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Universitatea Spiru Haret

Facultatea de Psihologie si Stiintele educatiei

Limba engleza I
sinteza

Anul I semestrul 1
An universitar: 2017 - 2018

Lector univ dr. Ana Munteanu


Obiectivele generale ale cursului de Limba engleza I

 Dobândirea competenţei orale şi competenţei scrise în limba


engleză;
 Dezvoltarea fondului lexical de baza si a structurilor
gramaticale corecte;

 Integrarea cunoştinţelor şi a deprinderilor lingvistice şi de


interpretare în diferite situaţii de comunicare.

Obiectivele specifice ale ccursului de Limba engleza I

Prin audierea, însuşirea problemelor dezbătute şi prin promovarea


acestui curs, cursanţii vor fi capabili:
- să-şi dezvolte abilităţile de comprehensiune orală şi scrisă;
- să reacţioneze în mod adecvat la diferite tipuri de texte şi contexte;
- să identifice ideile centrale ale unui text scris sau oral;
- să recunoască referinţele culturale din textele studiate, să realizeze
comparaţii;
- să selecteze şi să sintetizeze informaţia necesară dintr-un text dat;
- să aplice în mod practic cunoştinţele de gramatică dobândite în
cadrul cursului;
- să-şi perfecţioneze ortografia prin exerciţii practice;
- să-şi dezvolte vocabularul;
- să-şi exprime propriile opinii în mod corect, fluent şi coerent în
limba engleză;
- să exerseze conversaţii/dialoguri pe teme specifice meseriei.

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Bibliografie obligatorie
Barbu A., Chirimbu S., English Language for Daily Use, Bucuresti,
Editura Fundatiei România de Mâine, 2006/2009.
Munteanu A, Step by Step, Editura Alma Mater, Sibiu, 2011.
Voakes, Greg, ‘The 5 Highest Paying Jobs You Can Get With A
Psychology Degree’, Business Insider, the online edition, at
http://www.businessinsider.com/the-5-highest-paying-jobs-you-can-get-
with-a-psychology-degree-2011-9 (last accessed on 25th May 2017)
Lynne, ‘Body Language’, English Magazine, the online edition, at
http://english-magazine.org/english-reading/english-language-
articles/919-body-language (last accessed on 25th May 2017)

Bibliografie facultativa
Costache I, Ghid de conversatie si civilizatie român-englez, Bucuresti,
Editura Aramis, 2005.
Bonner, M., Fuchs, M., Focus on Grammar. High intermediate,
Longman, 2000.
Heathfield, D., Spontaneous Speaking: Drama Activities for Confidence
and Fluency. DELTA Publishing, 2005.
Munteanu A., General English, Editura Fundaţiei România de Mâine,
Bucureşti, 2012.
Prodromou, Luke, Grammar and Vocabulary for First Certificate,
Longman, 2010.
Doyle, Alison, What is a letter of application? at
https://www.thebalance.com/what-is-a-letter-of-application-2062031
(last accessed on 5th May 2017)
Rebecca, How to talk about your career at
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sFp5LPJ69EI (last accessed on 5th
MAy 2017)

Cuprins
I. General Language
II. Grammar
III. Exercises
IV. Information about the exam

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I. General Language

1. GREETINGS

Success in one’s life and career depends to a great extent on


one’s ability to communicate effectively. The first impression one
makes is important so we should know certain rules of greeting,
of presenting oneself and of having a brief opening conversation.

1. Read the following dialogue and try to make up a


similar one taking place between your family and your new
colleague, Diana.

Tom Black: How do you do! My name is Tom Black.


Diana Smith: Pleased to meet you, Tom. I am Diana Smith.
Tom Black: Nice to meet you, Diana. I am a new civil servant.
This is my first day.
Diana Smith: I’m a new civil servant as well. This is my first day,
too.
Tom Black: Let’s ask the secretary to tell Mr Jhonson we’re here.
Diana Smith: Yes, all right.
Tom Black: Good morning..
Secretary: Good morning.
Tom Black: My name’s Tom Black. This is Diana Smith. We’re
new civil servants. Today is our first day. Will you please tell Mr
Jhonson we’re here?
Secretary: Certainly - one moment please... (on phone ) Good
morning, Mr Jhonson. Mr Black and Ms Smith are here. They are
new civil servants. Today is their first day ... Yes, all right, I’ll
send them up (puts down the receiver)... Will you please go up to
Mr Jhonson’s office? It’s number 11, on the first floor.
Diana Smith: Thank you.
Tom Black: Thanks very much.
Secretary: That’s all right!
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Mr Jhonson (when the two young people come into his office he
gets up and shakes hands with them): How do you do, Ms Smith.
How do you do, Mr Black. My name is Jhonson.
Diana: How do you do, Mr Johnson.
Tom: How do you do, Mr Johnson.
Mr Jhonson: Please sit down. Welcome. I hope you’re going to
enjoy working for us.
Diana: Thank you.
Tom: Thank you very much.
Mr Jhonson: Would you like a cup of coffee?
Diana: Not for me, thank you. I don’t drink coffee.
Mr Jhonson: How about you, Mr Black?
Tom: Yes, please.
Mr Jhonson: Now, have you any questions?
Tom: Who is the head of the Department we will work with?
Mr Jhonson: Mrs Turner is in charge there.
Diana: Is there a staff canteen?
Mr Jhonson: Yes, there is. It’s a very good one. It’s on the ground
floor. Now, my secretary is going to take you to your new offices.
Good luck to you both!
Tom: Thank you, Mr Jhonson. Good bye.
Diana: Thank you. Good bye, Mr. Jhonson.
Mr. Johnson: Good bye.

2. Read the text and answer the following questions:

a. Why is it natural for Diana and Tom to use each other’s first
names from the first meeting?
b. How does Diana answer to Tom’s How do you do?
c. What informal greetings does the text mention?
d. Do English people shake hands whenever they meet? Why
(not)?

Informal greetings

Tom and Diana are young people of the same age and
background and it is natural for them to use each other’s first
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names as soon as they meet. When Tom first speaks to Diana he
uses the conventional phrase How do you do. It is quite usual for
both parties to an introduction to say How do you do and to shake
hands, and no further greeting is necessary. But many people,
young people in particular, prefer to use the less formal Pleased
to meet you, Nice to know you or just Hello when meeting others
of their own age. How do you do is always correct and when you
first go to England you should use this form of greeting until you
become familiar with English habits. It is not customary in
England to shake hands with friends and colleagues whom we
meet frequently, either socially or at work.

Do Romanian people shake hands when they meet? Why


(not)?

3. Tom is from the United Kingdom and English is his


mother tongue. He is British.
Study these.

Country Nationality
Australia Australian
Belgium Belgian
Brazil Brazilian
Denmark Danish
France the French = the people of France
Frenchwoman/Frenchman
Germany German
Greece Greek
Japan Japanese
Portugal Portuguese
Romania Romanian
Switzerland Swiss
Turkey Turkish
The Netherlands Dutchwoman/Dutchman
Pakistan Pakistani

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4. What are the nationalities from these countries? Put them in the
correct group below.

Australia, South Africa, Spain, Poland, Canada, Italy,


China, Taiwan, Sweden, Hungary, Ireland

-ish -ese -n -ian

6. We refer to different nationalities in the following ways:


the British, British people, people from Britain

Language focus
With nationality nouns ending in ‘–sh’, ‘-ch’, ‘-ss’, or ‘–ese’,
we use ‘the’. With all other nationality nouns – except ‘the
Scots’ – we use zero article.
For more information read the grammar compendium.

Fill in the blanks with ‘the’ where necessary.


1. … Japanese tend to eat a lot more fish than … British.
2. … Chinese have an interesting way of eating eggs.
3. … French tend to drink a lot of wine.
4. We have a group of … Germans staying at the hotel.
5. … English don’t eat as much rice as … Scots.
6. I adore … Italian food.
7. Talking about yourself
Say a few words about yourself (personal details and
interests). Use the Language box to help you.

Language box: Talking about yourself

I’m… / My name’s…

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I’m 25 years old.
I’m from …
I was born in … and/but I live in/near…
I’m married/single. I have … children.
I’m interested in… (+ V-ing); I’m good at… (+ V-ing)
I like … (+ V-ing)
I play …

8. My name is Munteanu Ana.


How do you spell it, please? / Can you spell that for me?
M-U-N-T-E-A-N-U A-N-A
[em ju: en ti: i: ei en ju: ei en ei]
Spell these names: Maria, Ion, Bianca, Andropov,
Cervantes, Wingers, Baysun, Dropper.

9. To be este folosit pentru:


 exprimarea vârstei:
How old are you? I’m 20 (years old).
How old is your son? He is 12. He is 12 years old.
How old are your children? They are both 11.
 exprimarea preţului:
How much is this book? It’s 2 dollars.
How much are these shoes? They are 100 dollars.
 Expresii compuse cu verbul to be:
to be hungry (a-i fi foame),
to be thirsty (a-i fi sete),
to be cold (a-i fi frig),
to be hot (a-i fi foarte cald),
to be warm (a-i fi cald),
to be right (a avea dreptate),
to be wrong (a nu avea dreptate, a greşi),
to be late (a întârzia),
to be early (a veni/ ajunge devreme),
to be sorry (a-i părea rău).

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Work in pairs. Ask your partner if s/he is thirsty/warm/right.
Find out how old s/he is.

Language focus
In English we do not normally leave out subject
pronouns.
The possessive adjective replaces the person who
possesses something and determines the noun that
expresses the object which is possessed.

For more information read the grammar compendium.

10. Choose the correct word:

1. Tom (am/is) a teacher.


2. (-/It) is a nice day.
3. Diana (is/are) right.
4. Mr Dobrovets is from Russia. He is (Russian/Russish).
5. How old (have/are) you?
6. I (am/have) 32 years old.
7. Where’s (he/they) from?
8. Can you spell that for (me/my)?
9. This is his book. It is (there/here).
10. That is their car. It is (there/here).

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2. DAILY DUTIES

Do you work in a company or work from home?

1. Read the following text and underline the prepositions of


place.

Every afternoon I sit at my desk to work, to search the


Internet and write emails. Several times a day, I am on the phone
which is right in the middle of the desk. The printer in the right
corner helps me a lot to get the materials for my work. Next to it,
there is a modern monitor. In front of the printer I have many
phone books. There are lots of pictures and post cards on the
notice board. Above it, I keep a large world map. A file cabinet
stands beside my desk. I love plants, so you can find a red rose in
a pot between the monitor and the framed family picture.

2. Now make sentences about your desk using some of the


prepositions underlined. Begin:
There’s a / an ... There isn’t a / an ....
There are some ... There aren’t any ...

Language focus
Use there is /there are to say things exist or not.
e.g. There isn’t a fax here.
Also, use there when you talk about something for the
first time, and it for details.
e.g. There’s a rose on the desk. It’s red.

3. Read the text and use it to write about you.


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During the week Helen gets up at seven o’clock. She washes
and combs her hair. Then she dresses. She feeds her pet, Domino, a
very nice cat. She has breakfast at seven thirty. She drinks a cup of
coffee and eats bread and butter and eggs. At a quarter to eight
she goes to university. There she meets her friends and talks with
them about teachers, new subjects, future jobs, fashion and music.
She sometimes listens to the teachers’ explanations. When they
ask questions, the students usually answer. They are often quiet.
When they are not, the teacher says, ‘Pay attention!’
While she is away, her cat is alone at home. In the middle of
the morning Domino visits his friend, Mrs Tucker. She usually
gives him something nice to eat. In the afternoon he sleeps. He’s
got a secret place on top of the garden shed. Half past five is
Domino’s dinner time. He usually has cat food from a tin. In the
evening he watches TV. He likes wildlife programmes.
On Monday, Tuesday, Thursday and Friday, Helen goes home
at four o’clock. Wednesday is sports afternoon and Helen goes
swimming. She watches TV from seven to eight. She has dinner at
eight o’clock. She usually eats meat and potatoes and fruit. When
she has a cold or when she has no appetite, she just drinks some tea.
After dinner she watches TV or listens to music or meets
some friends. She goes to bed at around ten o’clock. She usually
sleeps well, but she sometimes has nightmares.

4. Read the text again. Are these statements true or false?


Correct any false statements.
a. Helen never wakes up early in the morning.
b. Domino is Mrs Tucker’s cat.
c. Half past five is Helen’s dinner time.
d. Helen always has bad dreams.

Language focus

We use the Present Simple for regular activities and


situations.
Affirmative: S + V; S(3rd, sg) + V-s
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Negative: S + do+not + V; S(3rd, sg) + does+not + V
Interrogative: Do + S + V?; Does + S(3rd, sg) + V?
For more information read the grammar compendium.

4. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the


verb in brackets.
1. Tom (not/work) ………………….. on Sundays.
2. Her neighbour (give) ...……….. Domino some milk every day.
3. Where … you …………(work)?
4. The hotel (not/offer) …………… room service after 11 pm.
5. We (watch) …………… TV from seven to eight.

5. Ask questions to the underlined words. See the example.

e.g. Mary likes cats. → Who likes cats?


Mary likes cats. → What does Mary like?
a. Tom drinks tea. →
b. Tom drinks tea. →
c. An elephant eats grass. →
d. An elephant eats grass. →
e. Sara does her homework. →
f. Sara does her homework. →
g. Her uncle plays football. →
h. Her uncle plays football. →

6. Write a question for each answer:

a) How is your sister? She’s fine, thank you.


b) It takes me half an hour to get to
work.
c) I’d have some coffee, please.
d) Two, English and French.
e) The 21st of October.

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f) 5 euros and 50 cents.
g) It’s half past ten sharp.
h) How do you do.
i) I’m a consultant.
j) J-o-n-a-t-h-a-n

7. Unscramble the sentences.


e.g. use/I/phone/mobile/day/every/my → I use my mobile phone
every day.

a. boils/water/100/at/degrees
b. to/very/upset/she/appears/be
c. Tom/has/always/at/lunch/noon
d. he/slowly/does/work?
e. usually/her/takes/Diana/sugar/coffee/with

Language focus: Adverbs of frequency


 go after the verb be
e.g. We are usually busy in the morning.
 go before the main verb (others than be)
e.g. Our customers never complain.
He usually has cat food from a tin.

8. Work in pairs. Write five sentences about your partner,


using: always, usually, often, sometimes, never.

9. Put in on, at or in:


a. Tom goes to school …………… the morning.
b. Elephants sleep ………… night.
c. …………… the afternoon he does his homework.
d. We have lunch ………… noon.
e. He has English ………… Friday.

10. Work in pairs. Ask your partner if s/he:


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a. speaks German b. uses a computer
c. works d. attends a language course
e. drinks coffee f. travels a lot
e.g. Do you speak German?
Yes, I do. / No, I don’t.

Now report the answers to the group.


e.g. She speaks German. / She doesn’t speak German.

11. Complete the following text with words from the box.

o’clock, bed, and, classes, dinner, do, have, home,


finish, plays, parents, wake, gets, to, watch, the, we

I usually ……………… up at 7 o’clock. My brother


……… up at 7:30 a.m. We ……………… breakfast and then
go ………… school. The ………………… start at 8
……………. and …………… at one.
After lunch I ………… my homework and he
……………… the guitar. Next, we ……………… TV. Our
parents come ……………… at 5:00 p.m. They have
…………… with us. In ………… evening we play …………
have fun. At about half past nine …………. say good night to
our …………………….and go to …………….

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3. HOLIDAYS

Do you like spending your holidays in foreign countries? Why


(not)?

1. Put the words in the box under the following headings:


 Types of holiday
 Things people do on holiday
 Places where people stay on holiday
 Places people visit on holiday

Beach holiday; swimming; zoos; seaside; backpacking; bed


and breakfast; camping; cathedrals; coach tour; skiing; cruise;
museums; sailing; activity holiday; sightseeing holiday;
walking; castles; relax; tent; sunbathing; youth hostel; resort;
caravan site; churches; hotel; winter holiday .

2. You are going to read three advertisements. Recommend


one of the holidays to someone who:
has a sense of adventure ……………
has young children ……………
likes wild life ……………
likes city life ……………
likes boats ……………
enjoys parades ……………
enjoys travelling by coach ……………

This Week at Walt Disney World

Nov 15, 2012: From a sparkling ice castle … to legendary


international customs … to magical entertainment and
musical delights, Walt Disney World Resort unwraps an
enchanting celebration of the holiday season in 2012.
Electrifying fireworks, charming parades and all the sounds

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of the season help transform the 40-square-mile resort into
a winter wonderland where holiday fun begins as early as
Nov. 8. Our guests can spend the holidays at Mickey’s
place…
1Day Base Ticket Adult (Non-discounted) Ages 10+ …………... $ 91.35
1 Day Base Ticket Child (Non- discounted) Ages 3-9 ………… $ 79.55
2 Day Base Ticket Adult with 14 Day Expiration (Non- discounted)
Ages 10+……$165.21
2 Day Base Ticket Child with 14 Day Expiration (Non- discounted)
Ages 3-9 .…$ 150.45
Package for $1,318+
3-night/4-day for a family of four in a Value Resort standard room
(adapted from http://www.officialticketcenter.com/disney-tickets.aspx)

**** South Africa ****

South Africa is an amazing country, beautiful at any time of


year,
with its ever changing mixture of landscapes, cultures and
wildlife.
Sense of adventure? Taste of life?
South Africa delivers – on a grand scale!
Come and see the white rhino and the blue wildebeest;
Enjoy a sunset cruise on the Orange river;
Visit the Augrabies Falls National Park;
Discover ancient mountains and fossils in the Makhonjwa
Mountains.

For full itineraries and further information please contact:


South African Tourism Ltd.
PO Box 108, Johannesburg, 10021, South Africa
e-mail: info.southafricantourism@africa.com
tel: + 27 (0)11 895 3000
(adapted from http://www.southafrica.net)

The Big Bus Open Top Sightseeing Tour is the best


way to
DISCOVER LONDON
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Book now and save £4 on adult tickets and £2 on child
tickets.
(Normal adult price - £26.00, normal child price - £12.00)!
 Hop-on Hop-off Sightseeing Tour
 48 Hour Ticket
 Live English Commentary
 Recorded Commentary in 8 Languages
 See All the Key Sights
 Over 70 Stops
 Free River Cruise
 Free Walking Tours
 Free Reward Voucher Book
www.goldentours.com/partner/visitlondon/productdetails
(adapted from http://www.goldentours.com)

3. Choose one of the holidays and explain why that is your


choice.

4. Diana Popescu is going on holiday to South Africa. Look


at the email to her friend, Ravi, and answer these questions:

a. Why is Diana writing to Ravi?


b. How long is Diana staying in South Africa?
c. Where is she flying to?
d. When is she arriving in South Africa?
e. What time is she arriving?

To: ravi<ravinderdura@southafrica.com>
Subject: holiday
Hi Ravi,
Sorry for the delay in replying, but I’m working very
hard at the moment.
Yes, I’m coming to South Africa. I’ve booked my
flight. My friend Dora isn’t coming with me because
her child is in hospital. I’m staying for a fortnight.

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I’m flying to Johannesburg on August 12th and I’m
arriving at 9.30 am. Could you pick me up from the
airport? I’d love to meet you.
I really want to see the Augrabies Falls and the Moon
Rock. Taking any holidays in August? Maybe you
can take some days off and come with me. I’ll be
thrilled.
Hope you’re well. See you soon!
Diana

5. Missing out words is common in informal emails (if


people know each other well and the situation is relaxed and
friendly) when the meaning is clear from the context.
Read Ravi’s answer and put the missing words back into the
email.

To: Diana Popescu <diana.popescu@forladies.com>


Subject: Re: holiday
Hi Diana,
Glad you answered. I’m OK and really want to see you. I’ll
be at the airport at 9.30 am.
About holiday – sounds great. Never seen the Augrabies
Falls and the Moon Rock – how come you’re interested in
them? – so I’d like to go there. Sounds like fun! Pity things
still a bit uncertain at work. Might be possible to take a week
off in August, but can’t be sure. Two weeks impossible.
See you soon!
Ravi

Language focus
We use the Present Continuous for current or temporary
activities.
e.g. I’m working very hard at the moment.
We also use the Present Continuous for future arrangements.
e.g. Are you taking any holidays in June?
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Some verbs are not used in the Present Continuous.
e.g. Tom knows Diana.
Affirmative: S + to be + V-ing
Negative: S + to be + not + V-ing
Interrogative: to be + S + V-ing ?
For more information read the grammar compendium.

1. Make comments on the sentences below. Use the Present


tense continuous:
e.g. Tom is at his desk. (to write) → Tom is writing.

a. Diana is in her office. (to work)


b. Ravi is in his car. (to drive)
c. The General Manager is with some important
guests. (to talk)
d. Diana’s friend is in the park. (to jog)
e. Ravi’s friends are at a table in a restaurant. (to eat)
f. Sally is in the bathroom. (to have a bath)

2. Complete these sentences with one of the verbs in the box


in the correct form of the Present Continuous.

holiday, have, look, not rain, stay, work

a. I …………………. dinner with my associates tonight,


but I’m free at the weekend.
b. Why ……… everybody …………………..out of the
window? What’s happened?
c. They can take a walk now. It ……… any more.
d. Sorry for the delay in replying, but I ……very hard at
the moment.
e. ………… you ………… with us for a week?
f. My parents ……………… in Spain this year.

3. Put the verbs in brackets in the Present tense continuous


wherever possible.
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a. Ravi ……………… (know) a good travel agent.
b. Diana ……………. (want) to go to South Africa.
c. Why ……… Diana ……… (sound) tired?
d. I ...… (have) dinner at the moment. Can I phone you back?
e. Tony …………………. (play) football now.
f. I ………………… (think) your hair looks great!
g. I …………… (think) of going to South Africa next year.
h. Sally …………………… (see) Tom next week.
i. I ………… (see). You’re interested.
j. What ………… you …………………. (look) at?
k. It …………… (look) as if the situation is getting worse.
l. Lemons ……………….. (taste) sour.
m. The cook …… (taste) the soup to see if it is salty enough.
n. We ………………….. (have) two houses.
o. Ravinder ……………. (be) a travel agent.

4. Imagine it is National ‘Change it’ Day. On this day


everybody is changing their daily routine. Read the examples.
Then tell your partner what things you are going to do in a
different way than usually.

I have a cup of coffee for breakfast nearly every day, but today
I’m having ham and eggs.
I usually wear a black blouse, but today I’m wearing a red
one.

5. Write your plans for today, tomorrow and next holiday.

today tomorrow next holiday


I’m studying

Now work in groups. Ask your colleagues “What are you doing
today/tomorrow/ next holiday?” in order to find out about their
plans and arrangements for today, tomorrow and this weekend.
Decide whose plans and arrangements are the most interesting.

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6. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the
Present simple or the Present continuous.

a. What time .......... the Johannesburg train ……… (leave)?


b. The Johnsons ……… (go) on holiday in August this year.
c. Mary …………… (not come) with us on the tour.
d. The Big Bus ………………. (leave) at 9:15 a.m.
e. What time ………… the plane …...………(land)?
f. I usually ………… (have) cereals in the morning, but this
week I ………… (drink) tea.
g. How many days a week …...you ……… (work)?
h. Sandra always ……… (watch) TV on Saturdays.
i. Listen, ………. you ………. (want) to meet at 3:00 p.m.?
j. Look! It …………………… (rain)!
k. You ……… (not spend) any time in Brasov next weekend.
l. You see, we ……………… (stay) in Bran for a few days.
m. We ……………………. (fly) to Constanta next week.
n. Ravi ………………(not live) in Florida near an amazing
theme park.
o. When ……… Anna and David …………… (get) married?

12. There are mistakes in some of these sentences. Find the


mistakes and correct them.
1. I’m hating cold water.
2. Are you learning at the moment?
3. He's wanting a drink.
4. I’m not believing you.
5. Harry is having dinner now.
6. I'm thinking you are right.
7. I know what you are meaning.
8. Who are you seeing opposite the street? Is it Anny?
9. Oh, I recognise her now.
10. Be quiet! I’m thinking.

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4. ON THE PHONE

Do you like using the phone?


Is intonation important on the telephone? Why?

1. Read the dialogue below between a company’s receptionist


and a caller and answer these questions about it:
a. Does the receptionist answer the phone professionally?
b. Does the caller identify himself?
c. Does the receptionist make any excuses?
d. Does the receptionist ask for information?
e. Is the conversation appropriate?

Receptionist: Yes, please!


Caller: I want to speak with your boss.
Receptionist: He’s not here. Want to speak to secretary?
Caller: No. Tell him to phone me back. I’m Cezar Ionescu.
Receptionist: Just a second… Repeat, please.
Caller: Cezar Ionescu.
Receptionist: What’s your phone number?
Caller: It’s 0723 145 966.
Receptionist: OK. I’ll tell him.
Caller: Bye.
Receptionist: Bye.

2. How can you improve the conversation above? Study the


Language box below and role play the improved telephone call.

Language box:
Answering the phone
Good morning, thanks for calling the XYZ Company.
My name is AB, how may I help you?
Good morning, XYZ Hotel. How can I help you?
Good afternoon, XYZ Company.
Hello, AB speaking.
24
Identifying yourself
This is AB.
My name’s AB.
I’m AB.
Making contact
I’d like to speak to AB, extension 123, please.
I’d like to speak to AB.
Could I have the X department, please?
Making excuses
I’m sorry, he’s in a meeting.
I’m afraid Mr AB is not available at the moment.
I’m afraid Mr AB is engaged right now.
I’m sorry, he’s out of the office at the moment / all day.
I’m sorry but he’s tied up all morning.
Asking for information
Could I have your name?
Can I take your number?
Checking
I’m sorry, I didn’t catch your name. Could you spell it
for me, please?
Could you spell that?
Can I read that back to you?
Messages
Would you like to leave a message?
Can I take a message?
Can I leave a message?
Promising action
I’ll make sure he gets the/your message.
I’ll tell her when she gets back.
Ending a call
Thanks for your help. Goodbye.
Goodbye. Thanks for calling.

3. Mary Thompson, Sales Director at The Best in New York,


makes a call to Diana Popescu, a fashion buyer in Bucharest. Read
the dialogues and note the purpose of the calls.
25
Receptionist: Good afternoon, For Ladies Ltd. How may I help
you?
Thompson: Good afternoon. I’m Mary Thompson. I’d like to
speak to Diana Popescu, extension 123, please.
Receptionist: Hold the line, please. I’ll see if she’s in. … Hello,
I’m afraid she’s engaged at the moment. Will you hold or can I
take a message?
Thompson: I’ll leave a message please. I’ll be in Bucharest
next week and I’d like to meet her and tell her about our new
collection. I’ll call her again this afternoon. Is that OK?
Receptionist: Right. I’ll make sure she gets the message.
Thompson: Thanks for your help. Goodbye.
Receptionist: You’re welcome. Goodbye.

(2 hours later)
Receptionist: Good afternoon, For Ladies Ltd.
Thompson: Good afternoon. I’m Mary Thompson. Could you
put me through to extension 123, please?
Receptionist: Certainly. I’m putting you through.
Popescu: Hello. This is Diana Popescu.
Thompson: Hello, Diana. It’s Mary Thompson here.
Popescu: Hi, Mary, how are you?
Thompson: Fine, thanks. I’m planning a trip to Bucharest and I
would like to make an appointment to see you.
Popescu: That’s great. When will you be arriving in
Bucharest?
Thompson: I’ll be arriving in Bucharest on Tarom flight
TA987 at 10:45 a.m. on Monday, 23 January 2012. I will be
staying at the Happy Hotel. Could we meet on Monday at 3:30
p.m.?
Popescu: Let me check. No sorry, I can’t make it then. My
diary’s rather full that day. Could we fix another time?
Thompson: That’s OK… Let’s see… What about Wednesday?
Popescu: Great. I’m fairly free that day. What time?
Thompson: In the morning. 10.30. Is that OK?
26
Popescu: Yes. That’d be no problem at all. So, January 25th,
Wednesday, 10.30 a.m.
Thompson: Perfect. Thank you very much. It’ll be great to see
you again. We’ll have plenty to talk about.
Popescu: That’s for sure. See you next week then. Give me a
call if you have any problems.
Thompson: Right, I’ll do that. Give my regards to your partner,
Mr Ionescu.
Popescu: OK. I’ll tell him you called. Goodbye.
Thompson: Goodbye.

4. Read the dialogues again.


a. What expressions does MS Thomson use to make
arrangements?
b. What expressions does Ms Popescu use in order to change
arrangements?

5. Study the Language box below. Then do the exercises that


follow it.

Language box
Suggesting/Making arrangements
Are you free on Monday?
Could we meet on Friday at 9:30?
Would Friday at 10:30 suit you?
What about January 27th?
How about next Monday?(informal)
When would suit you?
Is 10:30 convenient (for you)? (formal)
Changing arrangements
I’m afraid I can’t come on Monday.
Could we fix another time?
We’ve got an appointment on Monday, but I’m afraid
something’s come up. Could we fix another day?
I’m afraid I’m busy on Monday afternoon. What about
Tuesday?
27
Unfortunately, I won’t be able to make our meeting.
Responding
That’ll be fine.
That’s OK.
No sorry, I can’t make it then. My diary’s rather full that day.
I’m out of the office until lunchtime, but any time after that
would be fine.
Sorry, I’ve already got an appointment at that time.

6. Complete the sentences below using words from the box.

How, about, call, calling, do, fairly, make, p.m., ring, see,
seeing, suit, time

1. Is this a good time to………………………….?


2. I’m fine. I’m ……………………… because I’ll be in
Bucharest next week and I’d like to see you. I want to tell you
about our new services.
3. How …………next Tuesday afternoon? What time on
Tuesday can you ……………it?
4. Great. When would … you? I’m …free next week, I think.
5. Let me ………….., I’m out of the office until lunchtime,
but any …………….after that would be fine.
6. Right, I’ll …………………that.
7. OK, I’ll see you at 2.00 ………………….
8. Right, I look forward to ………… you here in Bucharest
next Tuesday. Give me a ……………..if you have any problems.
9. Yes, it is. ………………………………are you?

Now put the sentences in the correct order to make a dialogue


arranging an appointment.

8. You can use the following phrasal verbs before making a


call: look sth. up, pick up; at the beginning of a call: get through,
put sb. through; during a call: hold on, speak up; for ending a call:
hang up; and after a call: call sb. back, get back to, but do you
28
know what they mean?

Choose their correct meaning from the expressions below:


answer, connect, contact again later, find, to succeed in talking to
someone on the telephone, talk louder, telephone again, wait, to
end a telephone conversation.

9. Complete these sentences with the phrasal verbs from


exercise 8.

1. I tried to phone her but couldn't …………………….


2. Let me speak to Beth before you ……………………..
3. I'm a bit busy - can I ………. you ………………….. later?
4. If you don't know his telephone number, …….. it ………. in
the directory.
5. I tried his home number but he didn't …………………..
6. Could you …….. me ……. to the manager’s office, please?
7. I'll …………………………. to you later with those figures.
8. Could you ………………………? I can't hear you very well.
9. ………………………………, I'll check in my diary.

Language focus – Ways of expressing futurity


Present Continuous I’m seeing Mary tomorrow.
Present Simple Her plane gets to Henri
Coandă at 10:45.
(To Be) Going To We’re going to discuss the new
discounts.
Future Simple / will She thinks more tourists will
visit Romania this year.
Future Continuous Mary will be staying at the
Happy Hotel.
Future Perfect Simple He’ll have arranged her hotel
accommodation by then.
For more information read the grammar compendium.

29
10. Make these sentences interrogative and then negative:

a. Sophie will be shopping at this time tomorrow.


b. I’ll go to the theatre next Monday.
c. Their train arrives at 4.00 p.m.
d. Next year the company will be ten years old.
e. I am going to stop smoking.
f. We are flying to Scotland tomorrow.
g. There’s going to be an increase in the price of oil.

11. Put the verbs in brackets into the corresponding verbal


tense indicated in italics:

a. Tom … to the seaside next week. (to go – Future Simple)


b. …you …….. come to our Head Office tomorrow? (to
come – Future Simple)
c. What ……… David ……………. ? (to sell – Going to)
d. The term …… on January 22nd. (to end – Present Simple)
e. We …….. back from our holiday on September 10th. (to
come – Present Continuous)
f. Research says more people ………… special activity
holidays in future. (to book – Going to)
g. …….. Mr Thomson ……………………. at 10:00 a.m.
tomorrow, too? (to lecture – Future Continuous)
h. Diana ………… at the end of the year. (to retire – Future
Continuous)
i. At the end of the year we …………… our initial
investment. (to recover – Future Perfect Simple)
j. I don’t know if I can finish the job by Thursday but I …….
my best. (to do – Future Simple)
k. I ………the Chief Executive on Tuesday. (to see – Present
Continuous)

Language focus
The future is never used in temporal and conditional
clauses!
30
12. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.
a. While Tom …… (go) to the post office, Ben ….. (take) the
car in for inspection.
b. Tom …… (go) swimming when he …(have) enough time.
c. We………(have) breakfast as soon as we … (reach) the
restaurant.
d. If Debbie …… (miss) the bus, she …… (be) late for the
conference.
e. The guests……(find out) what rooms they have when they
…… (arrive) at the destination.
f. I…… (not leave) the room until you ………..(come back).
g. If my parents ………………………..(not arrive) before
noon, they ………….. (not find) available rooms.
h. If my telephone………………. (not be) out of order as
usual, I……………(call) you when we ............ (leave) home.
i. They………(get) the message sooner if you ………(send)
it by e-mail.
j. In case it ……. (rain) tomorrow, I……… (stay) at home.

13. Put the verbs in brackets into the corresponding verbal


tense indicated in italics:

a. We............ (meet) him outside the cinema at 6.30 p.m. (Present


continuous)
b. They................(find) a new supplier. (Going to)
c. I expect it ……… (be) another good year for us. (Future
simple)
d. I’m busy now but I …… (call) you back in half an hour.
(Future Simple)
e. He ……. (have) lunch with Tom Barrymore on Friday at 1 p.m.
(Present continuous)
f. …… you …….. (come) to the concert? (Future continuous)
g. By the time you get home I …………. (clean) the house from
top to bottom. (Future perfect)

31
h. I………….. (let) you know when she …… (get) here. (Future
simple, Present simple)
i. I … … still ……… (not feel) very well, so I think I …… (see)
the doctor some time this week. (Present continuous, going to)

32
33
5. CAREERS

1. Here are some well-known occupations and professions:


babysitter, businessman, burglar, beggar, cameraman, cartoonist,
chef, chemist, decorator, economist, electrician, governor,
gardener, journalist, lawyer, librarian, manager, milkman,
mathematician, mechanic, musician, photographer, politician,
professor, policeman, physicist, psychiatrist, psychologist,
salesman, sailor, singer, scientist, shop-assistant, surgeon, taxi-
driver, teacher, translator, waiter, window-cleaner.
Work in groups of three. Choose five of the above
occupations and professions and describe the work that each of
them do. For example:
‘A gardener works in a garden. He plants seeds, he grows
flowers and vegetables, he mows the lawn and he spends a lot of
time digging and weeding’.

2. How well a career suits you, and how satisfied you are
with it, very much depends on your personality. It also depends
on how well it matches your interests and the values that are
important to you.
What kind of personality do you have? Find out by solving
this quiz. Tick the statement you agree with:
1. I’d love to do a parachute jump.
2. I don’t like telling other people what to do.
3. I prefer spending time on my own rather than in a crowd.
4. I find it easy to set myself objectives.
5. I have difficulties in making decisions.
6. I find it difficult getting to know new people.
7. I’d love to travel abroad.
8. Friends sometimes complain that I order them around.
9. I like to have the advice and support of experienced
people.
10. I don’t like volunteering opinions in case they are
34
unpopular.
11. I like to try to find new solutions to old problems.
12. I would prefer to be team captain than team member.
13. I get embarrassed easily.
14. I don't mind where I go with my friends as long as they are
happy.
15. I like the latest fashions.
16. I like to be fully responsible for anything I do.

Check your scores now. Three or four ticks in any category


indicate personality characteristics you should take account of
when choosing a job.
Scoring
A. 1, 7, 11, 15
B. 2, 5, 9, 14
C. 3, 6, 10, 13
D. 4, 8, 12, 16

A. positive answer for 1, 7, 11, 15: the entrepreneur - you


are adventurous; you enjoy challenges and taking risks; you could
find success in creative work.
B. positive answer for 2, 5, 9, 14: the team worker - you
work well with others, but dislike to be given responsibility, so
you prefer to put into practice other people’s plans; you would do
well in the army.
C. positive answer for 3, 6, 10, 13: the backroom worker -
you are a little shy and find it difficult to mix with new people.
You would do well in any behind-the-scene job where you don’t
have to come face to face with strangers; you could be a
researcher.
D. positive answer for 4, 8, 12, 16: the leader - you are
confident in your abilities and you want to be in charge, not to
take orders; you enjoy having lots of people around and
organising them.

35
3. Match the occupational interests with the aptitudes needed
for them and with the job that best reflect them.
A. Occupational interests:
1. Scientific
2. Computational
3. Artistic
4. Persuasive
5. Practical
6. Literary
7. Welfare
B. Aptitudes
a. working with tools and materials
b. investigating natural phenomena to understand how things
happen
c. concerning yourself with helping others
d. dealing with figures
e. expressing ideas and feelings through words
f. influencing others to accept your ideas
g. creating and appreciating things of beauty
C. Careers
Surgeon; lathe operator (strungar); priest; lawyer; judge;
blacksmith; pilot; novelist; salesperson; advertising agent;
teacher; plumber; accountant; nurse; counsellor.

4. Work in pairs. Student A: Ask your partner the following


questions, then answer his/her questions.
1. What do you look for in a job?
2. Is it a good idea to change jobs frequently?
3. What is a "part-time job'?
4. Have you ever had a part-time job? If so, has it brought
you any satisfaction?
Student B: Answer your partner’s questions, and then ask
him/her the following questions:
1. Could a part-time job in any way prove useful to your
future career?
2. What aspects did you take into account when you chose
36
your career?
3. What do you plan to be doing in four years’ time and in
ten years' time?
4. What are the good points and the bad points of your
present job/of being a student?
5. What qualities do you think you will need for your chosen
career?

5. The list below contains qualities that employers look for


when they want to employ people. In pairs decide what these
qualities are needed for.
Qualities: pleasant personality, physical appearance, good
academic record, intelligence, well-informed about the job
applied for, good character, ambition, well-informed about the
company or business.
a pleasant personality What for?
e.g. a pleasant personality - to fit into the working
community
- to be good for the public relations
department

6. Put the words in the box under the following headings

Selfish, reliable, tolerant, tactful, tactless, boastful, cheerful,


helpful, shy, modest, brilliant, difficult, moody, pessimistic,
optimistic, hard-working, handsome, easy-going, sociable,
irritating, generous, ambitious, bad-tempered, obstinate.

A. positive adjectives
e.g. reliable

B. negative adjectives
e.g. tactless

7. Choose four adjectives from the box to describe the


qualities you like most in an employer. Now choose another three
37
to describe someone you don’t like working with.

Language focus
We can increase or reduce the strength of adjectives by using
modifiers. e.g. rather pessimistic, a bit boastful
A bit→ quite/fairly→ rather/pretty→ really/very→extremely
When there are two or more fact adjectives in a
sentence, they usually go in the following order:
(determiner) – opinion – size – age – shape – colour – origin
– material – used for/be about – (noun)

For more information read the grammar compendium.

8. Put the adjectives in the correct order.

a. The house belongs to a(n) old peculiar man.


b. His girl has blue big lovely eyes.
c. The missing person is wearing a leather full-length black coat.
d. I’m meeting a American, long-haired, tall boy.

9. The words nervous, bad-tempered, moody, and


anxious are often confused. First read their definitions as given by
the Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners and
then complete the sentences with the most appropriate word.
Nervous adj. feeling excited and worried, or slightly afraid
+ about; + of
Bad-tempered adj. someone who is bad-tempered easily
becomes annoyed or angry
Moody adj. 1. likely to become unhappy or angry for no
particular reason 2. creating a feeling of sadness or mystery
Anxious adj. 1. worried because you think something bad
might happen; + about
2. wanting something very much,
especially when this makes you nervous, excited, or impatient;
+for
a) Parents who are always shouting are …
38
b) You don’t want to miss your train; you feel …
c) Before an interview you may feel …
d) Your friend is often cheerful or depressed within a very
short time. She is …
e) He’s always been a little … of change.
f) Tom’s boss is usually very … on Monday morning.
g) People are naturally … about these tests.
h) Jill admits she’s …, but says it’s because she’s an artist.
i) We were all … for peace.

Language focus
Adjectives have the following degrees of comparison:
1. Positive
e.g. tall, interesting, good
2. Comparative - of superiority
e.g. taller, more interesting, better
- of equality
e.g. as tall as, as interesting as, as good as
- of inferiority
e.g. not so tall as, not so good as, not so interesting as/less
interesting than
3. Superlative -absolute
e.g. very tall, extremely good, very interesting
- relative
e.g. the tallest, the most interesting, the best

For more information read the grammar compendium

10. Match the two parts of the sentences:

1. Meeting new people is really a. the most interesting


person I have ever met.
2. Studying English is b. as interesting as the
previous one.
3. Tom is c. small to medium sized.
4. The critics say his new book is d. more interesting than I
expected.

39
5. Two star hotels are typically e. higher marks in her
geography exam than last
year.
6. She got f. interesting.

11. Fill in with the correct form of the adjective in


brackets:
a) Our new car is ………… than the car you are driving. (fast)
b) A hill is …………… than a mountain. (high)
c) I am …………. than you are. (optimistic)
d) I puppy is as ……………. as yours. (adorable)
e) This boy is ……………… of all. (tall)
f) The ice cream is ……………. I have ever eaten. (good)
g) That birthday cake is ……………… of all. (delicious)

12. Read the text and underline the things that can help
you get a job.
Getting a good job is directly related to your success and
happiness, so you should begin your job search long before you
are ready to find employment, building relationships with people
who could help you find work when you need it. Such persons
include classmates, professors and business people. When you are
ready to search for your career job, you should start putting the
necessary papers together: the letter of application or Covering
letter and the CV/resume (in the US). The way you present
yourself on paper is a vital step in any job application.
A letter of application should mention:
• Where you have seen the advert;
• Why you are interested in the job advertised;
• Your achievements and responsibilities at school /
university / former job;
• Your suitability for the job;
• When you are available for interview.
A letter of application should be accompanied by a CV. The
CV or curriculum vitae is a short personal history which provides
your future employer with basic information about the applicant.
40
There are many ways of writing it but it should always be set out
so that it is very easy to read.
A CV should include:
• Your full name, address and telephone number;
• Date and place of birth;
• Nationality;
• Marital status;
• Exact dates and places of education;
• Examinations passed, especially those internationally
recognized;
• Knowledge of foreign languages;
• Previous employment and work experience;
• Other interests, hobbies;
• Names and addresses of two or three referees (e.g. teachers /
professors who know you well or family friends).

13. The Europass CV is nowadays required by more and more


employers. It enables you to make your skills and qualifications
visible. Find an example at http://europass.cedefop.europa.eu and
write your CV.

14. Read again what a letter of application should mention


and rearrange the following paragraphs in the correct order.

Dear Sir/Madam,

I am fluent in both English and French. I am not married and


would be able to travel extensively for considerable periods.
I look forward to hearing from you,
I enclose a CV and I should be glad to receive an application
form and further details of salary and conditions. I can be present
for an interview at whatever time is suitable for you.
I am writing about the job in your advertisement in today's
'Gazeta de Transilvania'.
I would like to apply for the position of Children's Counselor. I
have just graduated from high school where I was editor of the
41
school’s 'Talk to Me' Magazine.
Mike Insecure
Yours faithfully,

15. Translate into English this letter of application and


compare the Romanian polite formulas with the English ones.
You should complete the letter of application with the missing
parts: sender’s address, date, inside address, signature.

Stimate domn,

Ref: Asistent - Departamentul Relaţii Publice

Am aflat prin intermediul anunţului apărut în ziarul


„Transilvania expres” din data de 15 septembrie 2010 despre
oportunităţile de angajare pe care firma dumneavoastră de
publicitate le oferă studenţilor. Am fost foarte încântat că există
în România companii care dau studenţilor posibilitatea să înveţe
practic şi să dobândească experienţă.
După cum veţi vedea din Curriculum Vitae alăturat, sunt
student in anul III la Facultatea de Psihologie - Pedagogie a
Universităţii „Spiru Haret”. Am obţinut rezultate foarte bune în
anii de studiu anteriori, iar perioadele de practică au constituit
începuturile formării mele ca viitor specialist în domeniu.
Aş dori să scot în evidenţă calităţile pe care consider că le
posed şi care cred că vin în întâmpinarea cerinţelor postului oferit
de dumneavoastră.
Calităţi comunicaţionale - ştiu să mă fac uşor înţeles şi
reuşesc în multe cazuri să îi conving pe ceilalţi să adopte ideile
mele; lucrez foarte bine în echipă.
Cunoştinţe teoretice de comunicare socială şi relaţii
publice - dobândite la cursurile şi seminariile din facultate.
Cunoştinţe temeinice de limba engleză şi computer -
dobândite pe perioada liceului şi a anilor de facultate.
Dacă aceste abilităţi sunt de interes pentru firma
dumneavoastră, sper că mă veţi contacta la adresa menţionată mai
42
sus. In cazul unui interviu, vă voi explica mai amănunţit de ce
consider că sunt potrivit pentru postul de asistent la
Departamentul Relaţii Publice.
Cu respect,
Mike Insecure

6. BODY LANGUAGE

1. Read the text and find out what body language is.

Body language is a broad term for forms of communication


using body movements or gestures instead of, or in addition to,
sounds, verbal language, or other forms of communication. It is
important because it is more truthful than the spoken words.
Many people send and receive non-verbal signals all the
time. These include the most subtle of movements that many
people are not aware of, including winking and slight movement
of the eyebrows. In addition body language can also incorporate
the use of facial expressions.
Body language is used especially to express feelings. For
instance, if we do not like someone, it is often difficult to say that
directly to the person. However, we can make it clear either
intentionally or unintentionally through body language. The
technique of ‘reading’ people is used frequently. For example, the
idea of mirroring body language to put people at ease is
commonly used in interviews. Mirroring the body language of
someone else indicates that they are understood.
People who lie tend to look to the left (fabricating
information) while their face turns away and no eye contact is
made. They may wipe their hands on pants to get rid of sweat.
They may even gesticulate less.
It is important to note that body language has different
meanings in different cultures. How we can interpret body
language depends on the situation, the culture, the relationship we
have with the person as well as the gender of the other. This
43
means that there is not one signal that has the same meaning all
over the world.

2. Read the text again and answer these questions:


a. Which shows what we really feel – a person’s words or their
body language?
b. What does body language include?
c. Why do people mirror other people’s gestures and body
posture?
d. Does the same interpretation of body signs apply to people all
over the world, regardless of culture or race?

3. Look at the words and phrases in the box. Which parts of


the body are they associated with?

1. wink at someone; 2. frown at someone; 3. give someone


a look; 4. wave at someone; 5. nod at someone; 6. shake
your head; 7. shrug your shoulders; 8. drum your fingers;
9. shake hands with someone; 10. grin at someone /
something; 11. keep an eye on someone / something

4. Complete the sentences with the appropriate word or


phrase from exercise 3.
a. To show agreement, approval or greeting, you ………….
b. To show that you are not serious about something you
have said, you …………
c. To show that you are annoyed, puzzled or worried, you …
d. To show you don’t know the answer to something
someone asks you, you ……………..
e. You can …. … to show you don’t care or to show you do
not know the answer to something.
f. To show you are waiting impatiently, you …
g. To show that you are really happy or pleased, you … at
someone or something.

5. In pairs discuss the following questions.


44
a. How do you normally greet your friends?
b. Have you ever had to keep an eye on something?
c. When was the last time you frown at someone?
Why?

Language focus
We use past simple to talk about events and actions that are
finished.
Affirmative: S + V-ed/V2
Negative: S + did+not + V
Interrogative: did + S + V?

For more information read the grammar compendium

6. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form.


a. Many people in the audience ………. in agreement. (nod)
b. He ………… his fist at the driver who ………… out in
front of him. (shake, pull)
c. He …………. at me from the doorway. (grin)
d. He …………… his shoulders as if to say that there ……...
nothing he could do about it. (shrug, be)
e. For a moment I ………….. he was being serious, but then
he ……………… at me. (think, wink)
f. He …………… me a really dirty look. (give)
g. I ………….. to him from the window but he ………….
me. (wave, not see)

7. Complete the blank spaces with the corresponding verbs


in the past tense simple:

a. He always goes to work by car. Yesterday he ... to work by


bus.
b. They always get up early. This morning they ........... up late.
c. Bill often loses his key. He ....................... one last Saturday.
d. I write a letter to Jane every week. Last week I ... two letters.

45
e. She meets her friends every evening. She ..... them yesterday
evening, too.
f. I usually read two newspapers every day. I only ..................
a newspaper yesterday.
g. They come to my house every Friday. Last Friday they .......,
too.
h. Tom always has a shower in the morning. Tom ............. a
shower this morning, too.
i. They buy a new car every year. Last year they ........... a new
car, too.
j. I eat an orange every day. Yesterday I .............. two oranges.
k. We usually do our shopping on Monday. We ........... our
shopping last Monday, too.
l. Ann often takes photos. Last weekend she .............. some
photos.
m. We leave at 8.30 every morning. But yesterday we ....... at
8.00.

Language focus
We use past continuous to talk about actions that were
going on at a certain moment in the past.
Affirmative: S + was/were + V-ing
Negative: S + was/were + not + V-ing
Interrogative: was/were + S + V-ing?

For more information read the grammar compendium

8. Put the verbs in brackets into the corresponding verbal


tense indicated in italics:
a. I ………. (wave) my hand madly but he never once
………… (look) in my direction. (Past Continuous, Past Simple)
b. What …… you ……… (grin) about? (Past Continuous)
c. Why …… Sara …… (take) sea-sickness pills? (Past Simple)
d. The child’s body ……….. (shake) with sobs. (Past
Continuous)
e. She …………… (shake) as she opened the letter. (Past
46
Continuous)
f. They ………… (run) when it ……… (start) to rain. (Past
Continuous, Past Simple)

9. Put in the Simple Past Tense or the Past Tense


Continuous form of the verbs in brackets:
1. What ……… he ………. when you phoned him? (do)
2. I ……… an apple every morning when I was young. (eat)
3. ……… he …………. two interviews this week? (give)
4. Diana ………… a skirt when she ……… someone calling
her name. (buy, hear)
5. It …………….. a lot last spring. (rain)
6. What course ……… the students ……… last year? (have)
7. We ………… the French course last Monday. (not attend)
8. David …………… to go to London. (want)
9. I ……………… I couldn’t see as well as Tom. (admit)
10. Last August we ………… by plane to Turkey. (travel)
11. They ……… constantly …………… parties until the early
hours of the morning. (have)
12. I said I …………… him. (believe)
13. He …… always ……………… me. (interrupt)
14. This time last week we ……………… abroad. (travel)
15. ………. your friends …………. to Cluj last month? (fly)

47
48
EATING OUT

1. Put the following words in the correct groups. (Use a


dictionary to help you)
banana, tuna, sole, trout, chicken, potatoes, carrots, beef, lamb
Fish Meat Fruit Vegetables

Now add more words to each list.

2. Read the dialogue and answer the following questions:


a. Where are the people?
b. Are they pleased?

- Good evening, sir. A table for two?


- Yes, I phoned yesterday.
- What was the name, please?
- Smith.
- Ah, yes, sir. Over here, please.
- Waiter, can we have the menu, please?
- Yes, sir. I’ll bring it right away.
Mr. Smith: We’d like to order.
Waiter: Yes, sir. What would you like to start with?
Mr. Smith: I’d like tomato soup.
Mrs. Smith: I’ll have the same.
Waiter: Two tomato soups. And to follow?
Mr. Smith: I’d like roast chicken, please.
Mrs. Smith: And I’ll have fried trout with mashed potatoes.
Waiter: I’m afraid the trout is off.
Mrs. Smith: Oh dear. Err... What else do you recommend?
49
Waiter: The sole is very good.
Mrs. Smith: OK. I’ll have that. Do you have any coleslaw*?
Waiter: No, I’m sorry, we don’t.
Mrs. Smith: Just give me a small mixed salad then.
Waiter: And what would you like to drink?
Mr. Smith: I think I’ll have a pint * of larger.
Mrs. Smith: A glass of white wine for me, please.
Waiter: Thank you.
Mr. Smith: What’s your fish like?
Mrs. Smith: It’s very nice. And your chicken?
Mr. Smith: It’s not bad.
Mr. Smith: Waiter, can we have the bill, please?
Waiter: Yes, sir, here you are. Did you enjoy the meal?
Mr. Smith: Yes, it was excellent.
* Coleslaw = cold uncooked cabbage, carrot and onion, cut into long thin strips
and covered in a thick creamy cold sauce
* pint = a measure for liquid equal to about half a litre

3. In groups of three role play the situation above.

Language focus: Some and any

We use some in positive sentences and with offers and


requests.
We use any in negative sentences and questions.
For more information read the grammar compendium

4. Complete the sentences with ‘some’, ‘any’ or ‘a’/’an’.

a. His wife doesn’t want ……… pint of beer.


b. Would you like ……… more wine, sir?
c. Are there ……… tables free?
d. Could I have …… clean fork, please?
e. She made me ………… sandwiches.
f. There isn’t ………… bread.
g. Did you buy ………. milk?
50
h. Can I have …………. Juice?
i. Tom never eats ……… vegetables.

Language focus:

Countable nouns have a singular or plural form. We


can count them.
Uncountable nouns only have a singular form. We
cannot count them.
For more information read the grammar compendium

5. Put these words in the correct groups.

Potato, rice, chocolate, milk, salt, meal, broccoli, juice,


coffee, paper, information, advice, sugar, food, child, burger

Countable Both Uncountable

Now add more words to each list.

Language focus:

Some nouns are countable in Romanian, but uncountable


in English.
e.g. news - veste/ştire sau veşti/ştiri
For more information read the grammar compendium

6. Complete the sentences with is or are.

a. The news ……… not very good.


b. His money ………. dirty.
c. The fish ……… good.
51
d. What time ………. the news on T.V.?
e. Hamburgers ……… often served with tomatoes and lettuce.
f. ………. the information interesting?
g. Your luggage …………. heavy.
h. Your bags ………… not so heavy.

Language focus:

Many / (a) few + countable nouns


Much / (little) + uncountable nouns
For more information read the grammar compendium

7. Underline the correct alternative.

a. There isn’t much / many cheese on the table.


b. The information doesn’t seem / don’t seem to be correct.
c. Have you got many / much luggage?
d. My father gave me an advice / a piece of advice.
e. Yesterday we had a little / a few tomatoes.
f. Bill wants to read something. Buy him a paper / some paper!
g. How many pieces of furniture / furniture will they bring?
h. Tom hasn’t made much / many progress.
i. Dan bought a pair of trousers / trousers last week.
j. Why is / are the police here?
k. Are there many / much people in front of the statue?
l. There is a little / a few apple juice in the fridge.
m. How many / much bread do you want?
n. He smokes too many / much cigarettes.

8. There are mistakes in some of these sentences. Find the


mistakes and correct them.

a. We have got a bread.


b. There is some oil in the bottle.
c. The money is in my pocket.
d. He’s got some informations.
52
e. The spaghettis are cooked.
f. Your hairs are lovely today.
g. There is some good news.

Language focus:
Modal verbs (requests and offers)

We use can, could and may to ask for something.


We use the modal verb could in polite requests.
e.g. Could you repeat that, please?
Would / Do you mind + V-ing…? also expresses a
polite request.
e.g. Would you mind closing the door?
Would you like …? is used to make a polite offer.
e.g. Would you like to see the wine list?
For more information read the grammar compendium

9. Ann is at Tom’s home. Tom offers her the following


things: tea, ice cream, a sandwich, an aspirin. Complete what Tom
says. Use Would you like a/an/some …?

T: ………………………………………………………
A: Oh, yes, please. I’m really thirsty.
T: ………………………………………………………
A: Oh, yes, please. I love ice cream!
T: Are you hungry? ……………………………………
A: No, it’s all right. I’m fine, thanks…. Err… in fact I’ve got a
headache.
T: ……………………………………………………….
A: Oh, yes, please. Thank you.

10. Ask for the following things in a restaurant: a menu,


some coffee, the bill, a glass of red wine, spaghetti Bolognese,
some mineral water.
Use:

53
Can
Could I have …, please?
May

11. What requests can you make in these places?


a. a hotel
b. a post office
c. a hairdresser’s
d. a bank
e. a florist’s

e.g. Could I have a room with a shower?

54
MEMORY

1. Read the following text about memory and write down


the new words.

Psychologists consider memory as the process by which


we encode, store, and retrieve information. Each of the three parts
of this definition – encoding, storage, and retrieval – represents a
different process, which you can think of as analogous to a
computer’s keyboard (encoding), disk (storage), and screen
(retrieval). Only if all three processes have operated will you
experience success.
Memory experts suggest that there are both similarities
and differences in memory across cultures. According to
psychologist Daniel Wagner, basic memory processes, such as
short-term memory capacity and the structure of long-term
memory, are universal and operate similarly in people of all
cultures. In contrast, cultural differences can be seen in the way in
which information is acquired, rehearsed, and retrieved from
memory. Consequently, culture determines how people consider
and frame information initially, how much they practice learning
and recalling it, and the strategies they use to try to recall it.
In sum, the association between culture and memory can
be compared to the relationship between computer hardware and
software. Basic memory processes, analogous to computer
‘hardware’, are universal across cultures. On the other hand, the
‘software’ of memory – the way information is initially acquired,
rehearsed, and retrieved – is influenced by the nature of a specific
culture.

(Adapted after Feldman, S. Robert – Essentials of Understanding Psychology)

2. Match the words in column A with their definitions in


column B and then with their Romanian equivalents in column C.

55
A B C
1. encode a. to get something I. similar
2. store b. to represent complicated II. a dobândi
information in a simple or
short way
3. retrieve c. comparing things which III. a stoca
have similar features
4. analogous d. to repeat IV. a codifica
5. acquire e. to find and bring back V. a repeta
something
6. rehearse f. to put or keep things in a VI. a recupera,
special place for use in the a salva
future

3. Read the text again and mark the following statements T


(true) or F (false). Correct the false ones.

a. Encoding information is the first step of the process.


b. In order to memorize something successfully you need to
encode, store and retrieve information.
c. Daniel Wagner thinks that short-term memory and long-term
memory are universal and operate similarly in people all over the
world.

4. How many expressions can you think of containing the


words ‘brain’ and ‘mind’? Write as many expressions as you
remember in no more than 2 minutes.

5. Read now the following expressions. How many of


them appear on your list? Match the expressions in column A with
their meanings in column B.

A. B.
1. He’s really brainy. a. to be unable to take a
decision
56
2. Can I pick your brains later? b. to share the ideas.
3. We need to do some c. to get some of your ideas.
brainstorming.
4. He went out of his mind (with d. to completely lose control.
anger)
5. He put it out of his mind. e. to be a little bit crazy and
unstable.
6. She’s not in her right mind. f. to be boring, repetitive.
7. His job was completely g. to be really clever.
mindless.
8. He’s in two minds. h. to decide not to think about
something any more.

Answer the following questions:


 What is the most mindless job you have ever done?
 Have you ever been in two minds about anything?
 Who is the brainiest person you know?
 Is there a time when you went out of your mind with
anger or worry?

Language focus:

The present perfect simple can describe:


- a life experience;
- something that has never happened;
- a recent event.
Affirmative: S + to have + V-ed/V3
Interrogative: to have + S + V-ed/V3?
Negative: S + to have + not + V-ed/V3
For more information read the grammar compendium

6. Fill in the blanks with the right form of the verb to have.

1. The teacher … … opened her book.


2. The students … … learned the lesson.

57
3. Ken … … typed a letter.
4. Our fax number … … changed.
5. They … … updated their website.
6. Tom and Ann … … had a good year so far.
7. The assistant housekeeper … … tidied the bedroom.
7. Put the verbs in italics in the present perfect tense as in
the model below:
Model: Mr. Harvest … … … leave … … the company.
Mr. Harvest … has left … the company.

1. Ms Brown … … …work … … with children before.


2. ‘Where is Tom?’ ‘I don’t know, I … … … see … … him.’
3. ‘Yes, I know Ann. We … … … be … friends for a long
time.
4. I … … … complain … … about the traffic before.
5. I … … … find … … the letter you were looking for. Here it
is.
6. Nothing like this … … … happen … … before.
7. She … … … write … … five letters this morning.
8. If you … … … not meet … … the captain yet, this is an
ideal opportunity.
9. The manager is not in the office. He … … go … … home.
10. Ben is closing his workbook. He … … do … … his
homework.
11. The chambermaids … … change … … the sheets and … …
make … … the bed.
12. Diana … … not work … … at the hotel for very long.
13. You … … use … …a lot of cheese!
14. The waiter … … serve … … the drinks to the group.
15. He … … bring … … another steak.

8. Complete the sentences with for or since:

1. He has waited ….. two hours to see you.


2. He has been here ………. 9 o’clock.
3. The bank office has been staffed …….. it came into being.
58
4. The founders of this body of principles have settled it….. the
enterprise was founded,
5. They have finished ……….. several hours.
6. The clerks have worked in this office ……….. 20 years.
7. Many things have changed …… we were children.
8. The central heating has been on …….. October.
9. Her husband has been very patient with her ……. she got ill.
10. The workers’ strike has lasted …….. three weeks.
11. She has lost weight … that tragic accident in which her baby died.
12. I haven’t eaten anything ……….. twenty-four hours.

9. Complete the sentences with the verb in brackets in the


present perfect simple or the past simple.

1. …… you …… to the cinema last night? (go)


2. …… you ever …… to Australia? (be)
3. We …… to Russia last winter. (go)
4. I ………… last Monday. (not work)
5. Tom is not here. He ……… home. (go)
6. We aren’t hungry. We ……… lunch. (have)
7. …… you ……… breakfast yesterday? (have)
8. The bus ……. five minutes ago. (leave)
9. I ……… a teacher since 1996. (be)
10. Tom ……… in New York for ten years. (live) He lives
there now.
11. She ……… yet. (not arrive)

Language focus:

We use the present perfect continuous


- to indicate that an action is unfinished;
- to emphasize how long an action has been in
progress;
- for actions in the past that have a result in the
present, or a relevance to the present. The action
may or may not be finished.
59
Affirmative: S + to have + been + V-ing
Interrogative: to have + S + been + V-ing?
Negative: S + to have + not + been + V-ing
For more information read the grammar compendium

10. Complete the sentences with the verb in brackets in


the past simple, the present perfect simple or the present perfect
continuous.

Dear Tom,

I … finally … (find) time to write to you from London. I’m sorry


it … (take) me so long, but I … (be) really busy.

We … (be) here for four days already and we … already … (see)


and done tons of things. I … … (dash) around every day, from
one museum to another and there’s still so much I … (not
manage) to see. I … (been) to the British Museum, the Tate
Gallery and the Tower of London. On Thursday I … (visit)
Windsor Castle, which is outside London. I … (buy) you
something really nice from there.
Hope you are OK. … you … (miss) me? Hope you … (not work)
too hard.
Take care,
Ann

60
TRANSPORT

Do you travel a lot? What is your favourite way of


travelling? Why?

1. Find ten forms of transport and three types of roads in


the word puzzle.

C A R D P I N M O T O R W A Y
T U B E L S D O Y R E O A D P
S D S T A X I T E A F A L P P
U E V U N E X O R N G D D S A
B U S S E H E R F E A B O A T
C O A C H S H B S H I P D G H
M O P E D I D I T S T R E E T
T A N T R A T K F O O L V A N
R I N G R O A E T R A M P I T

2. Read the following text and decide if the statements


following it are true or false.

A friend or an enemy?

Traffic and pollution problems have become a matter of


concern in the whole world. The number of accidents is high and
is continually increasing. Pollution, due to exhaust fumes, is
remarkably high. But we can’t deny that since the 1900s the rising
popularity of the car has had a major impact on the way we live.
Whatever you call them – motorways, freeways, inter-state
highways, autobahns, auto routes – special roads have been built
in almost every country in the world. And towns and cities have
been redesigned to make it possible for drivers to come and go
and stop between.
Cars are a global issue. By 2010, the total number of cars
in the world is expected to rise by almost 10 per cent, and the jobs
61
of many millions of workers are dependent on our love of driving.
The car has brought us many benefits. It has made our lives easier:
it has given us the freedom to travel at any time of day or night, to
go anywhere, to take other people with us, to transport things we
couldn’t carry without the car.
(Text adapted from Rosi Jillett, Cutting Edge Intermediate/Upper
Intermediate Video Workbook, Longman, 2001)
a. The car has had a minor impact on our lives.
b. The popularity of the car has led to the construction of more
and more roads.
c. The popularity of the car has led to towns being redesigned.
d. The car has given us the freedom to travel whenever we
want wherever we’d like to.

3. In pairs, answer and ask the following questions:


a. Do you prefer to use public transport or your car? Why?
b. When did you last travel by train? How did you feel?
c. Could you live without a car? Why (not)?

To indicate the means of transport we use:


By + form of transport. Exceptions: on foot, on horseback.
Some verbs are followed directly by forms of transport: to
catch, to take, to ride.

4. Read the following dialogues. Underline with a simple


line the sentences used to ask for directions and information and
with a double line the sentences used to give directions /
information.
A.
- Excuse me, sir, is there any hotel near here?
- Yes, there is.
- Can you tell me the way to the hotel, please?
- Certainly. Go straight on, then turn left at the traffic light, go
along for about a hundred meters and there’s the Aro hotel.
- Thank you very much, sir.
- Not at all.
62
B.
- Excuse me, how do I get to St. Paul's Cathedral?
- You take the Central Line from here.
- How many stops is it?
- It's the fourth station.
C.
- Excuse me.
- Yes?
- I was wondering if you could help me.
- Well, I’ll try.
- I need to find out where the town centre is. Now I see there’s a
sign up there that points to the left.
- Ah well, let me see … er … it all depends if you’re on foot or
going by car.
- Ah no, I’m walking.
- Well, you turn to the right and then carry straight on.
- Ah, right, thanks! Er … I wonder if you could tell me if there’s a
good hotel in town that I can use.
- Oh, let me think a moment … um … yes, there are two hotels –
they’re in the Main Street one on each side of the road.
- Right, well, I expect I’ll manage to find one of those. I wonder if
you could tell me anything about the castle in town, where it is, I
mean.
- Um, well, it’s actually further on … er … down the Main Street
and then you cross over the bridge and it’s on the other side of the
river.
- I see. Could you tell me a bit more about it? Is it interesting? Is it
old?
- I’m not really sure. I’ve never actually been there myself. It …
yes, I think it’s quite old, I think it’s about … um … 500 years old
– something like that.
- Do you happen to know when it’s open?
- I’m not really sure. I think it depends on what time of year you
go.
- Well, right, thank you, thank you.
- You’re welcome. Have a nice stay!
63
5. Match the explanations in column A with the words
given in column B:

A B
1. In a town there is a lot of a) zebra-crossing
2. Pedestrians must walk on the b) stop
3. You must cross the street on a c) pavement
4. When you cross the street without d) go/cross
looking you can be
5. A street where the traffic goes in e) traffic
one direction is a
6. A green light means f) one way street
7. A red light means g) collide
8. When two cars drive into each h) double-deckers
other, they
9. When there are many people on the i) knocked down by
bus we say a car
10. Buses with two stores are j) the bus is
crowded

Language focus:

We use the past perfect simple to indicate that an action


was finished before another past action.
Affirmative: S + had + V-ed/V3
Interrogative: had + S + V-ed/V3?
Negative: S + had + not + V-ed/V3
For more information read the grammar compendium

6. Join these sentences using by the time as in the example.


The play started. They arrived.
The play had started by the time they arrived.
64
a) We had lunch. He came downstairs.
b) She ate the ice cream. We got there.
c) His wife did the ironing. He came back from work.
d) The poor man died. The doctor arrived.
e) He lost the phone number. He got to the phone booth.

Language focus:

We use the past perfect continuous for actions in the past


that were in progress up to or near a time in the past. We
often use it with for and since.
Affirmative: S + had + been + V-ing
Interrogative: had + S + been + V-ing?
Negative: S + had + not + been + V-ing
For more information read the grammar compendium

7. Answer these questions using the past perfect


continuous and the verb between brackets.

e.g. Why were Ann’s eyes red? (cry)


She had been crying all night.
a. Why were the roads wet? (rain)
b. Why was Tom tired? (study)
c. Why was tom coughing? (smoke/ too much)
d. Why was Ann sick? (eat/ too much)
e. Why was Tom in such a good mood last night? (dance)
f. Why were Tom’s clothes dirty last afternoon? (play
football)

65
66
AMERICAN ENGLISH

Can you tell the difference between British and American


English?
Do you know any words from American English?

1. Read the text and underline the areas in which British


English (BE) and American English (AE) may be different.

When the British landed in North America in 1620, they


took their language with them. Since then, BE and AE have
developed separately, and there are now some differences between
them: pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, spelling, punctuation,
idioms, formatting of dates and numbers. Although George
Bernard Shaw said that the United States and United Kingdom
were ‘two countries divided by a common language’ and Oscar
Wilde wrote ‘We have really everything in common with America
nowadays, except, of course, the language’ (The Canterville
Ghost, 1888), people have to admit that the differences are quite
small and speakers of American and British English usually have
no problems understanding each other.
Most of the differences in vocabulary between BE and AE
are in connection with concepts originating from the 19th century
to the mid 20th century, when new words were coined
independently. More than half of the words belonging to the
car/automobile and railway/railroad industries are different
between the UK and US. Other sources of difference are slang or
vulgar terms and idiomatic phrases, including phrasal verbs.
Here are some vocabulary differences:
BE AE
crisps chips
chips French fries
underground subway
flat apartment
67
lift elevator
lorry truck
pavement sidewalk
petrol station gas station
jam jelly
car boot trunk
shop store
autumn fall
pushchair stroller

Also, there are differences related to spelling: AE uses ‘-


or’ where BE uses ‘-our’ and ‘-er’ (AE) instead of ‘-re’ (BE). For
example, AE: color, neighbor, center – BE: colour, neighbour,
centre.
The most noticeable difference from the grammatical point
of view is the less use of the present perfect in AE than in BE.
e.g. I’ve just arrived home. (BE)
I just arrived home. (AE)

2. Match the US English with the UK English words.

AE BE
1. flashlight a. trousers
2. pants b. biscuits
3. jogging suit c. dustbin
4. cookies d. drugstore
5. chemist e. torch
6. trashcan f. tracksuit

3. Read the following sentences and say where each


person comes from: Britain or America.

Mary: Take the lift!


Ken: Don’t push the stroller!
Bill: I live in a block of flats.
Ben: I’ll sell my lorry tomorrow.
68
Doris: I have just eaten some strawberry jam.
Dan: Do you have a trashcan here?
Ann: Is there a subway near here?
Tom: Can you tell me where the nearest chemist is?

Language focus:

When direct speech is converted into indirect speech,


various changes take place in the form of the clause.
Theses changes concern the tenses used, the pronouns,
and the adverbial modifiers of place and time, because
a person’s words are often reported in a different time
context, from the point of view of a different person, and
in a different place.
For more information read the grammar compendium

4. Report what the people in exercise 3 said. Use asked/


wanted to know/said/told…
e.g. Mary told us to take the lift.

5. Put the following statements into indirect speech, using


reporting verbs in the past.
e.g. Your English is getting better, Ann.
He told Ann that her English was getting better.

a. You’re looking very well, Ann.


b. I didn’t hear the bell ring.
c. I don’t like your new hat, Tom.
d. They’ll start building the house in May.
e. Tom, give aunt Emily this parcel!
f. Miss Field, don’t come late to office tomorrow.
g. Mr Smith, Ms Smooth has just phoned.

6. Complete the reported speech sentences using one of the


following verbs: promised, asked, explained, announced, told.

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a. He … … me to pass him the salt.
b. She …… him not to do that.
c. They …… they would give me back my money soon.
d. Tom …… they had only finished because they had worked
late every evening.
e. Dan …… he was getting married to Sara.

7. Report the following using a reporting verb in the past.


a. Will Tom go into the army next year?
b. Can I possibly finish the work by 5 o’clock?
c. Is Dan going with you?
d. Why did you join the police force?
e. Have you worked in electronics before?

8. Choose the correct reported speech version of each


statement.
1. Tom said, ‘I want to visit my friends this weekend.’
a. Tom said he wants to visit his friends that weekend.
b. Tom said he wanted to visit his friends that weekend.
c. Tom said he wanted to visit his friends this weekend.
2. Jerry said, ‘I’m studying English a lot at the moment.’
a. Jerry said he was studying English a lot at that moment.
b. Jerry said he was studying English a lot at the moment.
c. Jerry said I was studying English a lot at that moment.
3. They said, ‘We’ve lived here for a long time.’
a. They said they have lived there for a long time.
b. They said they lived here for a long time.
c. They said they had lived there for a long time.
4. He asked me, ‘Have you finished reading the newspaper?’
a. He asked me if had I finished reading the newspaper.
b. He asked me if I had finished reading the newspaper.
c. He asked me if I finished reading the newspaper.
5. ‘I get up every morning at seven o’clock’, Peter said.
a. Peter said he got up every morning at seven o'clock.
b. Peter said I got up every morning at seven o'clock.
c. Peter said he had got up every morning at seven o'clock.
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COMPLAINTS

Have you ever made a complaint? Why?


1. Read the following letter and underline the complaints.
Why are the guests dissatisfied?

Dear Sir / Madam,

I am writing this letter to complain about the service offered to


my family and myself during our recent stay at your hotel. I have
completed the Feedback Form, but I would like to add a few
further points.
To start with, on arrival we were told the suite we had booked
was not free and we were offered instead accommodation in two
double rooms.
In a three-star hotel I expect to find a satellite TV, but there
wasn’t one in our rooms. When we asked the receptionist, she said
there weren’t any TVs in the Sun Flower Hotel and that we could
watch TV at home.
Finally, I must mention the room service – it was very slow.
On the first day, I had to wait one hour for a cup of coffee.
I hope you appreciate my disappointment and will
consequently take action to improve the service in your hotel.

Yours faithfully,
TThompson
Tom Thompson

2. Find words and expressions in the above letter that mean:

to express (my) dissatisfaction -


filled in -
wish -
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understand -
as a result -

3. Read the following conversation between a waiter and a


client and answer the following questions:
a. What is the guest complaining about?
b. Do you think the waiter behaved appropriately?

C: Excuse me!
W: I’ll be with you in a minute, sir. Is everything all right, sir?
C: No. This steak is too rare.
W: I’m sorry, sir.
C: I’d like it medium, please.
W: Certainly, I’ll ask the chef to put it back under the grill, sir.
(…) Here you are. One medium steak.
C: Thank you.
(…)
C: Excuse me, but I think you overcharged us for the water.
W: Let me see. It says two bottles of sparkling water.
C: But we only had one bottle.
W: I’m sorry. I’m afraid there’s been a mistake. I’ll ask the
cashier to deduct one bottle.
C: Thank you.

4. Read the conversion above again. Are the following


statements true or false?

c. The guest complains the food is too cold.


d. The waiter returns with an overdone steak.
e. The guest thinks there is a mistake on the bill.
f. The guest had tow bottles of water.
g. The cashier made a mistake.

Language focus
Useful phrases when complaining about food:

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- too + adjective
e.g. It’s too cold.
- not + adjective + enough
e.g. This beer isn’t cold enough.
- there + be not + enough + noun
e.g. There isn’t enough ice.
- over / under + V-ed/V3
e.g. This steak is overdone.

Language focus

We make the passive voice by using the verb to be + the


past participle.
e.g.We were met at the airport by the tour representative.
We use the passive voice especially when the agent is not
known, is ‘people in general’, is unimportant, or is
obvious.
For more information read the grammar compendium

5. Change the following sentences into the passive voice.

a. Somebody told us something.


b. They offered us accommodation in two double rooms.
c. They destroyed the building.
d. Somebody introduced me to Mr. Petrescu last year.
e. They have called for the doctor.
f. The tomorrow newspaper will comment upon that great
scientific event.
g. We often refer to these lines of poetry.
h. They spoke a lot about that outstanding composer.
i. Somebody has bought the red car.
j. Someone is describing the situation.
k. The jury didn’t award the prize to the writer.
l. Someone was offering them flowers.

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Language focus

Verbs that can be followed by either object + object or


object + prepositional object in active clauses can have
two corresponding passive forms.
e.g. Somebody sold me flowers.
I was sold flowers. or Flowers were sold to me.
Verbs that can’t be followed by object + object in the
active voice have only one passive form.
e.g. The teacher explained the lesson.
The lesson was explained.
For more information read the grammar compendium

6. Make one corresponding passive sentence or two, if


possible, as in the example.
e.g. Someone handed me a plate. → I was handed a plate. / A
plate was handed to me.

a. They have thrown a ball to me.


b. Someone will describe the situation.
c. Someone gave the toy to Tom.
d. They are telling a story to us.
e. Someone explains the procedure to the beginners every
year.
f. She teaches us interesting things.
g. Someone had reported the theft to the police.
h. He promised me a new book.
i. The waiter has brought him two clean knives.

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II. GRAMMAR

THE PRONOUN

1. THE PERSONAL PRONOUN

PERSON CASE NUMBER


SINGULAR PLURAL
FIRST NOMINATIVE I WE
PERSON GENITIVE MINE OURS
DATIVE (TO) ME (TO) US
ACCUSATIVE ME US
SECOND NOMINATIVE YOU YOU
PERSON GENITIVE YOURS YOURS
DATIVE (TO) YOU (TO) YOU
ACCUSATIVE YOU YOU
THIRD NOMINATIVE HE THEY
PERSON GENITIVE HIS THEIRS
DATIVE (TO) HIM (TO) THEM
ACCUSATIVE HIM THEM
NOMINATIVE SHE THEY
GENITIVE HERS THEIRS
DATIVE (TO) HER (TO) THEM
ACCUSATIVE HER THEM
NOMINATIVE IT THEY
GENITIVE ITS THEIRS
DATIVE (TO) IT (TO) THEM
ACCUSATIVE IT THEM

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The personal pronoun is used to talk about the speaker “I” or
speakers “We”, the person(s) we are speaking to “you”, the person we
are speaking about “he, she”, or the persons and things we are speaking
about "they".
‘It’ is used:
 to talk about a thing or an animal.
e.g. I 've got a bag. It is black.
 to talk about the time
e.g. It is 2 o'clock.
 to talk about days
e.g. It is Monday today.
 to talk about the weather
e.g. It is sunny.
 to talk about distances
e.g. It is 5 kilometres to the town centre.
 to emphasize a word or a phrase
e.g. It was daddy who entered the room suddenly last night.
 as a subject when the subject clause comes later in the sentence.

e.g. It is nice that you brought me flowers.


 “You”, “they” sometimes are used to speak about people in
general (everyone).
e.g. You are healthy if you eat fresh fruit. They say she is a good
nurse.
 In English we do not normally leave out subject pronouns.
e.g. It is cold today, (not: Is cold today.)
Mary isn’t from Bucharest. She’s from Brasov. (not: Is from
Brasov.)

2. THE POSSESSIVE PRONOUN


AND THE POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE

2.1. THE POSSESSIVE PRONOUN

Person/Number Singular Plural


First person mine ours
Second person yours yours
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Third person his theirs
hers theirs
its theirs

The possessive pronoun replaces both the object that is possessed


and the person who possesses it.

e.g. Mary’s book is new. Mine is old. The book is mine.

2.2. THE POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE

Person/Number Singular Plural


First person my our
Second person your your
Third person his their
her their
its their

The possessive adjective replaces the person who possesses


something and determines the noun that expresses the object which is
possessed.

e.g. This is his book.

3. THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN


AND THE DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVE

3.1. THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN

Singular Plural
‘near’ reference this these
‘distant’ reference that those

The demonstrative pronouns usually express spatial and temporal


relationships between the objects they stand for and the speaker.
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e.g. This is our university.

3.2. THE DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVE

Singular Plural
‘near’ reference this these
‘distant’ reference that those

The demonstrative adjective determines a noun and expresses


the place of the noun in time or space.

e.g. This man helped me.

3.3. OTHER DEMONSTRATIVES

Other demonstratives that can function both as pronouns and


adjectives are: the former, the latter, the first, the last, the other, the
others, the same, such.

e.g. I met Mr Black and Mr White, the former had a white


hat, the latter had a black one.
We went to the conference. The others went home.

4. THE REFLEXIVE PRONOUN

Person/Number Singular Plural


First person myself ourselves
Second person yourself yourselves
Third person himself themselves
herself themselves
itself themselves

We use a reflexive pronoun to talk about the same person or


thing that we mentioned in the subject of the sentence.

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e.g. I’m teaching myself English.

5. THE INDEFINITE PRONOUN


AND THE INDEFINITE ADJECTIVE

5.1. THE INDEFINITE PRONOUN

The indefinite pronouns:


‘Some’ is used:
 to substitute a plural countable noun
e.g. I didn’t have any psychology books, so I went to buy some.
 to substitute an uncountable or mass noun
e.g. ‘Coffee?’
‘I could do with some.’
 to suggest contrast
e.g. ‘Did you like these books?’
‘Some are interesting, some are boring.’
 in questions, if the question is really a request or an invitation,
or if the reply expected is ‘Yes”
e.g. Would you like some?
‘Something’ usually has non-personal reference. It may refer to
some thing, object, event of an indefinite nature.
e.g. She wants something to write with.
‘Something’ may have personal reference when it signifies a person
of importance or a person who has some position or other.
e.g. Johanna is something at the Scientific Research Department.
‘Someone’ and ‘somebody’ substitute nouns having personal
reference. They have singular association and as subject take a singular
verb. The lack of a common gender personal pronoun may however
cause them to be replaced by ‘they’.
e.g. There is somebody in the classroom.
Someone/somebody has broken the front window.
‘Somebody’ is often used with the indefinite article or in the plural,
when signifying “a person of some importance.”
e.g. Now that he passed that exam, he is (a) somebody.
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The indefinite pronouns ‘any, anybody, anyone, anything’ have the
same uses as the corresponding forms of ‘some’, but they occur in
interrogative and negative sentences.
e.g. We haven’t got any butter left.
It was impossible for any air to get out.
Some said they had seen everything, but I think it was too dark
for any to see how it all started.
‘Anybody, anyone’ are semantically and functionally similar to
‘somebody’ and ‘someone’.
e.g. Is anybody there?
There isn’t anyone here who can do it.
‘Anything’ means ‘a thing of any sort’ or, in affirmative sentences,
‘no matter what’.
e.g. Has anything unusual happened?
I want to drink something; anything will do.
The indefinite pronouns ‘none, nobody, no one, nothing’ occur in
negative sentences when the verb is in the affirmative. ‘Nobody’ and
‘no one’ have personal reference and as a subject take a verb in the
singular. ‘Nothing’ has non-personal reference.
e.g. ‘Have we got any more sugar?’
‘There’s none in the kitchen.’
Nobody knows where he is.
No one has seen him for two weeks.
Nothing can help me.
The indefinite pronouns ‘everybody, everyone, everything’ are
similar in function and connotation to the other compounds with ‘-
body, -one, -thing’.
e.g. Is everybody here?
Tomorrow I’ll write to everyone concerned.
Everything is all right.

5.2. THE INDEFINITE ADJECTIVE

The indefinite adjective ‘some’ occurs in affirmative sentences.


e.g. I have some important problems to solve.
The indefinite adjective ‘any’ is used in interrogative and negative
sentences.
e.g. I haven’t got any money.
The indefinite adjective ‘no’ occurs in negative sentences, when the

80
verb is in the affirmative.
e.g. There are no mistakes in your paper.
The indefinite adjective ‘every’ is used only with singular nouns.
e.g. I have every reason to be angry.

THE NOUN

According to countability, nouns can be:


I. Countable, when they can be counted (they have a singular and
a plural form) and can be used with the indefinite article (a, an) with the
singular form or with many, few, several with the plural form. Singular
countable nouns cannot be used alone.
e.g. The bird is nice. (not: Bird is nice.)
II. Uncountable, when they cannot be used in the plural or with the
indefinite article, but can be used with much, little.
Uncountable nouns can be used alone.
e.g. The pollution is dreadful today. Pollution is awful.
 Some nouns can be countable in one meaning and uncountable
in another.
e.g. paper (hârtie/ziar)
Paper is expensive nowadays. / I've got an evening paper.

I. COUNTABLE NOUNS [C]

Countable nouns have two forms: singular and plural. The


plural of countable nouns:
 most nouns add "-s" to the singular form:
a boy - two boys 1z1
a map - two maps /s/
 Spelling rules:
1. if the singular form of the noun ends in "-ss, - s, -se, -ch, -sh, -x, -z"
we add "-es" /izl to that form:
a glass - two glasses
a rose - two roses
a dish - two dishes
a box - two boxes

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2. some nouns ending in "-o" add "-es", others add "-s":
a potato - two potatoes
a hero - two heroes
a Negro - two Negroes
BUT
a photo - two photos
a radio - two radios
3. some nouns ending in "-f, -fe" substitute "-ves" for "-f, -fe":
a calf - two calves; a loaf - two loaves
a half – two halves; a wife – two wives
a life – two lives; a leaf – two leaves
BUT
a roof – two roofs
a dwarf – two dwarfs
a chief – two chiefs
a proof – two proofs
4. nouns ending in a consonant followed by "-y" change "-y" into "-i"
and add"-es":
a party - two parties
a story - two stories
 some countable nouns have irregular plurals:
a man - two men
a woman - two women
a child - two children
an ox - two oxen
a foot - two feet
a goose - two geese
a tooth two teeth
a mouse - two mice
a louse - two lice
a deer - two deer
a sheep - two sheep
a spacecraft - two spacecraft
a species - two species
a fish - two fish ! fishes = different species of fish
a fruit - two fruit ! fruits = different varieties of fruit
 some countable nouns come from Greek or Latin; their plural
is different from the usual one in English:
Datum – data

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Symposium – symposia
Phenomenon – phenomena
Criterion - criteria
Axis – axes
Crisis - crises

II. UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS [U]

Uncountable nouns have only one form. They often refer to:
- substances: coal, coffee, flour, ice, sand, sugar, water
- human qualities: courage, cruelty, honesty, patience
- feelings: anger, happiness, hope, joy, pride
- activities: help, sleep, work
- abstract ideas: freedom, fun, luck
1. singular invariable nouns, which take a verb in the singular, are:
 concrete uncountable nouns: bread, meat, luggage,
baggage, furniture, money, equipment
e.g. The money is on the table. (Banii sunt pe masa.)
 abstract uncountable nouns: advice, happiness,
homework, housework, information, knowledge, music, nonsense,
progress, peace
e.g. Her advice is always good.. (Sfaturile ei sunt întotdeauna
bune.)
 proper nouns: Mary, The Netherlands, The Danube
e.g. The Danube flows into the Black Sea.
 nouns ending in "-s": news, measles, mumps, athletics,
cybernetics, economics, ethics, gymnastics, informatics, optics,
mathematics, physics, cards, billiards, darts
e.g. This news is good. (Aceste veşti sunt bune.)
 To express quantity of uncountable nouns, we can use: much,
little, piece, item, bar, loaf, slice, gramme, pound, kilogram, etc.:
a piece of news - o veste/ştire
an item of information = o informaţie
a bar of soap = un săpun
a loaf of bread = o pâine
a slice of bread = o felie de pâine
a gramme of sugar
a kilogram of flour
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2. plural invariable nouns, which take a verb in the plural:
- these nouns refer to single items that have two linked parts:
 nouns referring to clothes or other things people wear:
(sun)glasses, jeans, pants, pyjamas, trousers, tights, shorts,
slacks, knickers;
 nouns referring to tools or other things that people use:
binoculars, compasses(the drawing instrument),
nutcrackers, pincers, scissors, scales, tongs:
- proper nouns: The Alps, The Carpathians, The Highlands
- other "pluralia tantum": barracks, clothes, customs, contents,
manners, means, wages, stairs, savings, surroundings
- substantivized adjectives: the rich, the poor, goods
- unmarked plurals: cattle, infantry, people, police
e.g. The police are here.
 When we want to refer to one article of dress or instrument, we
can use the word pair:
a pair of trousers / scissors ...

COLLECTIVE NOUNS

- refer to a group of people or things.


e.g. army, audience, committee, community, company, council,
crew, enemy, family, flock, gang, government, group, herd, jury, press,
public, staff, team...
With collective nouns we can use either a singular verb or a plural
verb. We choose the singular form of the verb if we think of the group
as a single unit, when they are used generically. We choose a plural
form of a verb if we think of the group as a number of individuals,
when reference is made to the component elements.
e.g. Her family is large. (Familia ei este mare) / Her family are at
home. (Ai ei / membri familiei ei sunt acasa.)

CASE OF NOUNS: THE GENITIVE

1. the analytical genitive with the preposition “of” is used with neuter
nouns or with long noun phrases.
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e.g. the leg of the table; the wife of the man you have met
2. The synthetical genitive with "’s” added to the singular form of the
noun or to irregular plurals, and " ' " added to regular plurals or to
proper nouns ending in "-s".
e.g. the boy's car; the man's results; the children's performance; the
students' answers; Dickens' works
The synthetical genitive is used with:
- nouns denoting persons or other beings:
e.g. Mary's car; the dog's tail
- nouns denoting measurement, time, space, quantity, value:
e.g. a two months' holiday; yesterday's newspaper; a life's work; a
mile's drive; a pound's weight; five dollars' worth.
- geographical names or places:
e.g. England's weather
- collective nouns:
e.g. the firm's investment
- some phrases connected with nature (nouns that can be
personified):
e.g. the ocean's roar; the day's heat
- some words followed by "sake":
e.g. for peace's sake; for order's sake

GENDER OF NOUNS

There are four categories of gender in English:


1. masculine: man, brother
2. feminine: woman, sister
3. neuter: book, table
4. common: cousin, friend, patient
Gender contrasts are expressed with the help of:
- different words: husband - wife; boy - girl...
- compounds: schoolboy - schoolgirl, he-bear - she bear, tom-cat -
pussy-cat,
- suffixes: host - hostess, hero - heroine

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THE ARTICLE
1. THE DEFINITE ARTICLE

The English definite article is “the”. It is pronounced /ðə/ in front


of the words that start with a consonant and /ði/ in front of the words
that start with a vowel. “The” is used
 with nouns already mentioned or known to the
listener/reader:
e.g. There is an English student in our University. She met the English
student. ( The student we have previously talked about)
 with nouns followed by a prepositional phrase, a
relative clause, or an apposition.
e.g. The parcel from Sibiu arrived yesterday.
This is the student who handed your papers in.
Mr Smith, the doctor, is a Welshman.
 with nouns considered unique:
e.g. You can join the International Conservation Scouts.
The sun rises in the east.
 with singular nouns, talking about the class in general
e.g. The cow is a useful animal.
 before an adjective in the superlative degree
e.g. That is the oldest tree in town.
 with nouns converted from adjectives, denoting a class,
nationality or an abstraction
e.g. We should help the poor.
The English are nice people.
The good is usually forgotten.
 with proper nouns in the plural, denoting a family
e.g. The Smiths are here.
 with proper nouns denoting countries (if they represent
a union, or if they are in the plural)
e.g. I would like to visit the United States.
 with proper nouns denoting groups of islands, chains of
mountains, deserts, oceans, seas, rivers
e.g. I have never been to the Black Sea.
We saw the Thames and the English Channel last year.
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 with proper nouns denoting hotels, shops, institutions
e.g. We'll stay at the Hilton (hotel).
 with proper nouns denoting ships, trains, planes
e.g. Have you ever seen the Queen Mary sailing?
 with proper nouns denoting newspapers and magazines
e.g. He reads the Observer.
 in phrases
e.g. to tell the time, by the way, to play the fool, on the whole

2. THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE

The English indefinite article is “a/an”. It is written “a” and


pronounced /ə/ in front of the words that start with a consonant and
“an” /ən/ in front of the words that start with a vowel.
The indefinite article is used:
 with a singular countable noun which is indefinite. Either
we don’t know which one, or it doesn’t matter which one.
e.g. Can I have a banana?
 with professions.
e.g. Tom Cruise is an actor.
She’s a research psychologist.
 to mean “each/every” in phrases.
e.g. once a day/week/hour
ten kilometres an hour

3. THE ZERO ARTICLE

It has no written or spoken form.


The zero article is used:
 with proper nouns denoting persons, continents,
countries, regions, towns, mountains, lakes, capes, buildings, streets,
bridges, months, festivals, days of the week, magazines and periodicals.
e.g. Tom visited Oxford Street and Waterloo Bridge last year.
 with uncountable nouns or plural nouns used in a general
sense:
e.g. Oil is lighter than water.
Chopsticks are used a lot in Japan.

87
 with nouns like bed, church, college, hospital, prison, school,
university, work:
e.g. What time do you go to university? Tom is at work.
 with nouns denoting meals and seasons:
e.g. He has breakfast at seven. Winter is coming.
 with nouns denoting languages:
e.g. Tom speaks German.
 in phrases: day by day, in bed, at home, by sea, by
car/bus/plane/etc., on foot, at sunset, to be in trouble, by
mistake, in silence, watch television/TV, (be) on television/TV

QUANTIFIERS

1. These quantifiers are used with singular nouns: another, each,


either/neither, every.
e.g. Please give me another apple.
2. These quantifiers are usually used before plural or uncountable
nouns: all (the), any, both, enough, more, most, no, plenty of, some, a
lot of, several, thousands of.
3. Any can be used with a singular noun with positive sentences to
suggest ‘it doesn’t matter which’.
e.g. Any guidebook will give you the information you need.
4. Much/many are usually used in negatives/questions.
e.g. I haven’t got much time.
Were there many research psychologists?
5. A few or few can only be used with plural nouns. A little or little
can be used before uncountable nouns. Few and little are for a negative
idea. A few and a little are positive.
e.g. Fortunately I have a few very good friends.
Few psychologists come to such a remote place.
We still have a little coffee left from the party.
There is (very) little hope of finding any more survivors.
6. Some quantifiers can be combined.
e.g. a little more/less salt
every few hours

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THE VERB

English tenses have two elements of meaning: time and aspect.


Time refers to when, and aspect refers to how the speaker sees the
event.
Time : Present / Past / Future
Aspect : Simple / Continuous / Perfect
The simple aspect describes an event which is permanent, complete,
habitual, or a simple fact.
The continuous aspect describes an event which is temporary,
incomplete, or in progress.
The perfect aspect describes an event which relates to two different
times. The event is completed at an indefinite time before another time.
English has two voices: an active voice and a passive one.

THE AUXILIARY VERBS

TO BE, TO DO, TO HAVE are called auxiliary verbs because they


help to form tenses, being combined with the infinitive, the present
participle or the past participle.
TO BE helps to form the continuous aspect and the passive voice.
TO DO helps to form the interrogative form, the negative form and
the interrogative - negative form of the present tense simple and past
tense simple.
TO HAVE helps to form the perfect aspect.

THE ACTIVE VOICE


PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE

Basic form:
 affirmative: S + V ; S (IIIrd person singular) + V-s
e.g. I eat (grapes in fall). He eats plums in the morning.


S = subject (remember that a sentence should have a subject)

V = verb, the infinitive form of the verb
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 Spelling rules:
1. if the verb ends in "-ss, - s, -ch, -sh, -x, -z" we add "-es" /izl to that
form at the third person singular:
e.g. to wash  he washes
to watch  he watches
2. verbs ending in a consonant followed by "-y" change "-y" into "-i"
and add"-es" at the third person singular:
e.g. to try  she tries
to spy  he spies
 interrogative: Do + S + V?
Does + S (IIIrd person singular) + V?
e.g. Do you understand?
Does your mother work in a hospital?
 negative: S + do + not + V
S (IIIrd person singular) + does + not + V
e.g. I do not know what to say.
She does not like reading.

PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS

Basic form:
 affirmative: S + to be + V-ing
e.g. I am writing now.
You are dreaming now.
He is watching TV now.
 Spelling rules:
1. final mute “e” is normally dropped before the “–ing” inflection.
e.g. to behave  behaving
to shave  shaving
2. final base consonants are doubled before “–ing” when the
preceding vowel is stressed and spelled with a single letter.
e.g. to admit  admitting
to prefer  preferring
3. in bases ending in “ie”, the ending turns into “y” before “-
ing”.
e.g. to die  dying
to lie  lying
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to tie  tying
 interrogative: To be + S + V-ing?
e.g. Are you drinking water?
Is your daughter teaching English this year?
 negative: S + to be + V-ing
e.g. He is not sleeping now.

PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE / CONTINUOUS


BASIC CONTRASTS

Present Tense Simple generally refers to:


 •Facts that are always true:
e.g. Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius.
 •Habits:
e.g. British people drink a lot of tea.
 •States:
e.g. I don’t like gangster films.
Other uses of present simple:
 Making declarations (we usually use state verbs):
e.g. I hope you’ll come to my party.
I bet you don’t know the answer!
 Headlines. These are written in a ‘telegram’ style, and
references to the past are usually simplified to present simple:
e.g. Ship sinks in midnight collision.
 Instructions and itineraries:
e.g. First you mix the ingredients.
On day three we visit Bucharest.
 Summaries of events (plots of stories, films etc, and
summaries of historical events):
e.g. May 1945: The war in Europe comes to an end.
 Historic present in narrative and ‘funny stories’. In
informal speech, it is possible to use the ‘historic present’ to describe
past events, especially to make the narration seem more immediate
and dramatic.
e.g. She goes up to this man and looks straight into his eyes.
Present Tense Continuous generally refers to

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 actions which are actually in progress at the moment of
speaking.
e.g. The teacher is talking to us.
 actions which can be generally in progress but not
actually happening at the moment of speaking.
e.g. I’m learning to drive.
 temporary actions
e.g. I’m staying in a hotel until I find a flat.
 Complaints about bad habits
e.g. They’re constantly having parties until the early hours of the
morning.
Other possible adverbs are: always, continually, and forever.
 With verbs describing change and development
e.g. More and more people are giving up smoking.
 There are a number of verbs which cannot be used in the
continuous aspect. These verbs usually refer to:
 Mental states: believe, doubt, expect, forget, hope, imagine,
know, realise, recognise, regret, remember, suppose, think (that),
understand
 Likes and dislikes: admire, dislike, hate, like, love, want, wish
 Possession: belong to, contain, have, include, own, possess
 Appearance: appear, look like, resemble, seem
 Being: be, consist of, depend, exist
 Perception: hear, see, smell, taste

Some verbs have a stative meaning and a different active meaning.


Verbs describing opinions and feelings tend to be state verbs.

e.g.
•Jack is noisy. • Jill is being noisy.
• Tom has a Porsche. •We are having an interesting
conversation!
• This fish tastes awful! • I am just tasting the soup.
• This bag weighs a ton! • We are weighing the baby.
• It depends what you mean. • I am depending on you.
• I think you’re right. • Be quiet! I’m thinking.

PAST TENSE SIMPLE

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Basic form:
 affirmative: S + V-ed/V2
e.g. Our departments worked with the government to formulate
policies.

 Spelling rules:
1. verbs ending in a consonant followed by "-y" change "-y" into "-i"
and then add"-ed":
e.g. to try  I tried
to spy  he spied
2. final mute “e” is dropped before the “–ed” inflection.
e.g. to behave  behaved
to shave  shaved
3. final base consonants are doubled before “–ed” when the preceding
vowel is stressed and spelled with a single letter.
e.g. to admit  admitted
to prefer  preferred

 interrogative: Did + S + V ?
e.g. Did your lawyer communicate clearly and persuasively both
orally and in writing?
 negative: S + did + not + V
e.g. Unfortunately, lawyers did not show integrity in relationships.
The short form of did not is didn’t.

Past simple generally refers to:


 Completed actions
e.g. She arrived at Kennedy Airport at 2 o’clock yesterday morning.
 Habits
e.g. Every morning Tom went to the park.
 States
e.g. In those days, Daria didn’t like reading.

PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS

Basic form:
 affirmative: S + was/were + V-ing
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e.g. I was writing at this time yesterday.
You were dreaming at 6.30 a.m. yesterday.
He was watching TV when his friend called him.
 see the ‘Spelling rules’ under the affirmative form from Present
Tense Continuous.
 interrogative: Was/were + S + V-ing?
e.g. Were you drinking water when I phoned you?
Was your daughter teaching English in September?
 negative: S + was/were + V-ing
e.g. He was not sleeping while the teacher was explaining.
Mary wasn’t working in a restaurant when I was living in
London.

Past continuous generally refers to:


 •Actions in progress (often interrupted by events)
e.g. She was drinking her tea at this time yesterday.
While I was learning, the phone rang.
 •Background description in narrative
 •Changing states
e.g. The engine was making more and more funny noises.
 •Repeated actions – criticism
e.g. When David was at kindergarten, he was always crying after his
mother.

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE

Basic form:
 affirmative: S + to have + V-ed/V3
e.g. The aim has been to make the new Code more relevant and
accessible to all civil servants.
 interrogative: to have + S + V-ed/V3?
e.g. Have you failed the test?
 negative: S + to have + not + V-ed/V3
e.g. I haven’t done my homework yet.

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE CONTINUOUS


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Basic form:
 affirmative: S + to have + been + V-ing
e.g. She’s been living in the US for over a year now.
 interrogative: to have + S + been + V-ing?
e.g. How long have you been waiting for me?
 negative: S + to have + not + been + V-ing
e.g. I haven’t been doing my homework since 3.20 am.

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE / CONTINUOUS


BASIC CONTRASTS

We use both the present perfect continuous and the present


perfect simple to talk about something that started in the past and which
affects the situation that exists now. The difference is that the present
perfect continuous focuses on the activity or event which may or may
not be finished. The present perfect simple, however, focuses on the
effect of the activity or event, or the fact that something has been
achieved.
e.g. She’s been driving for 3 years now.
We have driven all the way here without a break.

Sometimes the difference between them is simply one of emphasis.


e.g. I’ve been following their discussions with great interest.
(emphasizes the activity; that is, my following their discussions)
I’ve followed their discussions with great interest. (emphasizes
the result; I may now react to what was said or decided)

PRESENT PERFECT / PAST SIMPLE


BASIC CONTRASTS

•We use it to talk about something •We use it when we want to


that happened in the past, but we indicate that something happened
don’t specify precisely when it at a specific time in the past.
happened. e.g. She arrived at Otopeni
e.g. A French sportsman has Airport at 2 o’clock this
broken the record for running morning.
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backwards.
•It suggests some kind of •We use it for situations that
connection between what existed for a period of time in the
happened in the past, and the past, but not now.
present time. Often we are
interested in the way that
e.g. When I was younger I learnt
something that happened in the
English.
past affects the situation that exists
now. The Pharaohs ruled Egypt for
e.g. I’ve washed my hands so I can thousands of years.
eat.

If we are interested in when a present situation began rather


than how long it has been going on for, we use the past simple.
Compare:

e.g. I started to get the pains three weeks ago.


I’ve had the pains for three weeks now.
However, we also use the past simple to talk about how long something
went on for if the action or event is no longer going on.
e.g. I stayed with my grandparents for six months. (= I am no
longer staying there)

We can use either present perfect or the past simple to talk


about repeated actions or events. If we use the present perfect, we often
suggest that the action or event might happen again. Sometimes we
emphasize this with phrases such as so far and up to now. If we use the
past simple, it suggests that it is finished and won’t happen again.
Compare:
e.g. Patrick has written 9 films and I think her latest is the best.
Patrick wrote 9 films before she was tragically killed in a car
accident.

• In news reports, you will often read or hear events introduced


with the present perfect, and then the past simple is used to give the
details.
e.g. ‘The film star Jim Cooper has died of cancer. He was 68 and
lived in Texas …’
• We can use both the present perfect and the past simple to talk

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about states. We use the present perfect to talk about a state that existed
in the past and still exists now, and we use the past simple if the state
no longer exists.
e.g. I have known him most of my working life.(I’m still working)
I knew him when we were both working in Rome.

PAST PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE

Basic form:
 affirmative: S + had + V-ed/V3
e.g. Jill discovered that Tom had lied to her.
 interrogative: had + S + V-ed/V3?
e.g. Had you wanted to visit the gallery before you left Florence?
 negative: S + had + not + V-ed/V3
e.g. Bill hadn’t wanted to retire at 60, but they persuaded him to leave.

PAST PERFECT TENSE CONTINUOUS

Basic form:
 affirmative: S + had + been + V-ing
e.g. She had been wearing high-heeled shoes, and her feet hurt.
 interrogative: had + S + been + V-ing?
e.g. Had they been riding when you met?
 negative: S + had + not + been +V-ing
e.g. Bill was arrested, even though he hadn’t been doing anything
illegal.

PAST PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE / CONTINUOUS


BASIC CONTRASTS

Past perfect tenses in general refer to an event in the past which


happens before another event in the past, where there is no time
expression to make this clear.
e.g. By the time I got to the station, the train had left.

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The contrasts between past simple and past continuous can be made

in past perfect tenses for events further back in the past.

e.g. While I had been talking on the phone, Jill had entered the room.
The whole place was deserted, but it was obvious that someone
had been living there. They’d been cooking in the kitchen for a start,
and they hadn’t bothered to wash the dishes.

USED TO

This often contrasts with the present. The contrast may be stated or
understood.
e.g. I used to go swimming a lot (but I don’t now).
 affirmative:
e.g. She used to write to relatives in China, but she doesn’t anymore.
 interrogative:
e.g. Did girls use to go to school?
 negative:
e.g. I didn’t use to play football when I was 10.

WOULD

This is used to describe repeated actions, not states. It describes


a habitual activity which was typical of a person.
e.g. Every week he’d buy his mother a bunch of flowers.
Used to would also be possible here.
 Compare: I used to like cowboy films. / I would like cowboy films.
Would is not possible here.
Other situations:
- past situations
e.g. Life in China used to be hard, particularly for women. Not ‘would
be’
Also: live
- past states
e.g. Mary used to be very beautiful.
Also: have, know, like, see, think etc.
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UNFULFILLED PAST EVENTS

These describe events intended to take place, but which did not
happen.
S + TO BE + GOING TO + V

e.g. I was going to phone you, but I forgot.


S + TO BE ABOUT TO + V
e.g. I was about to do it, but I started doing something else.
The contrasting past event is often understood.
e.g. How are you? I was going to phone you… (but I didn’t)

FUTURE TENSE SIMPLE

Basic form:
 affirmative: S + will + V
e.g. The children will enjoy seeing you again.
 interrogative: Will + S + V?
e.g. Will you come back this evening?
 negative: S + will + not + V
e.g. The meeting won’t start at 10.00 am.

FUTURE TENSE CONTINUOUS

Basic form:
 affirmative: S + will + be + V-ing
e.g. Next Friday, the President will be celebrating five years in power.
Tom will be taking up his place at university in July.
 interrogative: Will + S + be + V-ing?
e.g. Will you be coming to the concert?
 negative: S + will + not + be + V-ing
e.g. After the operation you won’t be doing any sport for a while.

It describes an event which will be happening at a future point.


e.g. Come round in the morning. I’ll be painting the kitchen.

FUTURE TENSE SIMPLE / CONTINUOUS


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When we use the future continuous, we are often referring simply to
some future event or action that has been previously arranged. However,
we use the future simple, not the future continuous, to talk about such
things as decisions that people have made, willingness to do things,
inviting, promising, etc.
e.g. Ann will help us organise the party. (= she is willing to help)
Ann will be helping us to organise the party. (= a previous
arrangement)
Will you come to the concert? (= an invitation)
Will you be coming to the concert? (= asking about a previous
arrangement)
In some contexts the future continuous also sounds more polite than
the future simple.
e. g. Will you be going to the shops later? If you go, could you get me
some potatoes?
The future simple is also used to express an immediate decision.
e.g. I’ll take this one.

FUTURE PERFECT TENSE SIMPLE

Basic form:
 affirmative: S + will + have + V-ed/V3
e.g. By the time you get home I will have cleaned the house from top to
bottom.
 interrogative: Will + S + have + V-ed/V3?
e.g. Will you have finished reading by 10.00 pm?
 negative: S + will + not + have + V-ed/V3
e.g. The meeting won’t have started by 10.00 am.

We use the future perfect to say that something will be ended,


completed, or achieved by a particular point in the future. It can also be
used to express an assumption on the part of the speaker.
e.g. You won’t have heard the news, of course.

FUTURE PERFECT TENSE CONTINUOUS

Basic form:
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 affirmative: S + will + have + been + V-ing
e.g. On Saturday, we will have been living in this house for a year.
 interrogative: Will + S + have + been + V-ing?
e.g. Will you have been working in this company for 20 years next
week?
 negative: S + will + not + have + been + V-ing
e.g. Next year I won’t have been working here for 10 years, but for 11.

We can use the future perfect continuous to emphasise how long


something has been going on by a particular point in the future.

OTHER WAYS OF EXPRESSING FUTURITY

1. Present Tense Continuous


We use the present continuous:
 to talk about future activities and events that are intended or have
already been arranged.
e.g. She’s making a speech at the conference next week.
To emphasise that we are talking about a definite arrangement, we
prefer the present continuous.
e.g. We’re having a party on Sunday, 12th November. Can you come?
 to talk about personal plans or predictions.
e.g. I’m really exhausted. I’m just staying in to watch TV tonight.

2. Going to
We use S + to be + going to + V:
 to talk about future activities and events that are intended or have
already been arranged.
e.g. We’re going to do some climbing in the Pyrenees.
When we talk about an intention to do something in the future,
although no definite arrangement has been made, we prefer going to
rather than the present continuous.
e.g. Before I go to China next year, I’m going to learn some Cantonese.
 to talk about permanent future situations.
e.g. People are going to live longer in the future.
 to make or report predictions about activities or events over
which we have no control, whose cause is present or evident.
e.g. I think it’s going to rain soon.
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e.g. Look at that tree! It’s going to fall

3. Present Tense Simple


We use the present simple to talk about future events that are part
of some official arrangement such as a timetable or programme.
e.g. Their plane arrives at 5.00 am.
The next meeting of the committee is on November 5th.

4. Be to
S + to be to + V is used to talk about formal or official
arrangements, formal instructions, and to give orders. It is particularly
common in news reports to talk about future events. We only use S + to
be to + V to talk about things that can be controlled by people.
e.g. Children are not to be left unsupervised in the museum.
The European Parliament is to introduce a new law on safety at
work.
If humans are to survive as a species, we must address
environmental issues now.

5. Be about to, be on the point of


S + to be about to + V and S + to be on the point of + V-ing refer to the
next moment.
e.g. I think the play is about to start now.
Mary is on the point of resigning.

6. Be due to
S + to be due to + V refers to scheduled times.
e.g. The play is due to start in five minutes.

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INDIRECT/REPORTED SPEECH

Indirect/reported speech is the exact meaning of what someone


said, but not the exact words. We do not use quotation marks. The word
‘that’ can either be used or omitted after the introductory verb (say, tell,
suggest, etc.).
When direct speech is converted into indirect speech, various
changes take place in the form of the clause. Theses changes concern
the tenses used, the pronouns, and the adverbial modifiers of place and
time, because a person’s words are often reported in a different time
context, from the point of view of a different person, and in a different
place.
The verb tenses remain the same in reported speech when the
introductory verb is in the present, future or present perfect.
e.g. Tom says, ‘I’m handsome.’ Tom says (that) he is handsome.
 Compare: say/tell
 Say + no personal object
e.g. Tom said he would read The Civil Code for the exam.
 Say + to + personal object
e.g. Tom said to us he would read The Civil Code for the exam.
 Tell + personal object
e.g. Tom told us he would read The Civil Code for the exam.
When the reported utterance is introduced by a verb in the past
tense, the rules are the following:

Direct speech Indirect speech


Present tense simple Past tense simple
Present tense continuous Past tense continuous
Present perfect tense simple Past perfect tense simple
Present perfect tense Past perfect tense continuous
continuous
Past tense simple Past perfect tense simple
Past tense continuous Past perfect tense continuous
Future tense simple Future-in-the-past simple
Future tense continuous Future-in-the-past continuous
Future perfect tense simple Future perfect-in-the-past
103
Future perfect tense Future perfect-in-the-past
continuous continuous
Imperative Long Infinitive (To -
infinitive)
Modals: May Might
Can Could
Must Must/had to
Shall Should
Will Would
Yes/no questions S + V-ed + if + S + V
Wh-questions S + V-ed + wh-word + V
 Reported questions are usually introduced with the verbs ask,
inquire, wonder or the expression want to know.
 In reported questions, the verb is in the affirmative. The question
mark and words/expressions such as please, well, oh, etc. are omitted.
The verb tenses change as in statements.
 No change of the present tense occurs in the reported clause
when the statement contains a natural law, a universal assertion, an
eternal truth.
e.g. ‘Water freezes at 0Celsius.’
The teacher told them that water freezes at 0Celsius.
Adverbs or adverbial phrases of time and place also change to
suggest remoteness from ‘here’ and ‘now’.

Direct speech Indirect speech


Here There
In this place In that place
Now Then
Today (on) that day
This … That …
Yesterday (on) the previous day /(on) the day before
Last … the previous …/ the … before
… ago … before
Tomorrow The following day/The next day
Next … The following …/The next …/The … after

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ADJECTIVES

Adjectives describe nouns, go before nouns and have the same form
in the singular and plural.
e.g. a huge tree/ huge trees
Adjectives can also be used alone after the verbs ‘be’, ‘look’,
‘smell’, ‘sound’, ‘feel’, ‘taste’, ‘seem’, ‘appear’, ‘become’, ‘get’, ‘stay’,
etc.
e.g. He is handsome. It smells good.
There are two kinds of adjectives:
o opinion adjectives (interesting, fantastic)which show what a
person thinks of somebody or something, and
o fact adjectives (old, fat, short) which give us factual
information about size, age, colour, origin, material, etc.
There are simple and compound adjectives. Compound adjectives
may be formed with:
 present participles: long-lasting journey
 past participles: broken-down car
 cardinal numbers + nouns: a three-day trip
NOT: a three days trip
 well, badly + past participle: well-informed people

ORDER OF ADJECTIVES

Opinion adjectives go before fact adjectives.


e.g. a beautiful Italian girl
When there are two or more fact adjectives in a sentence, they
usually go in the following order:
(determiner) – opinion – size – age – shape – colour – origin – material
– used for/be about – (noun)
e.g. (a) small, old, square, Chinese wooden (table)
We do not usually have a long list of adjectives before a single noun. A
noun is usually described by one, two or three adjectives at the most.

105
ADVERBS
Adverbs usually describe verbs, adjectives, other adverbs or
sentences. An adverb can be one word (quickly) or a phrase (in the
afternoon).
Adverbs can describe manner (how), place (where), time
(when), frequency (how often), degree (to what extent), etc.

FORMATION OF ADVERBS

We usually form an adverb by adding “-ly” to the adjective.


e.g. extreme-extremely
BUT: elderly, cowardly, friendly, likely, deadly, lively, silly, ugly,
lovely, etc are adjectives. We use the words way/manner to form their
adverbs.
e.g. Bob had been very friendly to me.
He greeted us in a friendly way/manner.
 Spelling rules:
1. Adjectives ending in -le drop the e and take -y.
e.g. simple-simply
2. Adjectives ending in consonant + y change the y into “i” and add
“ly”.
e.g. lucky-luckily
3. Adjectives ending in -l take -ly.
e.g. actual-actually
 The adverbs loud(ly), cheap(ly), quick(ly), tight(ly), fair(ly),
and slow(ly) are often used without -ly.
e.g. She speaks loud.
 Some adverbs have the same form as adjectives such as: hard,
fast, free, high, low, deep, early, late, long, near, straight, right, wrong.
Also hourly, daily, weekly, monthly and yearly.
e.g. He runs fast, (adverb)/He is a fast runner.(adjective)
 The adverbs below have two forms, each with a different
meaning:
The dog buried the bones deep underground. (= a long way down)
vs. He is deeply depressed. (= very)
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The club members can use the sauna free. (= without payment)
vs. He was strolling in the corridors of the embassy freely. (= without
limit or restriction)
She put the flowers too high for the dog to reach. (= at/to a high level)
vs. The film is highly recommended. (= very much)
She returned home late in the evening. (= not early) vs. Jill has made
great progress lately. (= recently)
Which of these three shirts do you like most? (= superlative of much)
vs. She was trying to explain to him that she's mostly interested in
psychology. (= mainly)
My house is near work. (= close) vs. The accused nearly collapsed
when he heard the verdict (= almost)
She speaks Italian pretty well. (= rather) vs. Mum was prettily dressed
for that party. (= in a pretty way)
He has been studying hard for the exams. (= with a lot of effort) vs.
Hardly anyone did well in the exams. (= almost no one)
 Note: hardly has a negative meaning and is often used with:
any, anything, anyone anywhere and ever.

ORDER OF ADVERBS

Adverbs usually go after verbs but before adjectives, other adverbs


and participles.
e.g. He walks slowly. (manner) The film was absolutely amusing.
(degree)
Sometimes adverbs go before the main verb. The adverbs of
frequency (often, always, etc.)
When there are two or more adverbs in the same sentence, they
usually come in the following order: manner - place - time
e.g. The little child was playing happily in the garden all day
yesterday.
If there is a verb of movement (go, come, leave, etc) in the sentence,
then the adverbs come in the following order: place - manner - time
e.g. John went to school on foot this morning.
Adverbs of place and time can go at the end of the sentence.
e.g. I’ll go shopping tomorrow. (time)

COMPARISONS

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AS / LIKE
We use like:
• with nouns/pronouns/-ing form to express similarity.
She treats him like a servant. (He isn't a servant.)
• with feel, look, smell, taste. She looks like her sister.
We use as to say what somebody or something really is.
e.g. He works as a waiter.

DEGREES OF COMPARISON

Adjectives have the following degrees of comparison:


1. Positive
e.g. tall, interesting, good
2. Comparative - of superiority
e.g. taller (see A.), more interesting (see B.), better (see C.)
- of equality
e.g. as tall as, as interesting as, as good as
- of inferiority
e.g. not so tall as, not so good as, not so interesting as/less interesting
than
3. Superlative -absolute
e.g. very / extremely etc. tall, very / extremely etc. good, very /
extremely etc. interesting
- relative
e.g. the tallest (see A.), the most interesting (see B.), the best (see C.)
A. The synthetical comparison is used for mono/disyllabic
adjectives

comparative of superiority: short adj. + -er


relative superlative: the + short adj. + -est
e.g. close - closer – closest
fine - finer - the finest
dry - drier - the driest
big - bigger - the biggest
• with two-syllable adjectives ending in -ly, -y, -w, we also add -er /
-est.
e.g. narrow-narrower-narrowest
108
• with adverbs that have the same form as their adjectives, we
add -er/-est.
e.g. hard - harder – hardest

B. The analytical comparison is used for plurisyllabic adjectives

comparative of superiority; more + long adj.


relative superlative: the most + long adj.
e. g. rapid - more rapid - the most rapid
intelligent - more intelligent - most intelligent
• two-syllable or compound adverbs take more/most.
e.g. slowly - more slowly - most slowly

 clever, common, cruel, friendly, gentle, pleasant, polite,


shallow, simple, stupid, quiet can form their comparatives and
superlatives either with -er/-est or with more/most

 Spelling rules:
1. for one syllable adjectives ending in a short stressed vowel + a
consonant, we double the consonant.
e.g. big-bigger-biggest
2. for adjectives ending in a consonant + y, we change the -y into
an -i.
e.g. tiny-tinier-tiniest
3. final mute “e” is dropped before –er, -est.
e.g. nice – nicer – nicest
We use the comparative to compare one person or thing with
another.
We use the superlative to compare one person or thing with more
than one person or thing of the same group.
We often use than after a comparative and the before a superlative.
e.g. He is older than me. He's the oldest person in the room.
C. The irregular comparison

Positive Comparative of Superlative Relative


superiority
Good better the best

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Bad/ill worse the worst
Old Older - Elder* - the oldest
- the eldest*
Far farther - further* - the farthest
- the furthest
Little less - lesser* - the least
– the last
Much More the most
/Many
Fore Former* - the foremost*
- the first*
Late - later - latter* - the latest*
- the last*
Near Nearer - the nearest*
- the next*

* elder and the eldest are used only attributively, in family


relationships
e.g. my elder sister
* further = additional, more
e.g. further information
*lesser = smaller, not so important
e.g. the writer's lesser works
*former = of an earlier period, the first of two
e.g. in former times
*the foremost = chief
e.g. the foremost poet of his period
*the first = initial
e.g. the first woman to come
*latter = the second of two
e.g. He has met Tom and Bob: the former is a teacher, and the latter is
a lawyer.
*the latest = the most recent
e.g. the latest fashion
*the last = final
e.g. Eminescu's last poem
*the nearest is used for distance
e.g. Could you tell me the way to the nearest hotel?
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*the next refers to order
e.g. the next bus is at six.

Types of comparisons:

• as + adjective + as (to show that two people or things are similar in


some way. In negative sentences we use not as/so ... as.
e.g. This book is as expensive as that one.
• less + adjective + than (expresses the difference between two
people or things) The opposite is more ... than.
e.g. Ann is less rich than her sister.
• the least + adjective + of/in (compares one person or thing to two
or more people or things in the same group) The opposite is the
most... of/in.
e.g. She is the least hard working person in the company.
• much/a lot/far/a little/a bit/slightly + comparative
(expresses the degree of difference between two people or
things)
e.g. Tony is slightly younger than Bob.
• comparative and comparative (to show that something is increasing
or decreasing)
e.g. It’s getting colder and colder.
• the + comparative ..., the + comparative (shows that two things
change together, or that one thing depends on another thing).
e.g. The more you talk, the less they listen.
• by far + the + superlative (emphasises the difference between one
person or thing and two or more people or things in the same
group).
e.g. Last summer was by far the best summer I ever had.
• the + comparative when two things or persons are compared; in
Romanian we use the superlative.
e.g. Lola is the prettier of the two sisters. = Lola este cea mai drăguţă
dintre cele două surori.

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MODAL VERBS

Modal verbs express the attitude of the speaker in what concerns


the process of communication in progress, in development, the action
being considered possible, probable, obligatory, desirable, etc. They are
defective, that is they lack certain verbal forms. Accordingly, they
cannot be used at all the moods and tenses, most of them having only
indicative, present and/or past tense. That is why they have equivalents
to express the other moods and tenses (can = to be able to; may = to be
allowed to/permitted to; must = to have to). They do not receive the “-
s” termination at the third person singular. They form the interrogative
and negative without the aid of auxiliary verbs, in the style of auxiliary
verbs. They are followed by the short infinitive of the notional verbs to
form the present and by “have + V3/ V-ed” to talk about the past.

Modal Meanings Examples


verbs
CAN Ability Tom can speak
Japanese.
Possibility The temperature can
sometimes
reach 35°C in July.
Can I take another
Permission (infl.
biscuit?
& confident)
Can I help you with
Offers
your bags?
Request (infl. Can you turn your
& confident) radio down, please?
COULD I could ski when I was a
Abilities in the past
kid.
Possibility (l.in the 1. The electricity
past = "sometimes”; supply is very good
now. Years ago there
could be cuts that lasted
2.in the for hours.
future) 2.It could rain later.
Permission (more Could I take another
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formal and often piece of cake?
more polite)
Requests (more Could you tell me the
formal time of the next train,
and often more please?
polite)
Could I help you with
Offers
your bags?
MAY (to ask, give or May I use the phone?
refuse) permission You may come in.
(very formal, or No, you may not.
ironic! )
The news may come as
Possibility a shock to many of the
people present.
“Those men can't be
cleaning windows, can
Speculations they? It’s night!”
“They may be robbers, I
suppose.”
You'd better leave for
Warnings the airport early - there
may be a lot of traffic.
MIGHT Might I ask you a
(to ask) question?
permission (formal, I was wondering if I
very polite) might have the
afternoon off work.
She might think the
Possibility meeting is on another
day.
“Look at that girl. I
thought she was
laughing, but she can't
Speculations be, can she?” “She
might be crying because
she's afraid of those
men.”
Warnings Don't drink water from
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the taps - you might get
ill.
MUST I must stay in bed, I've
Necessity
got flu.
You must stop at a red
Obligation
light.
Drawing You must be our new
conclusions neighbour!
SHOULD Obligation: 1. 1. I should leave early
giving advice or tomorrow, if I were you.
making a
recommendation; 2.You should visit your
2. talking about a parents more often.
responsibility or
duty
“Have we got any
Probability string?” “There should
be some in the
kitchen drawer.”
Should I phone for a taxi
Offers
for you?
Obligation: 1. 1. This soup is too
OUGHT giving advice or salty! You ought to send
TO making a it back.
recommendation;
2. talking about a 2. You ought to visit
responsibility or your parents more often.
duty

“Have we got any


string?” “There ought to
Probability
be some in the kitchen
drawer.”
WILL Will you help me carry
Request (very
this now - I'm dropping
direct)
it!
Willingness to do I'll give you another
something opportunity to get the
correct answer.
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“The phone's ringing.”
Assumption “That'll be for me.”
SHALL Intentionality (the (I say) you shall finish
strong will of your studies!
another person than
the subject imposed
on the subject)
Shall I phone for a taxi
Offers
for you?
The Court of Justice
Regulations shall have jurisdiction in
any dispute between
Member States.
WOULD Request (more Would you help me
polite) carry this, please?

Annoying habit, Ben would get lost,


typical of a person wouldn't he! It's typical!

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III. EXERCISES

I. Choose the correct choice:


1. Charles Stevens ...... for Best Motors in the Sales Department.
a. Work
b. Works
c. is working
d. is worked

2. How long … … your car?


a. are you having b. have you had
c. you are having d. have you have

3. How … … to your office?


a. do I get b. did I got
c. I get d. I do get

4. I … … him for years.


a. have known b. know
c. have been knowing d. have knew

5. I … … in California when I met my friend Joe


a. worked b. was working
c. working d. have worked

6. It is one of … … cities in England.


a. most polluted
b. the most polluted
c. polluted

7. She… … alone for ten years, since her parents’ death .


a. has been living
b. has been leaving
c. had been leaving

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8. I … you now.
a. am believing b. believe
c. believing d. am believe

9. My name … Yvonne Brioche and I … from Montreal.


a. are/come b. is/comes
c. is/come d. are/comes

10. … the five-day week?


a. Who did invent b. Did who invent
c. Did who invented d. Who invented

11. They …a 20% discount for the duration of the trade fair.
a. are offering b. offer
c. offers d. is offering

12. I haven’t seen Tom … my last birthday.


a. for b. science
c. since d. ago

13. John Logie Baird … the first public demonstration of


television in 1926.
a. give b. gave
c. has given d. given

14. I … his hotel accommodation by tomorrow.


a. will have arranged b. will arranged
c. have arranged d. will arrange

15. Next year, the company … five years old.


a. will be b. will have
c. will d. be

16. Judge Thomson ……… today as judge Beanies has been


taken ill.
a. presides b. will preside
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c. is presiding d. presided

17. Tom ................... a teacher for more than a year now.


a. was b. had been
c. has been d. is

18. … you …… a conclusion?


a. Have ... reached
b. Has ... reached
c. Did .... reached

19. I haven’t seen Tom … my last birthday.


a. for b. science
c. since d. ago

20. …… English?
a. Have you ever learnt
b. Did you learnt
c. You learnt
d. You have been learning

21. He … in the countryside for seven years. He still lives there.


a. has lived b. lived
c. have lived d. left

22. Female Hollywood actors are now doing … than men.


a. good b. best
c. better d. gooder

23. This is … chair in the room.


a. the most comfortable
b. the most comfortablest
c. the comfortablest
d. the comfortable

24. It was … thing I have ever done.


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a. the more difficult
b. the difficultest
c. the most difficultest
d. the most difficult

25. Britt swims … than Leila.


a. more faster b. faster
c. more fast d. fastest

26. Could I have … more coffee?


a. any b. some
c. not d. a few

27. I’d like … bread. Is there … left?


a. any; some b. some; any
c. any; any d. dome; something
28. Granny has been knitting since you …
a. have left b. had left
c. were leaving d. left

29. … people know the truth.


a. this b. these
c. one d. that

30. The stranger asked me whether I … where the post-office


was.
a. know b. have known
c. am knowing d. knew

31. A young porter helped me to carry my …


a. luggages b. luggage
c. pieces of luggages d. piece of luggages

32. How often … to the theatre?


a. you go b. you are going
c. are you going d. do you go
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33. You are my … friend and that’s why I can rely on you.
a. oldest b. elder
c. eldest d. elderly

34. Jimmy will be surprised when he … you here.


a. will see b. sees
c. see d. shall see

35. She came … because her car is being serviced.


a. walking b. by foot
c. on feet d. on foot

II. Complete the sentences with the Present Perfect Simple or


the Past Tense Simple form of the verbs in brackets:

1. I ………………… to get the pains three weeks


ago. (start)
2. I ………………… the pains for three weeks now.
(have)
3. My children …………… a two months’ holiday
last summer. (have)
4. I ……………… him when we were both working in
Rome. (know)
5. David …………… to go to London two years ago. (want)
6. Last week Tom ……………… work at 4.00 p.m. (leave)
7. Yesterday he ………. (come) into my office and ………
(ask) for my help. I ……… (tell) him that I would help
him but he ………. (not seem) to trust my words.
8. When I ……….. (graduate) I was very determined to
pursue a career in economics. But since then I …………..
(reconsider) my options and I …………… (decide) to turn
politician.
9. Bruce … … … in San Francesco, where he attended the
High School of Performing Arts. (grow up)
10. Louie …………… My Restaurant since 1995. (own)
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11. Jamie …………… four cookbooks so far. (wrote)
12. I ………… two articles about this trend and I can now
understand her decision. (read)

III. Correct the errors in the following sentences.

1. Mary Thompson has an advice for you.


2. We need informations from you.
3. The news are bad, I’m afraid.
4. Diana makes many moneys.
5. She bought beautiful furnitures.
6. What mean of transport do you prefer?
7. The three childs built three small snowmans.
8. The travel broadens the mind.
9. How much sandwiches did you make?
10. Tom always puts many salts on his food.
11. They use many chocolate and spicy sauces in Mexican
cooking.
12. Help us with our researches by filling in two
questionnaires.
13. His baggages were lost.

IV. Choose the correct reported speech version of each


statement.

1. Susan reassured me, ‘I can come tonight.’


a. Susan told me I could come that night.
b. Susan told me she could come that night.
c. Susan told me she could come tomorrow evening.
2. She said, ‘I really wish I had bought that new car.’
a. She told me she really wished she bought that new car.
b. She told me she really had wished she had bought that new
car.
c. She told me she really wished she had bought that new car.
3. Cheryl asked her, ‘How long have you lived here?’
a. Cheryl asked her how long she has lived there.
121
b. Cheryl asked her how long she lived there.
c. Cheryl asked her how long she had lived there.
4. She said, ‘I’ve worked here since I left my last job.’
a. She told me that she worked there since she had left her
last job.
b. She told me that she had worked there since she had left
her last job.
c. She told me that she had worked there since she left her
last job.
5. She asked me, ‘When are we going to leave?’
a. She asked me when she was going to leave.
b. She asked me when we were going to leave.
c. She asked me when we are going to leave.
6. My friend said, ‘I will have finished my homework by the
time you arrive.’
a. My friend told me he would have finished his homework
by the time I arrived.
b. My friend told me he would have finished his homework
by the time he arrived.
c. My friend told me he would had finished his homework
by the time I arrived.

122
IV. Information about the exam =
colocviu
Colocviul la Limba engleza 1 este oral si se sustine in presesiune,
adica in ultimele doua saptamani de cursuri/seminarii.

Fiecare student extrage un bilet.


Pe fiecare bilet se afla doua subiecte:
- primul subiect verifica cunostintele de gramatica elementara,
cerand sa se treaca la interogativ si apoi la negativ patru propozitii
la timpuri diferite, diateza activa;

- al doilea subiect verifica capacitatea de exprimare corecta si


fluenta in limba engleza pe un subiect dat.

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Exemplu:

1. Turn the following sentences into interrogative and then into


negative.
4 points (0.5p x correct sentence)
a. They are telling a story to us.
b. They have called for the doctor
c. Yesterday the manager called Tom in his office.
d. I’ll read a newspaper tomorrow.

2. Talk about your family.


5 points

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Exemple de intrebari pentru subiectul 2 de pe biletul de
examen:
 Introduce yourself
 Describe your best friend
 What did you appreciate at your teachers? Why?
 What useful things do you expect to learn in the next three years?
 Why is it important for you to learn English?
 Qualities developed by school
 The best job / profession
 Talk about positive aspects and shortcomings of teleworking
 Don’ts of a Cv
 Dos of a Cv
 Would you like to live in a palace? Why (not)?
 Describe your house
 Talk about environmental problems
 Talk about your favourite means of transport
 Travel in the future
 All public transport should be free
 Talk about the best / the worst holiday accommodation
 Money doesn’t bring happiness
 Money can buy everything, even happiness
 Shopping therapy – an effective cure or just a joke?
 Shopping online or going shopping?
 Talk about mass media
 Talk about the modern means of communication

125