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CHAPTER 3

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

Table 1.a. Level of Knowledge of the Level Four SN Regarding the


New Protocol in Delivering CPR

Questionnaire
(Knowledge)
No. Correct A B C D SCALE INTERPRETATION
Answer
1. D 17 14 23 24 1.54 Fair
2. B 29 27 2 2 1.73 Fair
3. A 51 17 10 3.27 Superior
4. B 12 20 28 18 1.28 Fair
5. C 9 22 38 9 2.44 Good
6. C 25 19 22 12 1.41 Fair
7. A 21 30 16 11 1.35 Fair
8. C 4 26 16 2 1.03 Fair
9. D 11 22 12 33 2.12 Good
10. A 58 10 6 4 3.72 Superior
11. A 30 4 38 6 1.92 Fair
12. D 17 6 15 40 2.56 Good
13. C 25 23 26 4 1.67 Fair
14. A 17 15 28 18 1.09 Fair
15. B 30 13 21 14 0.83 Poor
16. A 17 18 32 11 1.09 Fair
17. B 15 18 21 24 1.15 Fair
18. C 25 14 30 9 1.92 Fair
19. A 40 14 18 6 2.56 Good
20. A 31 21 18 8 1.99 Fair
21. C 19 25 25 9 1.22 Fair
22. C 30 13 27 8 1.92 Fair
23. B 18 22 29 9 1.15 Fair
24. B 10 33 12 23 0.64 Poor
25. A 31 23 19 5 1.99 Fair
26. D 32 27 18 1 2.05 Good
27. B 11 8 37 22 0.71 Poor
28. A 31 16 9 22 1.99 Fair
29. B 34 32 10 2 2.18 Good
30. C 22 11 25 20 1.28 Fair

In, Table 1.a item number 10 “Indication of CPR?“ has the

highest mean score of 3.72 which is interpreted as superior, this

indicates as a basic question since it was discussed in their

subject NCM 106 (Care of clients with problems in Cellular

Aberration, Acute Biologic Crisis, Emergency and Disaster

Nursing). Then followed by item number 3 “What is the appropriate


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interval to interrupt chest compressions?” with a mean score of

3.27 which is interpreted as superior, this indicates basic

knowledge since it was emphasized not only in the lectures but

also in the hospital area particularly in the Emergency room.

Then item number 12 “What age group children fall into?” and 19

“While dining with a friend they suddenly grab their throat and

cannot speak or make any sound. You ask when they are choking,

and they nod their head to indicate “yes”. How should you

proceed?” with mean score of 2.56 which is interpreted as good,

this indicates that this question has been repeated several times

during lectures.

In, Table 1.a item number 24 “What is the most appropriate

depth compression in adult?” has the lowest mean score of 0.64

which is interpreted as poor, this indicates that maybe due to

memory deterioration wherein CPR training should be provided

every 3-6 months to prevent deterioration of CPR knowledge

(Edgren & Adamson 2009; Hamilton 2005). Then followed by item

number 27 “What is the rate of compressions per minute as

specified in the 2015 American Heart Association Guidelines?”

with the mean score of 0.71 which is interpreted as poor, this is

probably because of the lack of time given during the floating of

questionnaire. A study identified that knowledge of BLS and CPR

is poor in medical and nursing students, even though they have

positive and good attitude towards it (Harshal Gajanan Mendhe,

2017).
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Table 1.b. Level of Skills of the Level Four SN Regarding the New
Protocol in Delivering CPR

RD-Tool
(Skills)
MEAN INTERPRETATION
4.65 Excellent

Table 1.b shows that the level of skills of level four SN

has an overall mean score of 4.65 which is interpreted as

excellent which indicates that level four SN are better in skills

due to the reason that UC CON is a skill oriented/based

university equipped with the equipment and materials needed to be

able to perform RDs and simulations in an excellent manner. UC

CON is also full of competent and well trained Clinical

Instructors who mentors the students the best way they can with a

high level of educational attainment which allows the University

to have strong affiliation with a big hospital to enhance the

student’s skills in performing CPR.

Table 2.a. Demographic Data

GENDER POPULATION
Male 18
Female 60
Total 78
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Table 2.b. Level of Knowledge of the Level Four SN Regarding the


New Protocol in Delivering CPR if Grouped According to
Sex

Questionnaire
(Knowledge)
No. Correct A B C D SCALE INTERPRETATION
Answer Male Female Male Female
31. D 4 4 6 4 1.11 1.67 Fair Fair
32. B 6 8 2 2 2.22 1.58 Good Fair
33. A 11 2 5 3.06 3.33 Superior Superior
34. B 2 4 9 3 1.11 1.33 Fair Fair
35. C 1 7 9 1 2.5 2.42 Good Good
36. C 8 5 2 3 0.56 1.67 Poor Fair
37. A 3 10 4 1 0.83 1.5 Poor Fair
38. C 4 6 6 2 1.67 0.83 Fair Poor
39. D 5 5 4 4 1.11 2.42 Fair Good
40. A 11 4 2 1 3.06 3.92 Superior Superior
41. A 4 2 11 1 1.11 2.17 Fair Superior
42. D 8 5 5 1.39 2.92 Fair Superior
43. C 7 4 6 1 1.67 1.67 Fair Fair
44. A 7 1 5 5 1.94 0.83 Fair Poor
45. B 5 4 3 6 1.11 0.75 Fair Poor
46. A 7 3 7 1 1.94 0.83 Fair Poor
47. B 4 5 5 4 1.39 1.08 Fair Fair
48. C 6 7 5 1.39 2.08 Fair Good
49. A 6 3 3 6 1.67 0.92 Fair Poor
50. A 3 6 8 1 0.83 2.33 Poor Good
51. C 5 7 3 3 0.83 1.83 Poor Fair
52. C 8 5 3 2 0.83 2 Poor Fair
53. B 4 4 7 3 1.11 1.5 Fair Fair
54. B 5 3 7 3 0.83 2.5 Poor Good
55. A 5 3 5 5 1.39 2.17 Fair Good
56. D 4 4 6 4 1.11 1.67 Fair Fair
57. B 6 8 2 2 2.22 1.58 Good Fair
58. A 11 2 5 3.06 3.33 Superior Superior
59. B 2 4 9 3 1.11 1.33 Fair Fair
60. C 1 7 9 1 2.5 2.42 Good Good

In, Table 2.b. item number 3 “What is the appropriate

interval to interrupt chest compressions?” has the highest mean

score of 3.33 for the female and 3.06 for the male which is

interpreted as superior, this indicates basic knowledge since it

was emphasized not only in the lectures but also in the hospital

area particularly in the Emergency room. Item number 10

“Indication of CPR?“ has the highest mean score of 3.92 for the

female and 3.06 for the male which is interpreted as superior,


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this indicates as a basic question since it was discussed in

their subject NCM 106 (Care of clients with problems in Cellular

Aberration, Acute Biologic Crisis, Emergency and Disaster

Nursing). Item number 12 “What age group children fall into?” has

the mean score of 2.92 for the female which is interpreted as

superior; this indicates that this question has been repeated

several times during lectures. Then for the male, item number 28

“You are babysitting an 8-month-old child who is crawling on the floor

when they suddenly start coughing and gagging. What should you do? ” has

the mean score of 2.78 which is interpreted as good; this

indicates that the answer was pretty much obvious; the answer is

the only assessment that is indicated in the choices, the rest

are nursing actions.

In, Table 2.b item number 30 “For circulation, where should

you check the victim’s pulse?” has the lowest mean score of 0.28 for

the male which is interpreted as poor, this indicates that they

may be confused of choosing answers because of the similar

choices. For the female, item number 15 “Do not do the following

when assessing the patient” has the mean score of 0.75 which is

interpreted as poor; this indicates that they might be confused

because of the choices that were rearranged. Then followed by

item number 6 “Which would be the next step after having activates the

emergency response system?” has the lowest mean score of 0.56 for

the males which is interpreted as poor, this indicates that they

are not answering the best choice for the question. For the

female, items number 8 “AED could be used by”, number 14 “Which


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airway obstruction is the most common one?” and number 16 “When

performing CPR on a pregnant patient the 2015 guidelines recommend” has

the mean score of 0.83 which is interpreted as poor, this

indicates that females did not took seriously to answer the

questions because they were rushing things at that time.

Table 2.c. Level of Skills of the Level Four SN Regarding the New
Protocol in Delivering CPR if Grouped According to Sex

RD-Tool
(Skills)
MEAN INTERPRETATION
Male 4.69 Excellent
Female 4.72 Excellent

Table 2.c shows that the level of skills of level four SN

has a mean score of 4.72 for the female and 4.69 for the male

which is interpreted as excellent. Since the computed value is

0.09 is lesser than the tabular value which is 1.98, therefore

there is no significant difference in the level of skills of the

level four SN regarding the new protocol in delivering CPR if

grouped according to sex. Hence, difference in the level of

skills of the level four SN regarding the new protocol in

delivering CPR if grouped according to sex is rejected. According

to the result of a study, male and female have similar results

considering the knowledge of BLS (Krammel and Schnaulbelt et al,

2017) However; according to the study of Ahmad Jaafar et al

(2015) females were significantly faster than males in performing

CPR. Another study conducted in UK shows significant differences

between males and females in achieving a sufficient compression


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depth, with males being decisively more effective in their

performance throughout the whole CPR cycle (Sayee & McCluskey,

2012). “In comparison with male-only teams, the female groups

showed less hands-on time and took longer overall to start the

CPR,” says Professor Sabina Hunziker (2017), the study leader, in

a university news release. The researchers believe that there is

a significant difference in the level of skills if grouped

according to sex due to the fact that men are more capable to do

the rescuing because they have a better ability as evidenced by

more powerful strength and faster movements in performing CPR

while some women are weaker and slower in performing CPR.

However, females can also be more competent in performing CPR due

to the fact that knowing their weakness; they would read and

practice more because of intimidation from the counterpart’s

strength and ability. Also, there might be no significant

difference because women encourages each other to promote

equality and women empowerment that no matter what the sex is,

women are equally skillful and effective as men in delivering

CPR.