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“Commits Itself to the Highest Standard of Service to be your Coach in Discovering the Best in You”

just like how we learned our first utterance.

MODELS OF COMMUNICATION Parents keep on repeating words until the
 The communication is the process is indeed babies imitate and repeat the utterances
a paradox. Language experts of different successfully.
historical periods, in their dire attempts to
bridge the gap, were able to formulate their Listening Process
own theories to explain the process of - The receiving of the message from the
communication. Since linear representation source signals is the start of the listening
of Aristotle to the complex depiction of process.
modern linguists, we can say that this - The listener, then, will decode the message
endeavour has come a long way. and select important parts of the message
that will help the listener in interpreting it.
BERLO’S MODEL Based on the interpretation, the receiver
- Is considered one of the most recognizable now comprehends the message and retains
representations. It has four major information needed for him to react and
component. respond.
1. Source
2. Reciever Kinds of listening
3. Message
1. Interactional / Empathic Listening
4. Channel
- This type of listening is very common and
at times done in an informal setting.
- This model is also called SMRC.
2. Transactional / Critical Listening
SMRC’s linearity is oftentimes criticized, but
- The listener is concerned with acquiring
Berlo’s elucidations regarding the significance of
new knowledge for the purpose of
each component redeem it all. According to him
improving his skill in generalizing and
interlocutors’ (source and receiver) communication
decision making.
skillsm knowledge, socio-cultural system and
attitude are important for successful
Three Modes of Listening
communication to take place.
 Unidirectional - if the listener cannot
respond to the things hs/she heard.
 Bidirectional – If the listening process is
- Learning the English language circles
reciprocal – meaning, two way
around the three sets of four, and below is
 Autodirectional – if the listening process is
a table that summarizes these sets.
reflexive – meaning, the speaker this is
intrapersonal listening.
Listening Phonology Grammatical  Language and language learning
Speaking Morphology Discourse developed as fast as civilization. In the
Reading Semantics Sociolinguisti older times, man used language merely for
Writing Syntax Strategic survival – now, language functions as one
important medium of language and
The four cueing systems innovation.
1. Phonology – pertains to the sounds of
Language – as the expression and communication
of emotions or ideas between human beings by
2. Morphology – pertains to formation of
means of speech and hearing that is systematized
and confirmed by usage among given people over
Types of morphemes
a period of time.
 Bound morpheme (dependent)
 Free morpheme (independent) The Family of Consonant Sounds
Manner of Articulation
3. Semantics – pertains to meaning derivation
1. Stops / Plosives
4. Syntax – grammar, structure and form of the
- These are the sounds produced when the
air stream is blocked completely before it is
abruptly released. The sounds P,T,K,B,D,G
are the members of this family.
2. Fricatives
 Experts say that listening is the first
- These are sounds produced when the air
language skill that students learn. If we are
stream is compressed and passes through a
to think about it, this claim may be true.
small opening creating friction. The sounds
Upon hearing things, then one can speak –
“Commits Itself to the Highest Standard of Service to be your Coach in Discovering the Best in You”

F,V,S,Z,H,TH (voiced) and (voiceless), Sh, quantified usig measurements

ZH are the members of this group. 4. Mass Nouns – nouns that cannot be counted and
quantified using measurement
3. Affricates
- These are sounds produced when a plosive 5. Collective Nouns – nouns that name a group of
is followed by a fricative Ts(Ch) and Dz (J) persons or things.
are the members of this group. 6. Compound Nouns – nouns that are made up of
4. Nasals two words acting as a single unit.
- are produces when the oral cavity is
blocked, and so the air passes through the PRONOUNS
nose N,M, and Ng are nasal sounds - Are words that stand for nouns.
5. Liquid/ lateral Kinds of Pronouns
- Sounds are produced when air stream 1. Personal Pronouns – these are pronouns that
moves around the tongue in an obstructed refer to the person speaking, the person spoken to,
manner. Sounds like L and R are examples or the person or thing spoken about.
6. Glides
- Are sounds that are close to vowel sounds Personal Pronoun Singular Plural
like W and Y. 1st Person I, Me We, Us
2nd Person You You
READING 3rd Person She, He, They
- Five Skills Her, Him, Them
1. Phonemic Awareness It
2. Phonics 2. Possessive Pronouns – These are pronouns that
3. Fluency shows possession.
4. Vocabulary
5. Comprehension Possesive Adjectives Possesive Pronouns
My Mine
Phonemic Awareness – being familiar with the Our Ours
sounds of the Language Your Yours
Phonics – drawing out the relationship between the Thier Thiers
symbol and the sound (graphophonemic His His
relationship). Her Hers
Fluency – the ability to blend and mix the sounds to Its
from a meaningful utterance
Vocabulary – ability to attach meanings to words 3. Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns
Comprehension – ability to create and decode
Singular Plural
meanings from a group.
1stPerson Myself Ourselves
2nd Person Yourself Yourselves
Purpose of Reading
Skimming – reading to get the main idea 3rd Person Himself Themselves
Scanning – reading to get specific information. Herself
Other Purpose of Reading Oneself
1. Information searching
2. General comprehending 4. Indefinite Pronouns – do not refer to a specific
3. New Information learning noun.
4. Information evaluating and synthesizing Singular Plural Both Sing/Plu
any, everyone, Both Several None
GRAMMAR anybody, Few All
no one Many Some
Parts of Speech
- A noun names something – person, place,
thing, events, phenomena, emotions, etc. 5. Interrogative Pronouns – used in asking
Kinds of Nouns Interrogative Pronouns
1. Proper Nouns – names of specific persons, things Who How To whom
or places. What Whom To what
2. Common Nouns – refer to any one of a class of Which Whose To which
persons, places or things. Why When where
3. Count Nouns – nouns that can be counted and
“Commits Itself to the Highest Standard of Service to be your Coach in Discovering the Best in You”

6. Demonstrative Pronouns – Used in pointing

nouns. Linking Verbs as State Copulas
- Are verbs that are not locomotive. They are
Demonstrative Pronouns of a condition than an action.
Singular This That Examples; Lie, Rest, Remain, Stand
Plural These Those
Linking Verbs as Change of State Copulas
ADJECTIVES - These linking verbs do not express instant
- An adjective qualifies and tells something locomotion or movement. Mostly, these
about a Noun or Pronoun through verbs express changes from one state to
descriptions. another.
Comparison of Adjectives Examples; Become, Get, Turn, Come, Go,
Positive Comparative Superlative Fall, Grow.
Big Bigger Biggest
Useful More Useful Most Useful Auxiliary Verbs – these are also called helping
Active Less Active Least Active verbs because they always appear with another
Bad Worse Worst verb in a sentence. Linking verbs such as is, was,
are, were considered auxiliary verbs if they appear
together with a verb in progressive form. Other
- Are action words helping verbs are has, have and had.
- Verbs are far more than that verbs also link
Emphatic Verb – are use to give certain emphasis.
ideas in a sentence, help other verbs, and
These verbs are do, does and did
state conditions. We can classify verbs into
DO – is used for plural subjects in the present
(1) verbs of actions (2) linking/be verbs (3)
helping verbs, (4) emphatic verbs and (5) tenses.
DOES – is used for singular subjects in the present
DID – for both plural and singular in the past tense.
Action Verbs – these are verbs that express action.
2 sub classification
-are helping verbs that are used to give a
preposition, a degree of probability, to express
Regular Verbs – is considered regular if its past
one’s attitude, and to perform various social
form is derived by adding d or ed.
functions, such as expressing politeness or
Base Form Past Form
indirectness when making requests, giving advice
Watch Watched
or granting permission.
Bake Baked
Pick Picked
Save Saved - Modify verbs, adjectives, or another
Irregular Verbs – is considered irregular if its past
for derived not by adding d or ed, but through a Adverb of Manner
change or through retention in spelling. This answers the question how a thing is done.
Base Form Past Form
Pay Paid Adverb of time
Put Put This answers the question when action happened.
Say Said
Write Wrote Adverb of frequency
This answers the question how often.
Linking Verbs – as copula
- Link between the subjects and nonverbal PRESPOSITION
predicated. The copula also carries the - Links words within the sentence. It also
tenses and would determines subject-verb states how two separate things are related.
agreement. A preposition may indicate a location,
Linking Verbs as Perception Copulas direction, possession or cause.
- These are verbs that express no action, but
the same time, are not the conventional (is, Common Prepositions
are, was, were) linking verbs. They are In front of About At In Beneath
called Perception. In regard to Above After Near During
Examples: Appear, Smell, Seem, Fee, Taste, Inside Across Around Down By
look. In spite of Against Before Despite By
“Commits Itself to the Highest Standard of Service to be your Coach in Discovering the Best in You”

means Simple Future Tense

Into Among Behind From Amid  Verbs in the future tense express actions
that will happen in the future.
CONJUNCTION Present Progressive Tense
- If preposition link words within a sentence,  Verbs in the present progressive tense,
conjuctions relate or join words into single express actions that are happening at the
unit. moment.
Past Progressive Tense
Coordinating Conjunction – connected words or  This express a continuing action that
group of words. started and ended in the past.
Future Progressive Tense
Correlative Conjunctions – correct words under the  This express a continuing action that will
same grammatical structure. But the always appear happen in the future.
in pairs. Present Perfect Tense
 This express an action that started in the
Subordinating Conjunctions – connect two past, but is still happening at present.
complete ideas to make dependent to the other. Past Perfect Tense
 This express two past actions, which one
INTERJECTION happened before the other.
- These are words that express strong Future Perfect Tense
feelings or emotions. They may function as  This express two future actions, in which
an independent sentence with the speaker one will happen before the other.
as the subject. Present Perfect Progressive Tense
 This express an action that started in the
SUBJECT AND VERB AGREEMENT past and still happening at present and will
most likely continue to happen in the
 Collective Nouns – these nouns can either future.
take a singular or plural verb depending on Past Perfect Progressive Tense
how they are used in a sentence.  This expresses two past actions, where the
first one was still happening when the
Nouns ending in-s and –ics second one transpired.
 Are always paired with verbs in the Future Perfect Progressive Tense
singular form.  This expresses two future actions, where
the first future action is still happening
Nouns in sets of twos.
when the second one transpire.
 Nouns of this nature take a singular verb if
the word pair is present. If not, they take a
plural verb.
1.Dangling Modifier – absence of the word
“A number” and The number” being modified.
 Sentences beginning with the phrase a 2. Misplaced Modifier – the modifier modifies
number always take a plural verb, while the wrong word
sentences that begin with the number take a 3. Fragment – group of word masquerading
singular verb. as a sentence
Fraction and Percent SENTENCE
 Take a singular verb if it paired with a
non-count noun, and vice versa. Four kinds of sentences according to function
Neither...nor and Either...or 1. Declarative – states as idea and express facts and
 The verb must agree with the closest noun. opinion.
2. Interrogative – used in asking questions
As well and Together with - ends with a question mark.
3. Imperative – used in asking someone to do
 The verb must agree with the first noun.
4. Exclamatory – used to express strong feeling or
Simple Present Tense
Four Kinds of Sentences According to Structure.
 Verbs in the present tense express habitual
or factual actions.
Sentence Patterns with Transitive Verbs.
Simple Past Tense
 Verbs in the Past tense express action that
1. S – AV-DO (Subject Action Verb-Direct Object)
happened in the past.
“Commits Itself to the Highest Standard of Service to be your Coach in Discovering the Best in You”

2. S-AV-IO-DO (Subject-Action Verb-Indirect 3. Character – Characters in the story are the moral
Object-Direct Object). agents of actions. They are the invented personages
in fiction.

4. Setting – serves as the background of the story,

3. S – AV – DO – OC (Subject Action Verb Direct may it be physical, mental or spiritual. It serves as
Object Complement) the backdrop and sets the mood of the characters.

5. Theme - is considered as the central message of

Sentence Patterns with linking verbs. the story. It is the universal truth expressed in the
S-LV-PN (Subject-linking Verb Predicate text.
S-LV-PN (Subject-linking Verb-Predicate Adjective)
1. Synecdoche – an association of some
Four Kinds of Sentences According to Structure important part with the whole it
1. Simple Sentence – composed of one independent represents.
clause. Example: The face who launched a
2. Compound Sentence – compose of two or more thousand ship.
independent clauses 2. Simile – an indirect association.
3. Complex Sentence – composed of one Example: She is like a flower.
independent clause and two or or more dependent 3. Personification – giving human attributes to
clauses. an inanimate object (animal, idea, etc).
4. Compound – Complex – composed of two or Example: The sun is looking down on me.
more independent clauses and one or more 4. Oxymoron – a self-contrasting statement.
subordinate clauses. Example: Loud silence
5. Metonymy – an association wherein the
LITERATURE name of something is substitute by
 Fiction is a propose imaginative something that represents it.
composition which may or may not be Example: Toothpaste is sometimes called
based on history or fact. colgate.
6. Metaphor – a direct comparison
Different Types of Fiction 7. Irony – the contrast between what was
1. Short Story – a relatively brief prose expected and what actually happened.
fictional based on a single main incident Example: No smoking sign during a cigarette
which is designed to produce a single Break.
dominant impression. 8. Hyperbole – An exaggeration
2. Novel – a prose fictional work of Example: Cry me a river
considerable length that deals with a series 9. Euphemism – Creating a positive
of complications involving characters in a connotation out of something negative
particular setting. Example: Loved Child
3. Drama – a composition in prose or verse 10. Ellipsis – omission of words in a sentence
designed for stage performance through Example: she walked away and so the
mime and dialogue world turns.
4. Allegory – a symbolic fictional account 11. Asyndeton –Not puting any connectors
conveying meanings beyond the literal. Example: No retreat, No Surrender
12. Apostrophe – A direct address to an
ELEMENTS OF FICTION abstract things or a person who passed
1. Plot – is a series of events knit together following
the principle of cause and effect. It is also deemed
to be an arrangement of incidents, the narrative IDIOMATIC EXPRESION
structure, the organization of a narrative, and the
1. Come hell of high water – i am by
logical sequence of actions.
your side come hell or high water.
2.Conflict – is considered as the soul of the plot,
and it is the tension between opposing forces in the Meaning: this means the speaker
story. It can be external, which means the conflict is would not leave the one he / she is
fron outside forces; or internal, which means the speaking with no matter what
conflict resides with the main character. happens.
“Commits Itself to the Highest Standard of Service to be your Coach in Discovering the Best in You”

2. Put your Finger in the Pie – to finish 13. Hang up – Suspend

the task at a much earlier time 14. Hold up – Rob
everyone must put his/her finger in 15. Pay off – to complete payment
the pie. 16. Touch up – repair
17. Turn down – refuse
Meaning: it means they must do their
18. Throw over – Reject
share in a particular task. 19. Save – up – Accumulate
3. Be in the limelight: the soprano did 20. Put off – Postponed
her best to be in the limelight 21. Down play – Diminish
Meaning: It means to be at the center 22. Figure out – understand
of everybody’s attention. 23. Breakdown – to analyze
4. Flogging a dead horse: Rallies and
mass demonstration against the RH
law are like flogging a dead horse,
Meaning: it means that the work being
done is futile.
5. Bring home the bacon; The speech
coach cheered his contestants he said
“bring home the bacon”
Meaning: It means that he wants the
team to win.
6. Between the devil and the deep
blue sea; this situation is hopeless! It is
like the devil and deep blue sea.
Meaning: the situation is at its worst
and the resolution is seen to be
7. In your face; the debater was
criticized straight in her face.
Meaning: the state something in an
aggressive manner.
8. Under the weather; She did attend
her class. She said that she feels under
the weather
Meaning: the person is sick.
9. Back to square one: her efforts are
wasted since she is back to square one.
Meaning: the person has to start again
from the beginning.
10. Tickled pink: the news tickled her
Meaning: Made one very happy.

Phrasal Verbs / Meaning

1. Add up – add
2. Bring about – cause to happen
3. Bring up – raise
4. Call off – cancel
5. Carry on – continue
6. Back up – support
7. Bring off – accomplish
8. Carry out – complete
9. Count in – included
10. Cut down – reduce
11. Fill out – Complete (printed form)
12. Fill up – Complete (container)