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AASHTO DESIGN METHOD ( A merican A ssociation of S tate H ighway and T
AASHTO DESIGN METHOD ( A merican A ssociation of S tate H ighway and T
AASHTO DESIGN METHOD ( A merican A ssociation of S tate H ighway and T

AASHTO DESIGN METHOD

(American Association of State Highway

and Transportation Officials)

PAVEMENT THICKNESS DESIGN Comprehensive Definition Pavement Thickness design is the determination of thickness of
PAVEMENT THICKNESS DESIGN Comprehensive Definition Pavement Thickness design is the determination of thickness of

PAVEMENT THICKNESS DESIGN

PAVEMENT THICKNESS DESIGN Comprehensive Definition Pavement Thickness design is the determination of thickness of

Comprehensive Definition

Pavement Thickness design is the determination of thickness of various pavement layers (of various pavement materials) for a given soil condition and the predicted design traffic (in

terms of equivalent standard axle load) that will

provide the desired structural and functional

performance over the selected pavement design

life.

AASHTO PAVEMENT DESIGN GUIDE  Empirical design methodology  Several versions:  1961  1972
AASHTO PAVEMENT DESIGN GUIDE  Empirical design methodology  Several versions:  1961  1972

AASHTO PAVEMENT DESIGN GUIDE

AASHTO PAVEMENT DESIGN GUIDE  Empirical design methodology  Several versions:  1961  1972 

Empirical design methodology Several versions:

1961

1972

1986

1.

Refined material characterization

2.

Version included in Huang (1993)

AASHTO PAVEMENT DESIGN GUIDE  1993 1. More on Rehabilitation 2. More consistency between flexible
AASHTO PAVEMENT DESIGN GUIDE  1993 1. More on Rehabilitation 2. More consistency between flexible
AASHTO PAVEMENT DESIGN GUIDE  1993 1. More on Rehabilitation 2. More consistency between flexible

AASHTO PAVEMENT DESIGN GUIDE

1993

1. More on Rehabilitation

2. More consistency between flexible and rigid design

2002 (Released in 2010)

1. Latest Version

2. Based on mechanistic-empirical approach

AASHTO DESIGN GUIDE (1993)
AASHTO DESIGN GUIDE (1993)

AASHTO DESIGN GUIDE (1993)

AASHTO DESIGN GUIDE (1993)
AASHTO DESIGN GUIDE (1993)
AASHTO DESIGN GUIDE (1993)

AASHTO DESIGN GUIDE (1993)

AASHTO DESIGN GUIDE (1993)
AASHTO DESIGN GUIDE (1993)
AASHTO DESIGN GUIDE (1993)

AASHTO DESIGN GUIDE (1993)

AASHTO DESIGN GUIDE (1993)
AASHTO METHOD Design Considerations  Pavement performance  Traffic  Roadbed soil  Material of
AASHTO METHOD Design Considerations  Pavement performance  Traffic  Roadbed soil  Material of

AASHTO METHOD

AASHTO METHOD Design Considerations  Pavement performance  Traffic  Roadbed soil  Material of construction

Design Considerations Pavement performance

Traffic

Roadbed soil

Material of construction

Environment

Drainage

Reliability

PAVEMENT PERFORMANCE Concept – Ability of a specific section of the Pavement to serve traffic
PAVEMENT PERFORMANCE Concept – Ability of a specific section of the Pavement to serve traffic
PAVEMENT PERFORMANCE
PAVEMENT PERFORMANCE

Concept Ability of a specific section of the Pavement to serve traffic in its existing condition. Present serviceability index PSI

in its existing condition. Present serviceability index PSI  Structural  Functional cracking, rutting, patching

Structural

Functional

serviceability index PSI  Structural  Functional cracking, rutting, patching etc. riding comfort (measured in

cracking, rutting, patching etc.

Structural  Functional cracking, rutting, patching etc. riding comfort (measured in terms of roughness of pavement)

riding comfort (measured in

terms of roughness of pavement)

Serviceability

performance:

measured

by

PSI

present serviceability index with scale 0 to 5

1. 2. TWO SERVICEABILITY INDICES Initial Serviceability Index (p i ) Terminal Serviceability Index (p
1. 2. TWO SERVICEABILITY INDICES Initial Serviceability Index (p i ) Terminal Serviceability Index (p
1.
1.

2.

TWO SERVICEABILITY INDICES

Initial Serviceability Index (p i ) Terminal Serviceability Index (p t )

Initial Serviceability Index (p i )

Serviceability index immediately after the construction of the pavement

PSI i = 4.2 Flexible Pavements PSI i = 4.5 Rigid Pavements

 TWO SERVICEABILITY INDICES Terminal Serviceable Index (p t ) Based on class of highway
 TWO SERVICEABILITY INDICES Terminal Serviceable Index (p t ) Based on class of highway
 TWO SERVICEABILITY INDICES Terminal Serviceable Index (p t ) Based on class of highway

TWO SERVICEABILITY INDICES

Terminal Serviceable Index (p t )
Terminal Serviceable Index (p t )

Based on class of highway

PSI t = 3.0 for Interstate Freeways

PSI t = 2.5 for Major Highways

PSI t = 2.0 for Low Traffic

Time Constraints Performance Period (design period) – Time pavement will last before it needs Rehabilitation
Time Constraints Performance Period (design period) – Time pavement will last before it needs Rehabilitation
Time Constraints Performance Period (design period) – Time pavement will last before it needs Rehabilitation
Time Constraints
Time Constraints

Performance Period (design period)

Time pavement will last before it needs Rehabilitation (time between rehabilitations) Analysis Period

Time Period that any design strategies must cover.

Guidelines for length of Analysis Period

Analysis Period – Time Period that any design strategies must cover. Guidelines for length of Analysis
Time Constraints
Time Constraints
Time Constraints
Time Constraints
Time Constraints
Time Constraints
Traffic Loading  Based on cumulative expected 18‐kips ESAL  Traffic is one of the
Traffic Loading  Based on cumulative expected 18‐kips ESAL  Traffic is one of the
Traffic Loading  Based on cumulative expected 18‐kips ESAL  Traffic is one of the
Traffic Loading
Traffic Loading

Based on cumulative expected 18‐kips ESAL

Traffic is one of the most important pavement design factors with following Variables:

Axle type and tire configuration

Axle weight

Number of applications

Tire pressure

Number/type of tires

Contact area

Speed

Traffic Loading Design Procedures ◦ Fixed Traffic – Used for Airports – Design Based on
Traffic Loading Design Procedures ◦ Fixed Traffic – Used for Airports – Design Based on
Traffic Loading Design Procedures ◦ Fixed Traffic – Used for Airports – Design Based on
Traffic Loading
Traffic Loading

Design Procedures

Fixed Traffic

Used for Airports

Design Based on Critical Single Wheel

Fixed Vehicle

Design

Governed

by

Number

of

Repetitions

of

a

Standard Single Axle Load (18‐kips)

Variable Traffic and Vehicle

Load Divided into Groups (Repetitions per Group)

Most Appropriate for Mechanistic Analysis

Traffic Loading Equivalent Axle Load Factor (EALF) ‐ Table 6.4 • Relative damaging effect of
Traffic Loading Equivalent Axle Load Factor (EALF) ‐ Table 6.4 • Relative damaging effect of
Traffic Loading Equivalent Axle Load Factor (EALF) ‐ Table 6.4 • Relative damaging effect of
Traffic Loading
Traffic Loading

Equivalent Axle Load Factor (EALF) ‐ Table 6.4

Loading Equivalent Axle Load Factor (EALF) ‐ Table 6.4 • Relative damaging effect of an axle

Relative damaging effect of an axle was approximately

proportional to the fourth power of the load which it carries

EALF Depends on

Pavement Type

Structural Capacity

Failure Criteria/ Terminal Condition

Traffic Loading Equivalent Single Axle Load (ESAL)
Traffic Loading Equivalent Single Axle Load (ESAL)
Traffic Loading Equivalent Single Axle Load (ESAL)
Traffic Loading
Traffic Loading

Equivalent Single Axle Load (ESAL)

Traffic Loading Equivalent Single Axle Load (ESAL)
Traffic Loading Equivalent Single Axle Load (ESAL)
Traffic Loading  Growth Factor (G)  Usually Constant Yearly Rate (r)  AASHTO and
Traffic Loading  Growth Factor (G)  Usually Constant Yearly Rate (r)  AASHTO and
Traffic Loading  Growth Factor (G)  Usually Constant Yearly Rate (r)  AASHTO and
Traffic Loading
Traffic Loading

Growth Factor (G)

Usually Constant Yearly Rate (r)

AASHTO and AI Total Growth Factor over the entire design period

and AI Total Growth Factor over the entire design period  Must Consider: – Normal Traffic

Must Consider:

Normal Traffic Growth

Attracted Traffic

Generated Traffic

Traffic Development

ROADBED SOIL  CBR (California Bearing Ratio), R-value (Resistance), and M r (Resilient modulus) are
ROADBED SOIL  CBR (California Bearing Ratio), R-value (Resistance), and M r (Resilient modulus) are

ROADBED SOIL

ROADBED SOIL  CBR (California Bearing Ratio), R-value (Resistance), and M r (Resilient modulus) are used

CBR (California Bearing Ratio), R-value (Resistance), and M r (Resilient modulus) are used to describe the property of the subgrade material. During the structural design, only M r values are used. The following conversion formulas are used if either CBR or R-values are given.

M r (lb/in2) = 1500 x CBR for fine-grain soils with soaked CBR of 10 or less.

Mr(lb/in2) = 1000 + 555 x (R-value) for R <= 20

MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION  Fig. 7.15 coefficient (a 2 ) with various base strength parameters.
MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION  Fig. 7.15 coefficient (a 2 ) with various base strength parameters.
MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION  Fig. 7.15 coefficient (a 2 ) with various base strength parameters.

MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION

Fig. 7.15

coefficient (a 2 ) with various base strength parameters.

Fig. 7.15 (b) variation in bituminous treated base layer coefficient (a 2 ) with base strength parameters.

(a)

variation

in

base

layer

FIGURE 7.15a (Huang) Layer coefficient a 2 for untreated base layer
FIGURE 7.15a (Huang) Layer coefficient a 2 for untreated base layer

FIGURE 7.15a (Huang) Layer coefficient a 2 for untreated base layer

FIGURE 7.15a (Huang) Layer coefficient a 2 for untreated base layer
FIGURE 7.15a (Huang) Layer coefficient a 2 for untreated base layer
FIGURE 7.15b (Huang) Layer coefficient a 2 for bituminous treated base layer
FIGURE 7.15b (Huang) Layer coefficient a 2 for bituminous treated base layer

FIGURE 7.15b (Huang) Layer coefficient a 2 for bituminous treated base layer

FIGURE 7.15b (Huang) Layer coefficient a 2 for bituminous treated base layer
FIGURE 7.15b (Huang) Layer coefficient a 2 for bituminous treated base layer
MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION
MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION
MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION  Fig. 7.15 (c) variation in cement treated base layer coefficient (a 2

Fig. 7.15 (c) variation in cement treated base layer coefficient (a 2 ) with base strength parameters.

Fig. 7.16 coefficient

subbase

layer

with

variation

in

subbase

(a 3 )

various

strength parameters.

FIGURE 7.15c (Huang) Layer coefficient a 2 for cement treated base layer
FIGURE 7.15c (Huang) Layer coefficient a 2 for cement treated base layer
FIGURE 7.15c (Huang) Layer coefficient a 2 for cement treated base layer

FIGURE 7.15c (Huang) Layer coefficient a 2 for cement treated base layer

FIGURE 7.15c (Huang) Layer coefficient a 2 for cement treated base layer
FIGURE 7.16 (Huang) Layer coefficient a 3 for subbase layer
FIGURE 7.16 (Huang) Layer coefficient a 3 for subbase layer

FIGURE 7.16 (Huang) Layer coefficient a 3 for subbase layer

FIGURE 7.16 (Huang) Layer coefficient a 3 for subbase layer
FIGURE 7.16 (Huang) Layer coefficient a 3 for subbase layer
MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION
MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION
MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION  AC Surface  Fig. 11.27 Chart for estimating structural layer coefficient of

AC Surface Fig. 11.27 Chart for estimating structural layer coefficient of dense graded asphalt concrete (a 1 ) based on the elastic modulus.

MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION
MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION
FIGURE 7.13 (Huang) Layer coefficient a 1 for HMA surface layer
FIGURE 7.13 (Huang) Layer coefficient a 1 for HMA surface layer

FIGURE 7.13 (Huang) Layer coefficient a 1 for HMA surface layer

FIGURE 7.13 (Huang) Layer coefficient a 1 for HMA surface layer
FIGURE 7.13 (Huang) Layer coefficient a 1 for HMA surface layer
ANALYSIS PERIOD
ANALYSIS PERIOD

ANALYSIS PERIOD

ANALYSIS PERIOD
TRAFFIC IN DESIGN LANE 6.16 table
TRAFFIC IN DESIGN LANE 6.16 table
TRAFFIC IN DESIGN LANE 6.16 table

TRAFFIC IN DESIGN LANE

6.16 table

TRAFFIC IN DESIGN LANE 6.16 table
ENVIRONMENT  Temperature and rainfall affect the level of strength of the subgrade, reflected on
ENVIRONMENT  Temperature and rainfall affect the level of strength of the subgrade, reflected on

ENVIRONMENT

ENVIRONMENT  Temperature and rainfall affect the level of strength of the subgrade, reflected on the

Temperature and rainfall affect the level of strength of the subgrade, reflected on the value of resilient modulus. AASHTO developed a chart that helps you to estimate the effective roadbed soil resilient modulus using the serviceability criteria (in terms of “relative damage, u f .”)

ENVIRONMENT  Determine the average u f . value and obtain M r from the
ENVIRONMENT  Determine the average u f . value and obtain M r from the
ENVIRONMENT  Determine the average u f . value and obtain M r from the

ENVIRONMENT

Determine the average u f . value and obtain M r from the chart or the equation of u f .

Fig. 11.26 Chart for estimating effective

roadbed

soil

resilient

modulus

for

flexible pavements designed using the serviceability criterion.

 ROADBED SOILS (SUB GRADE MATERIAL) Effective roadbed soil resilient modulus (MR) Equivalent modulus that
 ROADBED SOILS (SUB GRADE MATERIAL) Effective roadbed soil resilient modulus (MR) Equivalent modulus that


ROADBED SOILS (SUB GRADE MATERIAL)

Effective roadbed soil resilient modulus (MR)

Equivalent modulus that would result in the same damage (uf) if seasonal modulus values were actually used

Divide Year into Periods with Different MR Based on Soil

Moisture and Temperature or NDT

Determine Relative Damage

and Temperature or NDT ◦ Determine Relative Damage  Average Relative Damage ( Σ uf /n)

Average Relative Damage (Σuf/n)

Effective Roadbed M R (Using Same Equation)

FIGURE 11.26

FIGURE 11.26
FIGURE 11.26
FIGURE 11.26
 The DRAINAGE effect of drainage on the performance of flexible pavements is considered with
 The DRAINAGE effect of drainage on the performance of flexible pavements is considered with
 The DRAINAGE effect of drainage on the performance of flexible pavements is considered with

The

DRAINAGE

effect

of

drainage

on

the

performance of flexible pavements is considered with respect to the effect water has on the strength of the base material and roadbed soil.

This effect is expressed by the drainage coefficient, m i . This value is dependent on the drainage quality and the percent of time pavement structure is exposed to

moisture levels approaching saturation.

TABLE 11.20
TABLE 11.20

TABLE 11.20

TABLE 11.20
TABLE 11.21
TABLE 11.21

TABLE 11.21

TABLE 11.21
RELIABILITY (R %)   Depends on highway class & Region (Table 11.14) ESAL based
RELIABILITY (R %)   Depends on highway class & Region (Table 11.14) ESAL based

RELIABILITY (R %)



Depends on highway class & Region (Table

11.14)

ESAL based on assume growth rate

i.e may not be accurate

Other method do not consider this uncertainty

AASHTO considerreliability factorpossible uncertainties in traffic condition performance prediction

50 % Reliabilitydesign performance success is 50 %

Variation in traffic forecast

RELIABILITY The reliability factor ( F R ) is computed using:  The Reliability design
RELIABILITY The reliability factor ( F R ) is computed using:  The Reliability design

RELIABILITY

RELIABILITY The reliability factor ( F R ) is computed using:  The Reliability design level

The reliability factor (F R ) is computed using:

The Reliability design level (R%), which determine assurance levels that the pavement section designed using the procedure will survive for its design period (it is a z-score from the standard normal distribution

the standard deviation (S o ) that accounts for the chance variation in the traffic forecast and the chance variation in actual pavement performance for a given design period traffic, W 18 .

log F  Z S

10

R

R

o

 

SD, S o

Flexible pavements

0.40-0.5

Rigid pavements

0.30-0.40

TABLE 11.14
TABLE 11.14
TABLE 11.14

TABLE 11.14

TABLE 11.14
TABLE 11.15
TABLE 11.15
TABLE 11.15

TABLE 11.15

TABLE 11.15
AASHTO Design Variables Structural Number, SN
AASHTO Design Variables Structural Number, SN

AASHTO Design Variables

Structural Number, SN
Structural Number, SN
----
----
AASHTO Design Variables 10. Layer Thicknesses, D i Determine layer thicknesses with known SN i
AASHTO Design Variables 10. Layer Thicknesses, D i Determine layer thicknesses with known SN i

AASHTO Design Variables

AASHTO Design Variables 10. Layer Thicknesses, D i Determine layer thicknesses with known SN i ,

10. Layer Thicknesses, D i Determine layer thicknesses with known SN i , a i & m i using

Variables 10. Layer Thicknesses, D i Determine layer thicknesses with known SN i , a i
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