
gist question and a more detailed question.
Assessment
This task is subjectively scored using a rating scale, which means that the examiner
decides the score. The examiner considers how many facts are reported correctly
and whether the candidate answered immediately or was hesitant.

For text of a sample ISE Speaking & Listening exam, please see Appendix 2. You can also view videos of sample exams on the Trinity website at www.trinitycollege.com/ISE

ISE II Speaking & Listening exam

Preparation ideas for ISE II Speaking & Listening

Topic task: Talking about various topics from healthy eating to extreme sports

Level: ISE II

Focus: Topic task

Aims: Talking about various topics in a natural and spontaneous way

Objectives: Generating ideas and asking and answering questions about various topics

Topic: Communicate facts, ideas, opinions and explain viewpoints about a chosen topic linked across a series of extended turns

Language functions: Highlighting advantages and disadvantages, describing past actions in the indefinite and recent past, speculating

Grammar: Second and third conditional, used to, present perfect continuous tense and reported speech

Lexis: Various — health, technology, sports, society, news and lifestyle

Materials needed: Board, pens, blank paper, topic and question cards

Timing: 60 minutes

Procedure

Preparation

Print or copy and cut out topic cards and question cards (one set per group of four to eight students).

In class

1. Explain to the class that at ISE II, candidates are expected to communicate facts, handle interruptions and engage the examiner in their topic. This lesson will help them with this. If necessary, explain the meaning of each of these areas to the students and give examples.

2. Write ‘TOPIC’ on the board in large letters. Elicit some ideas from students about good ideas for topics that they themselves can talk about. Write some ideas on the board. These should be taken from a wide range.

3. Explain to the students that their topic must be a personalised topic, on a subject they are personally interested in, knowledgeable about and are able to talk about. Tell them they are going to practise talking about various different topics.

4. Write ‘interrupt’ on the board. Ask students for examples of how they can interrupt someone

, to practise these expressions together.

(eg Could I just

So what you’re saying is

?,

Can I just interrupt you for a second

?).

Ask them

5. Divide students into groups of four to eight, give each group a set of topic cards and question cards each. Pre-teach any unfamiliar vocabulary — vegetarianism, veganism, extreme sports, and chess. Tell them to place the topic and the question cards face down on the table in two sets. Ask them to pick one topic card from the pile and to pick up one question card. Someone in the group has to answer the question they have picked up relating it to their topic card. The group can help formulate the question if it is incomplete. Model an example of what you want the students to do in open- class. Once one student has answered the first question, repeat the process with a different student picking up a different question and until all of the questions have been answered.

6. While the students are carrying out this activity, walk around each group listening to their ideas and encouraging them to speak more, making sure everyone is involved. Also, make a note on the board of any recurring errors.

7. Once the students have completed all of the topic cards (around 20–30 minutes), give the students some feedback on how well they completed the task.

ISE II Speaking & Listening exam

8. Now ask the students to either choose their favourite topic card or to think of another topic and prepare to talk about it and to write down some questions. Encourage them to use the language requirements and grammar of the level. (Elicit or explain what they are from the current syllabus).

9. As an example, for ‘new technologies’ some questions could be ‘If you had a thousand Euros [change to your currency as relevant], what item of technology would you buy?’ or ‘If you had had a thousand Euros in your parents’ generation, what item of technology would you have bought?’ Elicit some more questions based on the grammar of the level.

10.Now give each student a piece of paper and ask them to write the topic they have chosen in the middle. Draw lines from the topic (like in their topic form), writing their questions down. Explain they are going to present their topic to the group for approximately 10 minutes. Walk around checking everyone is involved and motivated.

11. Bring this activity to a close, ask for the names of the topics and write them on the board. Ask each student to think of a question to ask about each of the topics and write it down. Now each group presents their topic to the class. Make sure everyone in the group takes part in this. Ask various students to ask each group questions about their topic. Encourage dialogue and interaction between groups.

Extension activity

More advanced students can prepare their own topic for the exam.

Further support activity

Students finding the task more challenging can be encouraged to think of vocabulary related to a topic of their choice.

Homework

Ask students to choose someone to talk to outside of class (a friend or family member for example). They should ask this person questions about a topic which they are interested in and be ready to tell the class about it.

ISE II Speaking & Listening exam

Question cards

What is it? Why have people chosen to do…? Would it be difficult to do…?
What is it?
Why have people chosen
to do…?
Would it be difficult to do…?
What are the advantages and
disadvantages of…?
In the past, would people
have done…?
What do you think of…?
In the future, will people
still do…?
Ask someone a question
about this.
Talk for 1 minute about this
Interrupt someone when they
are speaking about this
How long have you
been doing…?
If you could, would you do…?
When you were younger, did you
used to do…?
What have people just been
saying about…?

Topics

ISE II Speaking & Listening exam

Veganism and vegetarianism

Extreme sports

The value of university education

Chess

The importance of work experience

Multicultural societies

The economic side of football

New technologies

Latest top news stories

Why are some people so rich, others so poor?

The importance of a healthy diet and lifestyle

How our generation can make the world a better place

The best thing that has happened to me is

ISE II Speaking & Listening exam

Collaborative task: Talking about school uniforms

Level: ISE II

Focus: Collaborative task

Aims : To interact orally with other students about their opinions on a situation

Objectives : To brainstorm ideas about a topic or situation, to learn and practise ways of asking for opinions and information and to practise giving opinions and turn taking

Topic: School uniforms and school teachers

Language functions: Asking for information and opinions, eliciting further information

Grammar: Question formation

Lexis: Fashion, clothes and discipline

Materials needed: Two pictures — one of pupils in uniform and one of pupils not in uniform and one worksheet per student

Timing: 45 minutes

Procedure

Preparation

1. Find two pictures of students — one picture with students wearing uniforms and one of students not in uniform.

2. Print or copy one worksheet per student.

In class

1. Tell the students that today in class they are going to think about school uniforms, give their opinions about school uniforms and ask other students about their opinions of having or not having school uniforms or no uniforms. Tell the class that what they are doing in the lesson today is to help with part of the ISE II exam where they will be talking to the examiner and asking the examiner questions.

2. Use the following phrases to get information from the class about wearing/not wearing uniforms. Give as many turns as possible to students, making sure that they are listening to one another. For example, you can ask:

‘Student 1, what’s your opinion about school uniforms? (show students the picture with the students wearing uniforms)’

‘Student 2 — Do you agree with what student 1 said about uniforms?’

‘Student 3 — What do you think?’

‘How do you feel about not wearing a uniform, Student 4? (show students the picture with the students not wearing uniforms’)

‘Can you tell me more about why you think this?’

3. Draw up a table on the board with the following headings:

Advantages of wearing uniforms Disadvantages of wearing uniforms
Advantages of wearing uniforms
Disadvantages of wearing uniforms

Ask the class for ideas about wearing uniforms/no uniforms and give ideas yourself. You should end up with some of the ideas listed on the worksheet.

4. Tell the class your opinions about uniforms. Use these phrases: ‘I think…’ ‘I believe concerned…’ ‘From my point of view…

’, ‘As far as I’m

ISE II Speaking & Listening exam

5. Ask the class, ‘How do we give our opinion about something?’ The class should respond with the same phrases you have just used. Write these phrases on the board and practise the pronunciation.

6. Ask the class ‘What are the questions we use when we want to ask what someone thinks about something or what their opinion is?

[The class should respond: ‘What’s your opinion about

you feel about

think…?’] Write these phrases on the board and practise the pronunciation.

?’

‘What do you think about

?’

‘How do

?’

‘Do you agree with me/Student 5 about…?’ ‘Can you tell me more about why you

7. Now tell the class they are going to ask each other questions about their opinions of school uniforms. Divide the class into groups of four.

8. Hand out one worksheet per student. Tell the class to read the worksheet about the advantages and disadvantages of school uniforms and then to ask the members of their group for their opinions about the topic. They should try to use the ideas, phrases and questions on the worksheet and the board when they are speaking. If they have other ideas and opinions, they can use those, too. Everyone in the group must take turns.

9. Give the class six minutes to practise asking for and giving opinions/getting information about what each group member thinks. Walk around the class and make sure all the students are taking turns. As you walk round, make a note of common mistakes.

10.Give the class some feedback on common errors. Write up some common mistakes on the board and get the class to correct them.

11. Now tell the class you are going to give them another topic to discuss in their groups and they must find out the opinions of other students in their groups.

12. The topic is: Students do better at schools where teachers are very strict about behaviour, homework, punctuality, speaking in class and rules than when teachers are not strict. Write the topic on the board.

13. Give the class 10 minutes to think and write a few notes about their ideas. Then ask the students to find out the opinions of the rest of their group of four. Let the students ask and answer in their groups for 10 minutes.

14.Ask the class for their opinions. Remind the class that they have learnt how to give opinions and ask someone else for their opinion and that is what they will need to do in the speaking part of the ISE exam.

Extension activity

Students who finish the task early choose a further discussion topic and ask other able learners about their opinions, for example, ‘Single sex schools versus mixed boys and girls’ schools.’

Further support activity

Write some example questions on the board for the second activity. For example:

What’s your opinion about teachers giving students extra homework?

What do you think about teachers who don’t mind if students forget to do their homework?

How do you feel about teachers who punish students?

What’s your opinion about teachers who have many rules/no rules?

Are students happy in strict classes?

Homework

Ask the students to ask their friends in other classes who are learning English, or a relative, what they think about school uniforms and why.

ISE II Speaking & Listening exam

Student worksheet: Talking about school uniforms

Advantages of wearing uniforms Disadvantages of wearing uniforms ◗ It’s cheaper for parents to buy
Advantages of wearing uniforms
Disadvantages of wearing uniforms
◗ It’s cheaper for parents to buy one uniform
and not a lot of different clothes
◗ Students can’t develop their own style of dress
◗ Students can’t choose clothes that suit them
◗ Everyone in the town or city can recognise
the students from one school
◗ Students can’t wear accessories, for example,
jewellery or different shoes
◗ Students can be proud of their school image
and identity
◗ Students can’t choose their own colours
◗ Students can’t develop independence.
◗ Students don’t spend a lot of time thinking
about clothes every day
◗ It makes everyone equal

Add more ideas of your own to the boxes below.

Asking for opinions/more information What do you think about ? What’s your opinion about ?
Asking for opinions/more information
What do you think about ?
What’s your opinion about ?
How do you feel about ?
Do you agree with xx/me about ?
Can you tell me more about ?
Giving opinions I think I reckon As far as I’m concerned From my point of
Giving opinions
I think
I reckon
As far as I’m concerned
From my point of view
I agree with
about…

‘Students do better at schools where teachers are very strict about homework, behaviour, punctuality, speaking in class and rules than when teachers are not strict’

What’s your opinion about this? What do others in your group think?

ISE II Speaking & Listening exam

Conversation task: A conversation about living in society today

Level: ISE II

Focus: Conversation task

Aims : To converse with a partner about objects that society uses today

Objectives : To think about a topic, to learn appropriate conversational phrases and to use the phrases in a short conversation about the topic

Topics: Modern society

Language functions: Eliciting further information, expressing and expanding ideas and opinions, expressing agreement/disagreement and negotiating meaning

Grammar: Modals in polite phrases

Lexis: Household/family objects

Materials needed: Worksheet per student

Timing: 55 minutes

Procedure

Preparation

1. Print one copy of the worksheet per student.

2. Check you are familiar with all the objects in the box on the worksheet. You can add new/different objects if you think they are more appropriate to your context.

In class

1. Tell the students that they are going to practise having a conversation, which is part of the ISE II speaking exam. They are going to have a conversation about objects, for example, a fridge, a computer, or a car, that they think are essential (things that we absolutely need) or just helpful (things that make our life easier) for life today in a family. They are then going to tell their partner about their opinions of these things. They are also going to learn some phrases to help them with the conversation and phrases that they can use in the exam.

2. Give out the worksheet and tell the students to read the box where there are some objects listed. Check that the students know the meanings of all the objects and how to pronounce them. Then get the students to work in pairs for 10 minutes and to decide whether the objects in the box are essential or helpful. They need to choose at least eight items. Before they start, ask in open-class why, for example, a fridge is essential or necessary.

[The students might say, ‘A fridge is essential because in the summer the food can spoil and it’s good to have cold drinks. My family can’t live without/do without a fridge or we could get sick.’ Or ‘a dishwasher is useful because it makes life easier in families. It’s a time-saver.’]

Write any essential vocabulary on the board.

3. When the students finish the activity, get more feedback from the students and write more ideas and vocabulary on the board, even if students have different opinions.

4. Make sure that you have a good list on the board of objects that the students consider necessary or helpful to modern society and the reasons why the students think they are necessary or helpful. Then tell the students that they are going to have a conversation with their partners about this and that they need to give their opinions and ask their partners whether they agree or not and why.

5. Ask the students what language they will need to use in a conversation like this. You could ask the students, ‘What expressions can you use to give your opinion?’ ‘How can you ask someone if they agree with you or not?‘ [They could say, ‘In my opinion, a … is essential because…‘ ‘Well, I think that… is helpful because…’ ‘Do you agree with me that…?’]

Tell the students to look at their worksheets and read Box A aloud to their partners.

ISE II Speaking & Listening exam

6. Then ask the students to look at box B on the worksheet and read the phrases they can use if they don’t understand what their partner says in the conversation. Get the class to practise the pronunciation of these phrases. You can ask the class to add in any other expressions they know that they can use when they don’t understand.

7. Put the class into groups of three. Tell two students in the group they are going to have a

conversation about their opinions of modern objects in family life. Write three questions on the

board for them to start their discussion: What do you think about

you think a…is essential or useful? Tell the third student in the group to listen for the phrases which

express opinion and ask for clarification that are on the worksheet. The student must give points for each time a phrase is used. The two students talk for two minutes. The third student will tell them when to stop. At the end of the time the third student will say which student used the phrases on the worksheet more.

?

What’s your opinion of

?

Do

8. Change roles in the group of three so that a different student is counting the phrases for the next conversation.

Extension activity

Students who finish early can think about and then talk together about another topic, for example, the qualities that friends should have, using the phrases suggested.

Further support activity

If some students are finding the activity difficult, you could write more ideas on the board about why things are necessary or helpful so they can be used as prompts.

Homework

Students could prepare five ideas about the environmental problems in their country and why they think they are problems. They could then discuss with a partner in class for two minutes, using the phrases.

ISE II Speaking & Listening exam Student worksheet: A conversation about living in society today

ISE II Speaking & Listening exam

Student worksheet: A conversation about living in society today

Are these objects essential or helpful? Why? Categorise each object. You can add other objects.

Box A

DVD/DVD player

mobile phone

freezer

television

land-line

car

tablet

a stove or cooker microwave

electric mixer

vacuum cleaner or hoover

electric razor

computer

mower

electric toothbrush

E-book reader

hose

fridge

gym equipment

Essential Helpful Use the phrases below in your conversation to give and ask opinions.
Essential
Helpful
Use the phrases below in your conversation to give and ask opinions.

Box B

Useful phrases for giving an opinion

In my opinion, a Well, I think that

Do you agree with me that ? Why do you think that ? Well, I’m not so sure about

is essential because is helpful because

I think that

Other phrases

ISE II Speaking & Listening exam

Listening task: Working from home

Level: ISE II

Focus: Listening task

Aims : To provide practice in identifying gist and specific information from a listening text

Objectives : To familiarise students with the type of listening tasks that they will face at ISE II

Topic: Working from home

Language functions: Highlighting advantages and disadvantages, predicting and expressing certainty and uncertainty, expressing agreement and disagreement and speculating

Lexis: The world of work

Materials needed: A recording of the audio script (if possible), enough photocopies of the audio script for each student and board pens

Timing: 1 hour

Procedure

Preparation

Make sure a recording of the audio script has been made on an MP3 player or equivalent device. If this is not possible the teacher may read out the audio script in open-class.

In class

1. Tell students they are going to practise a listening task for the ISE II speaking test. In this task they will have to listen to a recording of approximately 400 words, first listening for gist and then making notes of more specific details.

2. Tell them they will begin by discussing the world of work. Ask students to discuss in pairs or groups of three, for two minutes, whether they know anyone who works from home, and whether they like it or not. Ask a few students to share their discussion with the class.

3. Now dictate the following to the students: ‘My friend has told me that she has given up going to the office and started working from home. She said it wasn’t quite what she had expected.’

4. Students can check each other’s papers to see what they have written and correct them if necessary. Ask students what they think ‘his/her friend’ means by this. This should elicit there are disadvantages as well as advantages of working from home.

5. Divide the class into two (or even four groups depending on class size), and ask each group to consider the advantages OR disadvantages of working from home. Ten minutes should be enough time for the students to discuss this.

6. Draw two columns on the board Advantages Disadvantages
6. Draw two columns on the board
Advantages
Disadvantages

Ask a student from each group to write their advantages/disadvantages on the board as a series of bullet points. They should have come up with at least three or four advantages and disadvantages.

ISE II Speaking & Listening exam

7. Tell the students that they are now going to listen to the audio which talks about the world of work. First they will listen for general understanding of the script gist. Ask them if they think the speaker is in favour or working from home or not. The students can make notes on a piece of paper as they would in the listening exam.

8. Play the audio script.

9. Ask the students to discuss their answers in pairs and threes. [Answer: Yes he/she was generally in favour of working from home, and maybe the students can tell you why (see Answer key)]

10.Tell the students that you are going to play the recording again. This time, ask the students to make bullet points of the advantages and disadvantages of working from home (there are four advantages and three disadvantages). Play the recording a second time.

11. Ask the students to compare their notes in pairs or threes. While the students are doing this, monitor and ask one student to write on the board the answers for the advantages, and another to write up the disadvantages.

12. Confirm the answers (see Answer key on page 59). How similar were they to the suggestions they made in stage 6?

13. Give students the audio script, ask the students to read it and underline any expressions the students are not familiar with.

14.Ask students to reflect on the listening activity. Why were some parts difficult? Is it unknown vocabulary, or is it the linking of and elision of words (particularly phrasal verbs such as ‘check up on you’, ‘stick to it’, ‘stuck in’.

15. Give students two to three minutes to speculate whether they would like to work from home in groups of three. After they have done that you could have a class vote on it to see which is more popular.

Extension activity

Students who finish the activity early can write sentences meaningful to them, using the new vocabulary items that they have seen in the audio script.

Further support activity

The recording can be played a third time for students finding the activity challenging, following the audio script. Students can ask for the recording/reading of the audio script to be stopped when the students experience difficulties.

Homework

Ask students to research other lexical items connected with the world of work which they will have to explain to other members of the class in the next lesson.

ISE II Speaking & Listening exam

Audio script

Have you ever sat in bumper-to-bumper traffic in the rush hour and wondered how much better it would be to work from home instead of doing the daily commute to the office? It seems that more and more people have been working from home in recent years, but is it really as great as it seems?

Many people have started to work from home but then realised there were a lot of drawbacks that they had not considered. Some workers reported that working from home had proved to be very isolating at times. They had missed the day-to-day contact with their colleagues. For example, it is nice to chat to colleagues in the breaks about things that are happening at work, or even talking about simple things like TV programmes from the night before. Some workers also said that they missed not having an IT department, as they did not have someone to help them if they had a problem with their computer.

Many found that there were even more distractions working from home than there were at the office. It can be extremely tempting to play around on the internet or constantly check social networking sites which can be a terrible distraction now that the boss is not around to check up on you. Some even reported that they had started watching daytime TV!

However, despite these disadvantages, there are of course a lot of great things about working from home. It is possible to fill in the gaps when family members are ill or when children need to be picked up from school. There is much greater flexibility in that one can work at the times you decide. Perhaps you are an early riser and prefer to work from 5am in the morning or perhaps you work better in the afternoons or evenings. Whatever it is, you can fix your own schedule, but it is better to be disciplined, set a timetable and stick to it.

It is also possible to save money working at home. There would be no temptation to go out for lunch with your colleagues, which if done everyday can really make a dent in your salary. Cooking lunch at home will keep that money in your pocket. Finally, the best thing about working from home that most people reported, was that they did not have to take that commute into work either on the train, or on the bus, or worst of all in the car, when one was frequently stuck in frustrating rush-hour traffic.

Answer key

Gist question: Overall the speaker is positive about working from home, especially as he/she does not have to commute to work.

Answers to listening task: Advantages Disadvantages ◗ Don’t have to commute to work ◗ Can
Answers to listening task:
Advantages
Disadvantages
◗ Don’t have to commute to work
◗ Can feel isolated from colleagues
◗ Can be flexible to attend to family needs
such as when someone is ill or children need
picking up
◗ No one to help you with IT problems
◗ Distractions of the internet, social networking
sites, daytime TV
◗ Flexibility to set own timetable of work
◗ Can save money on food

6060

6161

Appendix 1 — Sample Reading & Writing exam paper

Appendix 1 — Sample Reading & Writing exam paper

SAMPLE

Integrated Skills in English II

Time allowed: 2 hours This exam paper has four tasks. Complete all tasks.

ISE II

Task 1 — Long reading

As part of your studies you are going to read about maths skills. Read the following text and answer the 15 questions on page 3.

The importance of maths skills

Paragraph 1

A new charity called National Numeracy (NN) claims that millions of adults across the country

have such poor mathematical skills that they are unable to carry out many of the basic numerical tasks in everyday life that many of us do naturally. These include understanding

travel timetables, pay slips, household bills and even checking our change in shops. The charity

is keen to argue against the myth that maths at school is boring and not really important to us

once we get out of school and start to live in the real world. According to NN, nothing could be further from the truth. It is estimated that poor numeracy skills amongst adults cost the nation billions each year.

Paragraph 2

In addition, poor numeracy skills not only contribute to personal disadvantage to individuals

who are unable to carry out the most basic tasks, but they can also be linked to a number of

other social and personal ills. People without a basic understanding of maths are more likely to be unemployed, more likely to suffer from depression and more likely to suffer from a number of negative social circumstances we would all like to avoid, such as poor housing, poor health and related problems. In short, it pays to possess at least some basic numeracy skills in order

to develop one’s identity and wellbeing in a difficult world.

Paragraph 3 Whilst adult literacy has been improving, thanks to a number of government policies which have provided money for practical support and solutions, adult numeracy has at the same time got

worse. The fact of the matter is that many people simply don’t like maths and don’t see any point to it. Furthermore, maths isn’t cool. It’s apparently OK to say ‘I’m no good at maths’ whilst there is much more reluctance to admitting to being unable to read. To many people, maths

is simply another inconvenient school subject for which there is no need to make much of an

effort because you won’t need it once you leave school.

Paragraph 4 Unfortunately, the problem seems to be passed down the generations. Parents who tell their children they were no good at maths at school are likely to find the same attitude amongst their own children and will be unable to help them with their maths homework. Even today, with interesting and practical new approaches to maths which have replaced simply learning things by heart, maths is still one of those subjects that many kids hate.

Paragraph 5 Perhaps it’s the way it’s taught in schools, or the way teachers are trained to teach it, or the

failure of the teaching profession to attract gifted teachers of maths. There is obviously a need

to present maths as a way of solving practical problems and working with others in a stimulating

way and of making people see its practical uses in everyday life, rather than treating it as a waste of time and something one has to do until the end of school.

page 2

This exam paper has four tasks. Complete all tasks.

Appendix 1 — Sample Reading & Writing exam paper

SAMPLE

ISE II

Questions 1–5 (one mark per question) The text on page 2 has five paragraphs (1–5). Choose the best title for each paragraph from A–F below and write the letter (A–F) on the lines below. There is one title you don’t need.

1. Paragraph 1

2. Paragraph 2

3. Paragraph 3

4. Paragraph 4

5. Paragraph 5

A Why numeracy is not regarded as being as important

as literacy

B How attitudes towards maths are handed down

C How maths skills are related to other skills

D Possible causes of poor attitude to maths

E The results of poor maths skills in daily life

F Social and mental problems because of poor maths skills

Questions 6–10 (one mark per question) Choose the five statements from A–H below that are TRUE according to the information given in the text on page 2. Write the letters of the TRUE statements on the lines below (in any order).

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

A The charity is trying to make maths at school more interesting.

B The writer feels the government is trying to deal with the issue.

C According to NN, adult numeracy is at its lowest ever point.

D People with poor maths skills often have other problems too.

E Maths is regarded as a subject which one has to put up with until the end of school.

F There are now more interesting approaches to maths than there used to be.

G Many people feel very bad about admitting their poor maths skills.

H According to NN, poor adult numeracy is a financial burden on the country.

Questions 11–15 (one mark per question) Complete sentences 11–15 with a word, phrase or number from the text (maximum three words). Write the word, phrase or number on the lines below.

11. The common belief that maths is not useful is a

.

12. As well as practical problems, having difficulty with basic maths can also affect one’s

.

13. People are more likely to say they can’t add up than to say they can’t

.

14. In the writer’s view, poor numeracy may be due to the fact that it’s difficult to recruit

of maths.

15. The writer argues that people need to see the

of maths in daily life.

Turn over page

page 3

Appendix 1 — Sample Reading & Writing exam paper

SAMPLE

Task 2 — Multi-text reading

ISE II

As part of your studies you are going to read about memory. In this section there are four short texts for you to read and some questions for you to answer.

Questions 16–20 (one mark per question) Read ques tions 16–20 first and then read texts A, B, C and D below the questions.

As you read each text, decide which text each question refers to. Choose one letter — A, B, C or D — and write it on the lines below. You can use any letter more than once.

Which text

16. reports on an investigation into brain activity under different conditions?

17. describes how the brain computes external information in order to make memories?

18. recommends a specific technique for remembering vocabulary?

19. compares the impact of different activities on the process of remembering?

20. presents some surprising results with implications for teaching and learning?

Text A

Chris’ blog - Study tips

December 10, 2014

Mnemonics are really cool tools to help you remember facts. They’re techniques or strategies consciously used to improve your memory, and are especially useful if, like me, you often forget things. One of these strategies, which is specifically used for language learning, is called ‘LinkWord Technique’. It uses a visualised image to link a word in one language with a word in another; for example, in Thai, the word khao means rice, so you would have to imagine a cow eating a bowl of rice! The funnier the image, the more memorable it is! But the system does have drawbacks – creating a scene for every new word you learn can take up a lot of time. You might also have problems finding similarities between the two languages. Still, give it a try!

Text B

Memory

Our senses play an important part in memory creation, starting with a biological process known as encoding, which can involve all five. For example, when you first meet someone, your sense of sight will capture what they look like, while your ears will register the sound of their voice. Your sense of smell may pick up some perfume. Perhaps you shake hands, thus bringing in the sense of touch. Going for a coffee together could even mean that taste is involved.

Each of these separate sensations is immediately sent to a part of your brain called the hippocampus, which combines them into your experience, or memory, of that particular person. Whether or not that experience will be moved from your short-term to your long-term memory is also believed to depend on the hippocampus, which processes its importance and decides if it’s worth remembering. Exactly how it does this is not yet understood, but its role is vital: if it did not discard most of our daily experiences, our memories would be too full to function.

page 4

This exam paper has four tasks. Complete all tasks.

Appendix 1 — Sample Reading & Writing exam paper

SAMPLE ISE II Text C The Memory Pyramid We remember: 25% of what we see
SAMPLE
ISE II
Text C
The Memory Pyramid
We remember:
25% of what we see
and hear
30% of what we
demonstrate to others
35% of what we read
50% of the things we discuss with others
70% of what we learn by physically doing things
90% of what we teach to others!
Text D
New research from a leading US university has
uncovered an unconscious form of memory which
could mean that people are capable of learning while
they’re asleep. As researcher Vally Pugland told us:
‘We’ve found evidence that the brain continues to
process information without our knowing it, and this
ability may aid our waking memory.’
Researchers played notes, then released certain
scents, to sleeping participants. Later, the same notes
were played to them without the accompanying
scents. The participants reacted by sniffing when
they heard the notes, even though they couldn’t have
smelt anything this time. This happened both while
they were asleep and awake. ‘This would suggest
that people can learn new information while they
sleep’, said Pugland, ‘and that this can unconsciously
affect their behaviour when they’re awake. We now
need to investigate whether this new “sleep memory”
could improve classroom performance.’
Questions 21–25 (one mark per question)
Choose the five statements from A–H below that are TRUE according to the information given
in the texts above. Write the letters of the TRUE statements on the lines below (in any order).
21.
A Our memory would stop working if we remembered everything we saw
and did.
22.
B Sight is the most important sense for the creation of memories.
23.
C The link between words is easier to recall if it is associated with an
24.
amusing scene.
25.
D The sniffing behaviour was only observed when the participants
were sleeping.
E There are both advantages and disadvantages to the LinkWord Technique.
F Experiences that are important to us tend to generate long-term memories.
G Research has shown that ‘sleep memory’ can lead to better exam results.
H We generally remember more of what we do with others than what we
do on our own.
Turn over page
page 5

Appendix 1 — Sample Reading & Writing exam paper

SAMPLE

ISE II

Questions 26–30 (one mark per question) The summary notes below contain information from the texts on pages 4 and 5. Find a word or phrase from texts A–D to complete the missing information in gaps 26–30.

Write your answers on the lines below.

Summary notes

The power of memory

starts with a biological process: (26.)

different senses can be involved

area of the brain that processes physical sensations:

(27.)

understanding of short-term memory versus long-term memory

discovery of conscious versus unconscious forms of memory

based on research recently undertaken at a (28.)

involving two particular senses: (29.)

and

the memory pyramid — illustrates the relative effectiveness of different activities

memory improvement strategies, eg (30.)

page 6

This exam paper has four tasks. Complete all tasks.

Appendix 1 — Sample Reading & Writing exam paper

SAMPLE

ISE II

Task 3 — Reading into writing

Use the information from the four texts you read in Task 2 (pages 4–6) to write a short article (150–180 words) for a website giving advice for students on how to improve memory skills.

You should plan your article before you start writing. Think about what you want to say and make some notes to help you in this box:

Planning notes

(No marks are given for these planning notes)

Now write your article of 150–180 words on the lines below. Try to use your own words as far as possible — don’t just copy sentences from the reading texts.

Turn over page

page 7

Appendix 1 — Sample Reading & Writing exam paper

SAMPLE ISE II page 8 This exam paper has four tasks. Complete all tasks.
SAMPLE
ISE II
page 8
This exam paper has four tasks. Complete all tasks.

Appendix 1 — Sample Reading & Writing exam paper

SAMPLE

ISE II

When you have finished your article, spend 2–3 minutes reading through what you have written. Make sure you have answered the task completely. Remember to check how you made use of the reading texts, as well as the language and organisation of your writing.

Turn over page

page 9

Appendix 1 — Sample Reading & Writing exam paper

SAMPLE

ISE II

Task 4 — Extended writing

You have been talkling about sports in class. Write an essay (150–180 words) for your teacher on whether or not sport should be a compulsory school subject. Give your opinion with reasons and arguments.

You should plan your essay before you start writing. Think about what you want to say and make some notes to help you in this box:

Planning notes

(No marks are given for these planning notes)

Now write your essay of 150–180 words on the lines below.

page 10

This exam paper has four tasks. Complete all tasks.

Appendix 1 — Sample Reading & Writing exam paper

SAMPLE ISE II Turn over page page 11
SAMPLE
ISE II
Turn over page
page 11

Appendix 1 — Sample Reading & Writing exam paper

SAMPLE

ISE II

When you have finished your essay, spend 2–3 minutes reading through what you have written. Make sure you have answered the task completely. Remember to check how you made use of the reading texts, as well as the language and organisation of your writing.

Copyright © 2015 Trinity College London

End of exam

Appendix 2 — information on the Speaking & Listening exam

Appendix 2 — Information on the Speaking & Listening exam

Sample listening exam

Examiner rubric:

You’re going to hear a talk about wind energy. You will hear the talk twice. The first time, just listen. Then I’ll ask you to tell me generally what the speaker is talking about.

Are you ready?

Now listen to the talk again. This time make some notes on your worksheet as you listen, if you want to. Then I’ll ask you what the reasons the speaker gives for and against the use of wind energy.

Are you ready?

Integrated Skills in English — ISE II Listening exam form Candidate name: Task 2 —

Integrated Skills in English — ISE II

Listening exam form

Candidate name:

Task 2 — Write some notes about the information in the talk if you want to:

w

w

w

w

w

w

w

w

w

w

Extra notes

Appendix 2 — Information on the Speaking & Listening exam

Audio script sample for listening exam

When it comes to investing in wind turbines to create electricity, there are various factors that need to be considered. Most obviously, the creation of wind energy is ‘clean’. Unlike the use of coal or oil, generating energy from the wind doesn’t produce pollutants or require harmful chemicals, and it’s this factor which weighs most heavily with those worried about the future of our planet. Moreover, wind will never run out, unlike other natural, non-renewable resources. So it would seem to be a winner in at least two very significant areas.

There are those, however, who continue to argue against the use of wind turbines — but it has to be said their arguments tend to focus on much more detailed issues, and largely ignore the bigger overall picture. It’s claimed, for example, that the blades of wind turbines can sometimes be dangerous to wildlife, particularly birds. This may be true, but it seems a small price to pay compared to using other means of power generation, which could end up destroying the habitats of those very same birds. In addition, the sound turbines create can, admittedly, be a problem for those nearby. Perhaps a more significant point, though, and certainly one often mentioned by those who object to turbines, is that it requires a lot of open land to set them up, and cutting down trees seems to defeat the green purpose.

Those who criticise wind energy point out that the wind doesn't always blow consistently. And that’s certainly a drawback right now — turbines typically operate at only 30% capacity. If the weather isn’t in your favour, you may end up without electricity. And when there is wind, well, severe storms or extremely high winds might damage turbines, especially when they’re struck by lightning. As such weather already damages existing methods of power production, however, this line of attack seems to be without much merit.

Ultimately, wind is free. In suitable geographical locations, it’s there for the taking. While start-up costs are still off-putting for some, it’s undeniable that the overall costs of producing wind energy have been dropping significantly in recent years, and as it gains popularity, it’ll continue to become more affordable. In many countries, the costs of purchasing and installing turbines are subsidised by government schemes aimed to promote expansion. There are, no question, a number of problems associated with turbines which still require solutions — but in the longer view, the case for them appears beyond doubt.

Answer key

Gist: Wind energy may be a good way to reduce damage to the environment, but there are drawbacks. Overall, there is a strong case for using them (any broadly similar formulation is acceptable).

For

Clean energy — no harmful chemicals or pollutants involved/produced

Will never run out

Doesn’t destroy habitats as other power generation means do

Essentially free/any associated costs falling

Bad weather can damage turbines

Against

Turbines dangerous to wildlife, especially birds

Noisy

Require large area of open land — may lead to cutting down of trees

Supply of wind not consistent — turbines operating at 30% capacity

Appendix 3 — Suggested grammar for ISE II

Appendix 3 — Suggested grammar for ISE II

The list below gives some suggested grammar for students to practice when preparing for an
The list below gives some suggested grammar for students to practice when preparing for an
ISE exam. This list is intended to be for guidance only and is not a list of forms the candidate
must produce in the test.
Language requirements
Grammar
◗ Second and third conditionals
◗ Discourse connectors because of, due to
◗ Simple passive
◗ Present perfect continuous tense
◗ Used to
◗ Past perfect tense
◗ Relative clauses
◗ Reported speech
◗ Modals and phrases used to give advice and
make suggestions, eg should/ought to, could,
you’d better
◗ Linking expressions, eg even though,
in spite of, although
◗ Modals and phrases used to express possibility
and uncertainty may, might, I’m not sure