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Emerging of project management:


The exponential expansion of human knowledge,
The growing demand for a broad range of complex,
sophisticated, customized goods and service,
The evolution of worldwide competitive markets
• Projects in Malaysia – Iskandar Development
Region, KLIA, KLCC twin tower, SMART tunnel
and many more.
• Who is involved? Public and Private sector,
Local or foreign companies?

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Often hear about project being delayed, not
completed, “abandoned”, etc. why???
Lack of management skills and knowledge –
is one of the reasons for
Costs overrun
Delay – not meeting the dateline
Not meeting specification/performance/quality
Therefore, project management skills and
knowledge is needed.

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Introduction
Definition of project
Definition of project management
Process Groups in Project Management
Project objectives
Characteristics of projects
Project types
Project life cycle

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Project management provides “powerful tools”
on how :
to plan, organize, implement & control activities
to use people & resources efficient and effective
PM initiated by the military – Polaris Missile
Program (1950’s), NASA Apollo, Space shuttle
program

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PM needed as intense competition between
companies – quick response, fast delivery of
new products
Projects getting more complex, bigger,
multidisciplinary – must organize efficiently
using PM knowledge
PM has many applications outside of
construction
Managing legal cases
Managing new product releases

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Have a specific objective to be completed


within certain specifications
Have defined start and end dates
Have funding limits (if applicable)
Consume human and nonhuman resources
(i.e., money, people, equipment)
Are multifunctional (i.e., cut across several
functional lines)

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Common terms used in Project Management:
Program, project, task, work packages

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Project management is the planning,


organizing, directing, and controlling of
company resources for a relatively short-term
objective that has been established to
complete specific goals and objectives.

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Project initiation
Project planning
Project execution
Project monitoring and control
Project closure

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Main objectives/goals of project management (called
Triple constraint):

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Also must consider risks involved in project


management
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'Project are characterized by:
'Importance
'Specific end results - Performance
'A definite life cycle
'Complex interdependencies
'Unique elements
'Resources
'Environment of conflict.

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Importance
A successful project must have commitment from
senior management. They must think it’s important
to do and do as a project.
Performance
A project is usually a one-time activity with a set
of desired end result
It can be divided into subtasks, which required
careful coordination and control.
Life Cycle
Project life cycle
slow beginning → progress to a buildup of size
→ peak → begin decline → finally must be
terminated

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Interdependencies
Projects interact with other project being carried out
simultaneously by parent organization, for example
the parent organization’s standard, ongoing
operations, etc.
The patterns of interaction between functional
department are changeable.
Project manager must keep these interactions clear
and maintain

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Uniqueness
Every project has some elements that are unique – no
two projects are precisely same.
Some degree of customization is there.

Resources
• Most projects operate within an environment of limited
resources, including time, money and people.

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Conflict
Project manager – full of conflict; projects compete with
functional department for resources and people.
Project members – conflicting for project’s resources and
leadership roles in solving problems; deal with clients and
organization.
Individual’s conflict – two bosses at the same time; different
objectives and priorities

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Derivative projects
With objectives or deliverables.
Platform projects
Form the basis for follow-on derivative projects.
Breakthrough projects
Involve a newer technology.
R&D projects
Visionary endeavors oriented toward using newly
developed technologies, or existing technologies in a
new manner.

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Better control of projects


Better customer relations
Shorter product development time
Lower program costs
Improved quality and reliability
Higher profit margins
Better control over program security

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More complex internal operations


Inconsistency in application of company
policy
Lower utilization of personnel
Higher program costs
More difficult to manage
Lower profit margins

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Projects – go through similar
stages → from origin to
completion
Project is born (start-up
phase); mgr is selected →
project team & resources are
assembled → organize work
Work gets way & momentum
quickly builds → progress is
made → until the end is in
sight

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Takes time to complete final tasks; Why?
Often a number of parts must come
together & team members “drag their feet”
Pattern of slow-rapid-slow progress – is
common due to changing level of resources
used
Project effort, usually in man-hours (or
number of people working on project)
plotted against time

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Performance – important at early stage of project’s life
cycle; time when planners find the methods required to
meet project’s performance goals (these methods is
refer as project’s technology; application of science or
art)
While technology of project is defined – project schedule
is designed & project costs are estimated
Conventional wisdom - Early life cycle – performance
important than schedule & costs; During high activities –
costs important; Final stages – schedule become
paramount – May not be true
Recent research indicates – performance & schedule
more important than cost during all stage

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Time Distribution of Project
Effort
Beginning – minimal effort;
development of concept &
processes selection
Activity increases – rises to a
peak – begin to taper off as
project nears completion –
finally ceasing when
evaluation is complete –
terminated
Some cases – effort never fall
to zero; small group may be
maintained for the next
project

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