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# Boundary Layer Flows

On a micro-scale, the fluid particles in contact with a surface will have zero
velocity whilst, at a certain distance away from the surface, the fluid
particles will be moving with the free stream velocity. The region of reduced
velocity is known as the boundary layer.
The edge of the fluid dynamic boundary layer is DEFINED to be where the
fluid velocity reaches 99% of the free stream velocity.
It is within the boundary layer that convection heat transfer is controlled
and therefore, knowledge of boundary layer flows is necessary.
The Thermal Boundary Layer
In the same way that the solid surface influences the fluid velocity, it will
also influence the fluid temperature. For example, the fluid temperature
near to the surface will increase or decrease depending upon the surface
temperature.
The thickness of the thermal boundary layer is not necessarily the same as
the velocity boundary layer.
Boundary Layer Approximations
\$ ∂u ∂u ∂u ' ∂p ∂2u ∂2u
ρ& + u + v ) = − + 2 + 2
% ∂t ∂x ∂y ( ∂x ∂x ∂y
\$ ∂v ∂v ∂v ' ∂p ∂2 v ∂2 v
ρ& + u + v ) = − + 2 + 2
% ∂t ∂x ∂y ( ∂y ∂x ∂y

∂cPT ∂cPT ∂cPT ∂p ∂p ∂p \$ ∂2T ∂2T '
ρ + ρu + ρv = + u + v + k& 2 + 2 ) + q˙*** +
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂t ∂x ∂y % ∂x ∂y (
€ \$ + ∂u .2 + ∂v .2 + ∂u ∂v .2 2 + ∂u ∂v .2 '
+µ&2.- 0 + 2.- 0 + - + 0 − - + 0 )
&% , ∂x / , ∂y / , ∂y ∂x / 3 , ∂x ∂y / )(

## 1. Steady-state & no heat generation

€ 2.Velocities & velocity gradients: u >> v v
u
Consider y ~ δ For the same reason
∂u ∂ u ∂v ∂v ∂u u u ∂u ∂ 2u u u ∂ 2u
>> ; ; ≈ >> ≈ 2 ≈ 2 >> 2 ≈
∂y ∂ x ∂y ∂x ∂y €
δ x ∂x ∂y δ x ∂x 2
Boundary Layer Approximations
\$ ∂u ∂u ' ∂p ∂2 u
ρ&u + v ) = − + µ 2 u >> v
% ∂x ∂y ( ∂x ∂y
\$ ∂v ∂v ' ∂p ∂2 v ∂p
ρ&u + v ) = − + 2 =0
% ∂x ∂y ( ∂y € ∂y ∂y

2
∂cPT ∂cPT ∂p ∂p \$∂2T ∂2T ' * ∂u -
ρu + ρv = u + v + k& 2 + 2 ) + µ, /
∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y % ∂x ∂y ( + ∂y .
€ €
∂p 1 ∂p ∂u ( x )
=0 p( x) + ρu∞2 ( x) = const + ρu∞ ( x) ∞ =0
€ ∂y 2 ∂x ∂x

∂T ∂T ∂ 2T ∂ 2T
3. Temperature gradients >> >> 2
€ € ∂y € ∂ x ∂y 2 ∂x

4.Viscous dissipation (heat gen.) << advective & diffusive energy rate
€ €
Boundary Layer Equations
∂u ∂v
+ =0 mass
∂x ∂y
\$ ∂u ∂u ' ∂2 u
ρ&u + v ) = µ 2 momentum
% ∂x ∂y ( ∂y

\$ ∂T ∂T ' ∂2T
ρcP &u +v )= k 2 energy
% ∂x ∂y ( ∂y

Flat plate in parallel flow
Laminar flow
Incompressible
Const. properties
No dissipation
dp/dx = 0

Mass ∂u ∂v
+ =0 Velocity and temperature profiles are
∂x ∂y self-similar: use only one variable
(similitude parameter)
Momentum
∂u ∂u µ ∂ 2 u
u +v =
∂x ∂y ρ ∂y 2 Constant properties: the fluid
dynamic and thermal boundary
∂T ∂T ∂ 2T layers are independent
Energy u +v =α 2 (coefficients do not depend on T)
∂x ∂y ∂y

Solve fluid dynamic b.l. è use results to get thermal b.l. è find h

Similarity solution (Blasius)
1) Use the mass equation (introduce stream function Ψ)

∂ψ ∂ψ ∂u ∂v ∂ 2ψ ∂ 2ψ
u= ; v=− ⇒ + = − ≡0
∂y ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂x∂y ∂y∂x
2) Define the similarity parameter and the similarity function

y y Nondimensional df u Nondimensional
€ η ≡ * =€ coordinate ≡ velocity
δ νx dη u∞
u∞ δ* ~ δ (B.L. thickness)

## Using the stream function

€ df €1 ∂ψ 1 dψ ∂η 1 dψ ψ ψ
= = = f (η) ≡ * =
dη u∞ ∂y u∞ dη ∂y u∞δ * dη u∞δ νx
u∞
u∞

Similarity solution (Blasius)
3) Calculate the terms in the momentum equation

∂u ∂u µ ∂ 2 u y ψ νx
u +v = η≡ * f (η) ≡ *
δ =
∂x ∂y ρ ∂y 2 δ u∞δ * u∞

## df ∂ψ ' * ∂f u ∞ * 1 νu∞ ' df *

u = u∞ v = − € = −)u∞δ + * f,= )η − f,
€ dη ∂x ( € ∂x 2δ + 2
€ x ( dη +

∂u u∞ d 2 f ∂u u∞ d 2 f ∂ 2u u∞2 d 3 f
=− η 2 = u∞ 2 =
€ ∂x 2x dη ∂y νx dη 2 ∂y νx dη 3

Boundary conditions:
d3 f d2 f df df
€ 2 3+ f € 2 =0 = f€(0) = 0 =1
dη dη dη 0 dη ∞
Similarity solution (Blasius)

0.99
y
η=
νx
u∞

νx 5x
y0.99 ≡ δ = 5 =
u∞ Re x

∂u u∞ d 2 f
τ =µ = µu ∞
∂y y=0
νx dη 2 0

ρµu∞
τ = 0.332u∞
x

Example 8.1
Consider a 150 mm long flat plate oriented parallel to a uniform flow of
water (ρ = 997 kg/m3; µ = 0.00085 Pa s) with free stream velocity of 2 m/s.
Calculate the hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness at the trailing edge of
the plate.

## ρu L 997 × 2 × 0.15 ReL < 5x105

Re L = ∞ = = 351700
µ 8.5 ×10 −4
Laminar flow

## 2) Calculate the B.L. thickness at the required position

νL 5L 5 × 0.15
δ=5 = = = 0.0013 m
u∞ Re L 351700