Sunteți pe pagina 1din 4

Agentii patogeni ai sofranelului

Sofranelul este sensibil la multe boli cauzate de fungi, bacterii, virusuri, sau boli datorate
mediului. Utilizarea unor metode ecologice pentru gestionarea bolilor culturilor, cum ar fi
reproducerea pentru rezistenta la boli, biocontrolul, rotatia culturilor au devenit din ce in ce mai
important in aceasta noua era a protectiei mediului.

Bolile pot cauza pierderi mari de productie mai ales in anii cu precipitatii peste
medie. Bolile grave specifice pentru acest interval de timp (aprilie - mai) sunt Alternarioza (Alternaria
carthami) - patarea frunzelor, rugina sofranelului - boala produsa de Pseudomonas
syringae si putregaiul alb produs de fungul pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum [1].

Fungicidul cu cele mai bune rezultate in cazul culturilor de sofranel este Thiram, actionand
sistemic si protejand plantele in primele stadii de dezvoltare. Se absoarbe repede prin radacini si este
translocat in plante, asigurandu-le o buna protectie impotriva daunatorilor. Produsul are o actiune
fungicida de contact, cu eficacitate sporita impotriva unor agenti fitopatogeni care se transmit prin
seminte si prin sol. Dubla actiune insecticida si fungicida confera protectie noilor culturi in perioada
de pana la rasarire si in prima parte a perioadei de vegetatie, oferind conditii propice pentru buna
dezvoltare a plantelor.

De asemenea, strategia pentru controlul acestor boli include urmatoarele masuri:

- alegerea soiurilor adaptate rezistente la boli;

- alegerea semintelor sanatoase

- fertilizarea si controlul buruienilor

- cantitatea de apa din irigare sa se incadreze in normele stabilite

Boli specifice

1. Putregaiul alb produs de fungul pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plantele afectate prezinta
simptome de ingalbenire si ofilire. Atacul evolueaza pe partea inferioara a tulpinii, unde apar zone de
culoare alba sau galben-deschis la inceput, care ulterior devin brune. Dimensiunile acestor zone sunt
la inceput mici, apoi ele cresc in marime. In conditii de vreme umeda, zonele afectate sunt acoperite
cu un miceliu alb, in care apar mai tarziu scleroti negri, de diverse dimensiuni si forme.

2. Alternarioza produsa de Alternaria carthami si Alternaria alternata poate evolua pe toate


organele plantelor si pe intreg ciclul de vegetatie. Sunt afectate mai ales frunzele din etajul inferior.
Atacurile tardive sunt mai periculoase, indeosebi cand afecteaza silicvele tinere, care se deformeaza
si se deschid prematur. Vremea umeda si calda favorizeaza atacul.

Se pot manifesta in anii excesiv de poliosi.


3. Rugina sofranelului provocata de ciuperca Puccinia carthami Aceasta se manifesta in diferite
stadii de dezvoltare ale plantei. Apare pe frunze sub forma de mici pustule de culoare bruna-argintie.
Frunzele atacate incep sa se usuce, iar plantele isi inceteaza cresterea.

Rugina este o boala destul de des intalnita in culturile de sofranel, si se manifesta cu frecventa si
intensitate ridicata. Incepand din luna iunie se pot observa pe ambele fete ale frunzei, dar mai ales
pe cea superioara, uredosporii ciupercii, risipiti sau grupati, uneori confluenti, circulari, pulverunlenti,
de culoare brun-castanie.

4. Fainarea sofranelului (Erysiphe cichoracearum) este considerate alaturi de mana si de putregai


una dintre cele mai pagubitoare boli. THIOVIT JET 80 actioneaza prin contact asupra ciupercilor care
produc fainarea. Are tripla actiune: preventiva, curativa, eradicativa. De asemenea, are un efect
stimulator pentru cresterea plantei prin efectul pozitiv al sulfului asupra fotosintezei.

5. Patarea bruna a frunzei de sofranel (Ramularia carthami)

Se manifesta pe frunze sub forma unor pete circulare, de 3-6 mm in diametru, uneori mai mari si
neregulate, de culoare galbena-cenusie, izolate sau confluente.

6. Macrosporioza frunzelor de sofranel (Macrosporium carthami)

Boala se manifesta prin aparitia pe frunze a unor pete amfigene, circulare sau ovale, cu diametrul de
3-6 mm, la inceput galbene, apoi culoarea se inchide treptat, capatand o tenta bruna-cafenie.

http://biofuels.dbioro.eu/index.php?pag=3.sofranel.li

Disease Problems Diseases have been a problem in years of above-normal rainfall with extended
periods of high humidity. The two most serious diseases under these conditions are Alternaria leaf
spot (Alternaria carthami) and Pseudomonus bacterial blight (Pseudomonus syringae). Alternaria is
characterized by the development of large, brown, somewhat irregular spots on leaves and flower
bracts. The resultant loss of photosynthetic tissue reduces yield. Planting disease-free and
appropriately fungicide-treated seed is recommended. Growers should select varieties carefully since
some are more susceptible to Alternaria leaf spot than others. Quadris (Azoxystrobin) is labeled for
foliar application at first flower to control or suppress Alternaria leaf spot. Bacterial blight has
symptoms very similar to Alternaria leaf spot and usually appears after cool, wet weather and
especially after wind driven heavy rains. Symptoms include reddish-brown lesions that turn white
with age. These lesions usually have yellow-green margins. Both disease organisms can be found on
the same plant. Control practices for bacterial blight are proper variety selection and the use of
disease free seed. Safflower rust (Puccinia carthami) is rarely a problem. The seed-borne spores of
safflower rust are controlled readily by seed treatment. The planting of clean, disease-free seed and
the use of seed treatments are recommended practices. Infection may occur from disease spores
overwintering on safflower residue. Proper crop rotation and field selection are important. Other
diseases that could cause reduction in yield but have not been a problem in recent years in North
Dakota are: Sclerotinia root rot or head rot (infection from ascospores), Botrytis head rot (needs wet
conditions at flowering and may be a serious disease in higher rainfall areas or under irrigation),
Phytopthora root rot (usually occurs under waterlogged soil), Verticillum wilt (cold, wet weather
after planting is needed), Fusarium wilt (needs cool, wet weather in early season) and Pythium root
rot. Control of these diseases is best obtained by planting disease-free seed, treating the seed with
proper fungicides and crop rotation. Safflower never should follow safflower, sunflower, dry bean,
soybean, mustard, canola/rapeseed or lentils in a rotation. A four-year rotation should separate
these susceptible crops. When possible, select varieties with disease tolerance. Most of the newer
varieties have some tolerance to the major diseases. No seed treatment provides protection against
bacterial blight. Recommended seed treatments and foliar fungicides are listed in the most current
NDSU Extension publication, PP-622, "Field Crop Fungicide Guide," available at your county Extension
office.

Berglund, Duane R., Neil Riveland, and Jerald Bergman. "Safflower production." (2010).

The efficacy of systemic fungicides (carbendazim, metalaxyl MZ and propiconazole) at 250, 500
and 1000 µg/ml and non-systemic fungicides (chlorothalonilSC, chlorothalonil WP, copper
oxychloride, captafol and iprodione) at 1000, 2000 and 3000 µg/ml against R.
bataticola [Macrophomina phaseolina] was evaluated in vitro. Carbendazim (as Bavistin) and
propiconazole were highly effective with the mean mycelial growth inhibition of 100 and 93.7%,
respectively. Carbendazim showed 100% inhibition at all concentrations. Among the non-
systemic fungicides, chlorothalonil SC at 3000 ppm was the most effective (82.45% inhibition of
mycelial growth). Healthy safflower cv. A-1 seeds were treated with carbendazim (Subeej 25 DS,
Derosal 50 WP and Bavistin 50 WP), metalaxyl + mancozeb, captan, or chlorothalonil (each at 2
g/kg seed) and were sown in soil-filled pots inoculated with R. bataticola to determine the effect
of seed dressing fungicides on disease incidence. Although all the treatments were superior to the
control (35.41% plant survival), Subeej 25 DS was the most effective with 87.91% plant survival.

Prashanthi, S. K., et al. "Chemical control of Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub.) Butler, the causal agent of
root rot of safflower." Plant Disease Research 15.2 (2000): 186-190.

Mangiferin protected safflower seeds against invasion by the fungus. The fungus grew on the surface
of all the nontreated control seeds within 72 hr, wheras the mangiferin-treated seeds remained fungus-
free. Even after prolonged exposure (96 hr) of mangiferin-treated seeds to the pathogen, nearly 50%
of the seeds remained fungus-free.

Ghosal, S., Biswas, K., Chakrabarti, D. K., & Basuchaudhary, K. C. (1977). Control of Fusarium wilt of
safflower by mangiferin. Phytopathology, 67(4), 548-550.4

Fungicide treatment In order to find out an effective treating agent for the management of wilt
disease a few chemical fungicides viz., Anucop, Bavistin, Captan, Mancozeb M-45, Milzim, Vitavax
and Volzim were used at the concentration of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3%. In this case each fungicide was
separately dusted on the seeds and was smeared in a clean polyethylene pouch.

Govindappa, M., Rai, V. R., & Lokesh, S. (2011). In vitro and In vivo responses of different treating
agents against wilt disease of safflower. Journal of Cereals and Oilseeds, 2(1), 16-25.