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EFFECTIVENESS OF MAHATMA GANDHI NATIONAL RURAL EMPLOYMENT GUARANTEE SCHEME (MGNREGS) WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO POLPULLY PANCHAYATH

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PROJECT REPORT

BY

GREESHMA B

REG.NO.CHANMCM004

Under the supervision and guidance of

ASWATHY P.J

(Assistant Professor of commerce)

and guidance of ASWATHY P.J (Assistant Professor of commerce) DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GOVERNMENT COLLEGE, CHITTUR 1

DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

GOVERNMENT COLLEGE, CHITTUR

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

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Adequate employment generation is essential to generate income for the poor in the

economy. In India, since 1980; government has introduced many employment generation programmes to eradicate poverty and unemployment. All these programmes were inadequate and piecemeal in their approach. Therefore, the programmes failed to make any major change on the problems of poverty and unemployment.

With globalization and liberation of the economy, it is always feared that the incidence of poverty and unemployment will increase substantially. In this context, the implementation of National Rural Employment Guarantee Act by UPA government is the most appropriate course of action. This flagship programme of UPA government is revolutionary in its promise of inclusive growth and Right to work. The act was passed in September 2005 and was implemented in 200 most backward districts of the country since February 2006.

NREGA is renamed as Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act Programme (MGNREGA) on 2nd October 2009. The Act gives legal guarantee for at least 100 days of employment in a financial year to a rural household. The act mandates that anyone who applies at the Panchayath for a job card must be given within 15 days. Job card is a license and a pan card of the wage worker’s family with a record of days of work and wages received during the year.

The process of obtaining employment involves that the application for work the date and receipt are crucial to trigger the demand for work. The receipt is also the basic record for claiming unemployment allowance if the work is not provided within 15 days. The MGNREGA of 2005 covered 200 districts is the Phase I district and in 2006-2007 this was extended to cover 130 additional districts known as the Phase II districts.

The Task Force constituted by the Ministry of Rural Development under the Chairmanship of Adviser (RD), Planning Commission, selected three variables for computing the index of backwardness, namely (i) agricultural productivity per worker, (ii) agricultural wage rate and (iii) SC/ST population. In Phase I, MGNREGA was introduced in 200 of the most backward districts of the country, identified by the Planning Commission in consultation with the

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Ministry of Rural Development and the respective State Governments. In Phase II, during 2007-08, MGNREGA was implemented in another 130 districts. In Phase III, the Programme was extended to the remaining 285 rural districts of India from April 1, 2008. The MGNREGA contains guidelines on preferred works to be taken up. Out of the nine types of works prescribed by the MGNREGA, seven relate to water conservation and management. However, the states are free to evolve their own specific preferred works but within the framework of broad guidelines.

This Act is the most significant legislation of our times in many ways. For the first time, the power elite recognize the people’s right to fight endemic hunger and poverty with dignity, accepting that their labour will be the foundation for infrastructure and economic growth. The rural communities have been given not just a development programme but a regime of rights. The MGNREGA can give people an opportunity to make the entire system truly transparent and accountable. Properly supported, people’s struggles for basic entitlements can, in turn, become the strongest political initiatives to strengthen our democratic fabric. Independent India has to acknowledge the critical role the MGNREGA has played in providing a measure of inclusive growth. It has given people a right to work to re-establish the dignity of labour, to ensure people’s economic and democratic rights and entitlements, to create labour intensive infrastructure and asset, and to build the human resources base of our country. Thus the Act gives hope to those who had all but lost their hope. It has a clear focus on the poorest of poor. It seeks to reach out to those in need of livelihood security. It gives employment, income, livelihood, and a chance to live a life of self respect and dignity. The government has referred to it as an “Act of the people, by the people and for the people”.

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Table1.1 Milestones of Indian Journey towards MGNREGA (1952- 2009)

Date

Main Provisions of Bills/Acts

1952

Community Development Programme (CDP)

1960-61

Rural Manpower (RMP)

1971-72

Crash Scheme for Rural employment (CRSE)

1972

Pilot Intensive Rural Employment Programme (PIREP)

1973-76

Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labour Scheme (MFAL), Drought-prone Area Programme (DPAP)

1974

Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA)

1975

Twenty –Point Programme (TPP)

1977

Food for Work Programme (FWP) and Antyodaya Programme

1979

Training Rural Youth for Self-Employment (TRYSEM)

1980

The National Rural Employment Programme (NREP), Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP)

1983

Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP), Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA)

1989-94

Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY), Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS), Prime Ministers Rozgar Yojana (PMRY), Nehru Rozgar Yojana (NRY)

1999-2000

The Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY) was merged with JGSY was made a rural infrastructure programme, Swarnajayanthi Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY), Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY), Pradan Manthri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY).

2001

The Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY)

2004

National Food for Work (NFFWP)

7th September 2005

Notification of NREGA

2nd February, 2006

NREGA introduced in 200 districts

2007

NREGA Phase II- Extended to additional 130 Districts.

1st April 2008

NREGA Phase III-Extended to cover all districts of India

2nd October 2009

NREGA renamed as Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA)

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1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The study emphasis on the “Effectiveness of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) with special reference to Polpully Grama Panchayath”. The study shows how this program benefited to poor livings that depend on this wage oriented program.

1.2 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

According to Mahatma Gandhi, our father of nation, “The soul of India is vested in villages” in his famous quoting which clearly specifies the need and importance of social empowerment. Here development program like MGNREGS occupies a significant role in rural development. MGNREGS is considered as the world’s largest massive public investment programme. The aim of the scheme is to enhance the livelihood security of households in rural areas of the country by providing 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work. Some researchers found that MGNREGS is useful to the rural poor. By keeping all these factors in mind, it is felt to conduct a study on the present topic.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1. To identify the level of awareness of MGNREGS programme among beneficiaries.

2. To access the effectiveness of the programme as perceived by its beneficiaries.

1.4 PERIOD OF THE STUDY

The study was conducted for a period of 21 days from 20 th April to 10 th May 2015.

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1.5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

1.5.1 RESEARCH DESIGN

The study is descriptive in nature. Descriptive studies are more than just a collection of data; that involves measurements, classifications, analysis, comparison and interpretation. It tells about what exists at present by determining the nature and degree of existing conditions.

1.5.2 POPULATION OF THE STUDY

The population for the study is the workers of MGNREGS program on 13 Wards of Polpully panchayath. The population, therefore, comprises all the workers who have worked under MGNREGS program on polpully panchayath.

1.5.3 SAMPLING FRAME

For the purpose of the study among 13 Wards under polpully panchayath, only one Ward is selected. Here MGNREGS workers of “Nedumpura” (10 th ward) are selected.

1.5.4 SAMPLING UNITS

Sampling units consists of 100 MGNREGS workers under “Nedumpura” (10 th ward) of polpully panchayath.

1.5.5 SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

Random sampling technique or probability sampling technique is used for collecting samples under the study.

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1.6 SOURCES OF DATA

1.6.1 PRIMARY DATA

Primary data is collected directly from workers of MGNREGS program by using Interview schedule.

1.6.2 SECONDARY DATA

Secondary data is collected from Websites, Newspapers and Publication.

1.7 TOOLS OF DATA ANALYSIS

Data analysis refers to the computation of certain measures along with searching for pattern of relationships that exist among data groups. One – Way ANOVA and MANOVA are used for the analysis of data in this study.

1.7.1 One – Way ANOVA

The One – Way ANOVA is used to determine whether there are any significant differences among the means of three or more independent groups (populations). It is a way to test the equality of three or more means at one time by using variances. Here, it is used to test the variation in the mean scores on the Level of Awareness of MGNREGS program among Beneficiaries on four dimensions based on three independent variables such as Age, Income group, Main occupation.

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1.7.2 MANOVA

The MANOVA (Multivariate Analysis of variance) is a type of Multivariate analysis used to analyse data that involve more than one dependent variable at a time MANOVA allows us to test the hypothesis regarding the effect of one or more independent variables on two or more dependent variables. It may be noted that some variables may not be significantly different among groups when considered individually, but become significant when considered along with other variables. In this study, the MANOVA model is used to test the variation of the mean scores of the responses of the beneficiaries on effectiveness of MGNREGS program based on Age, Income group and Main occupation.

1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

1. The attitude of the workers change from time to time.

2. The workers were not able to provide enough information because of illiteracy.

3. Some of the workers did not answer clearly and they did not feel free.

4. Selected samples are limited hence findings cannot be generalized.

5. Respondents are biased so collected information’s may not be exact or true.

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CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

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CHATHUKULAM AND GIREESAN (2007) in his study on the impact of MGNREGS in 37 Gram Panchayath in two districts – Wayanad and Palakkad – in the state of Kerala point out the active involvement of Local Self Government (LSGs) in programme planning and implementation. Several micro level institutions have been formed at the Panchayath level for the smooth functioning of MGNREGS; but their sustainability has not been ensured. Although the registration of workers and issuance of job cards was accomplished, there have been lapses in providing employment to the registered workers. There is impressive participation of women not only as workers but also as supervisors. Flood control, renovation of traditional water bodies, Micro-irrigation works and water conservation and harvesting are the major areas of intervention in MGNREGS, with lower priority given to rural connectivity. MGNREGS activities are not integrated with other developmental programmes. Although many workers are eligible for unemployment allowances, they were not paid these allowances. According to this study, in spite of the many problems resulting from MGNREGS work being executed during agricultural seasons, this scheme has been largely beneficial for socially and financially backward population Groups.

MATHUR (2007) is of the view that MGNREGA is the first tangible commitment to the poor that they can expect to earn a living wage without loss of dignity and demand this as a right. The large numbers of unlettered households have made the effort to come forward to register; migration has reduced in several villages in Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa and Rajasthan; wages less than the minimum wage were raised in many states; the participation of women increased significantly even in the districts of Rajasthan and eastern UP; unemployment allowances were sought and actually paid in Madhya Pradesh and Orissa; the maintenance of muster rolls has become a feature in several districts. The most remarkable change is that a process for the empowerment of the poor is emerging around MGNREGA with NGOs and activists discovering in it a vehicle for meaningful interventions.

RAO (2007) described the MGNREGS as insurance for poor household. Because if the Grama Panchayath fails to provide jobs within the stipulated time period the job applicants are entitled to receive unemployment allowances. So in either way they are earning money and it has been able to improve the safety nets of the poor and consequently they are being

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included in the mainstream of the society without deprivation. With its legal framework and rights-based approach, MGNREGA provides employment to those who demand it. This is the largest ever public employment program visualized in human history. The successful implementation of MGNREGS can improve the safety nets and eliminating hardcore poor.

DREZE (2008) found that in Jharkhand, one of the worst performing states in MGNREGA,

it was observed that “the transition to a rights- based framework has led to a major decline in

labour exploitation on rural public works. Wages are higher than they used to be, delays in

wage payment are shorter, productivity norms are more reasonable, and complaints of worksite harassment are rare. MGNREGA is a valuable and valued opportunity for the rural poor, and particularly for women, to earn a living wage in a dignified manner”.

JANDU (2008) is of the view that the majority of the women workers under MGNREGA programme said that such employment has brought a significant change in their communities and in their own lives; the MGNREGA wages are higher than the market wages and it has improved their spending capacity. Women are able to use their earnings for household food and consumption needs, healthcare and education of children. More important, earlier they “used to be dependent on their husbands for any expenses”, but now with some cash in their hands, women have greater degree of economic independence and self- confidence, “feel empowered”, as they are also earning members of the family.

MEHROTRA (2008) states that NREGA ensures, on demand, 100 days of employment in a year to a household at a minimum wage. The NREGS is based on the twin principles of universality and self-selection. The Act places enforceable obligation on the state and gives bargaining power to rural laborers. As a legal Right to Work, the NREGS contrasts with previous employment generation schemes in several respects. First and the foremost, it bestows entitlements to workers – in the form of providing work for those who demand within a time frame (15days of applying for work) at a guaranteed wage, which was not the case with earlier public works programmes. Second, the universal nature of the programme eliminates targeting errors. Third, the process of implementation and community involvement (in the form of social audits) is expected to reduce corruption and malpractices which formed

a major weakness in earlier programmes. And finally, the guarantees enshrined in the Act are expected to ensure its implementation a binding responsibility of the government.

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SAINATH (2008) has opined that MGNREGA has brought a big shift in the attitude of the people. It has impacted on the social structure of the villages. We have never seen land owning upper caste groups working in the farms of SC/ST households. A paradigm shift could be observed with the advent of MGNREGA. The land owning class now comes and works in the farms of dalits. People are reported to have said that they will all work together as a group and not on a caste basis. It is a common sight in many of the states that petty shop owners, stone cutters, people of different caste groups and land owners of different types (marginal, small and big) participate and work together under NREGA.

NREGA (2005) mentioned that it is an Act which provides for the enhancement of livelihood security of the households in rural areas of the country by providing at least one hundred days of guaranteed wage employment in every financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do/ unskilled manual work and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. Every person who has done the work given to him under the scheme shall be entitled to receive Wages at the wage rate for each day of work. If authority is failed to provide employment within 15 days of demand , the unemployment allowance payable to, the household of an applicant jointly shall be sanctioned and disbursed by the Programme Officer or such local authority (including the Panchayath at the district, intermediate or village level) as the state government may, by notification, authorize in this behalf. If the Programme Officer is not in a position to disburse the unemployment allowance in time or at all for any reason beyond his control, he shall report the matter to District Programme Coordinator and announce such reasons in a notice to be displayed on his notice board and the notice board of the Gram Panchayath and such other conspicuous places as he may deem necessary.

PANKAJ AND TANKHA (2009) observed that in most of the states there have been very high levels of participation by women in MGNREGS works. Nondiscriminatory wages; assured minimum wages which are more than market wages for women; the dignity that comes with the work since it is seen as working for the government rather than for a landlord or contractor; employment at the doorstep: and certain women-specific facilitation like the Kudumbasree in Kerala, female mate in Rajasthan, SHGs in Andhra Pradesh are seen as factors that contributed to higher participation of women in MGNREGS. However, there are certain factors which inhibit participation women in MGNREGS and these include local social and cultural norms which run against women’s wage work, inadequate worksite facilities like childcare, gender insensitivity of the nature of work, work measurement and

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schedule of rates, and in some cases, exclusion of single women in the definition of ‘household’.

RANIA ANTONOPOULOS (2009) said that a well-designed employment guarantee programme can, under favorable circumstances, promote job creation, gender equality and pro-poor development. The MGNREGA has great potential for increasing the volume of employment among the rural unemployed and underemployed. It provides ample opportunities for creating rural public assets, which has been largely neglected. It helps to enhance the purchasing power of rural households, thereby contributing to poverty alleviation. It also has the capacity to tap the hitherto under- utilized labour of women in developing rural India. By providing equal wages to both men and women, MGNREGA upholds the social position and integrity of women and thus promotes gender equality.

KUMAR, SUNA AND PRATAP (2010) responding to people’s protest about poverty Through introduction of a right based approach for poverty alleviation in the form of provision of rural employment guarantee in the constitutional system of India suggest that the MGNREGA has inaugurated a remarkable process for the empowerment of the poor. The Act is particularly a tool of empowerment for the most vulnerable sections of the village communities as they are also victims of social exclusion and political marginalization. Secondly, it has stimulated mobilization of the poor for livelihood within the legitimate frame work of governance. Thirdly, MGNREGA has made a dent on poverty by both-increasing employment opportunities and raising the wage rate. And fourthly, it has strengthened the process of participatory democracy through economic decentralization and by giving significant roles to the Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs), the rural poor classes, communities and the civil society groups.

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CHAPTER 3 PANCHAYATH PROFILE

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POLPULLY GRAMA PANCHAYATH

Name of the Panchayath

:

Polpully

Name of the District

:

Palakkad

Name of the Thaluk

:

Palakkad

Name of the Block

:

Chittur

Area

: 20.04sq.km

Local body code

:

G091308

No of Wards

:

13

Population

: 16500

Male

:

8029

Female

:

8471

Population Density

:

758

Sex Ratio

:

1055

Literacy Rate

:

84.73%

Literacy Rate (Male)

: 91.04%

Literacy Rate (Female)

: 78.84%

Polpully Grama Panchayath was the first Bujath Panchayath in India. At the time period when Malabar Panchayath was divided into Panayur and Polpully. First President of Panayur Panchayath was Sri. Vellandi and that of Polpully was Illathkalam Sri. Sukumar. Panayur and Polpully merged together and formed Polpully Panchayath in the year 1961. Up to 1-1-1964 Polpully Panchayath was governed by an administrator.

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CHAPTER 4 THEORETICAL FRAME WORK

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4.1 NATIONAL RURAL EMPLOYMENT GUARANTEE ACT, 2005

An Act to provide for the enhancement of livelihood security of the households in rural areas of the country by providing at least one hundred days of guaranteed wage employment in every financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto is called the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005 (NREGA-2005). MGNREGS is described by various names such as ‘flagship programme’, ‘first ever scheme that guarantees wage employment at an unprecedented scale’, ‘mother of all development programme’, ‘demand driven and people centered programme’, ‘boon to rural poor’, life line to the marginalized and landless’, ‘largest employment programme in the history’ etc

4.2 DEFINITION OF TERMS USED IN MGNREGS:

In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires-

• “Adult’ means a person who has completed his eighteenth years of age;

• “Applicant” means the head of a household or any of its other adult members who has applied for employment under the scheme;

• “Block” means a community development area within a district comprising a Group of Grama Panchayath.

• “Central Council” means the Central Employment Guarantee Council constituted.

• “District Programme Coordinator” means an officer of the state government Designated for implementation of the scheme in a district;

• “Household” means the members of a family related to each other by blood, Marriage or adoption and normally residing together and sharing meals or holding a common ration card;

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•“Implementing agency” includes any department of the central government or a state government; a Zila Parishad, panchayath at intermediate level, Grama panchayath or any local authority or government undertaking or nongovernmental organization authorized by the central government or the state government to undertake the implementation of any work taken up under a scheme.

• “Minimum wage” in relation to any area, means the minimum wage fixed by the state government under section 3 of the Minimum Wage Act, 1948 for agricultural laboures as applicable in that area;

• “National Fund” means the National Employment Guarantee Fund (NEGF) established.

• “Notification” means a notification published in the Official Gazette;

• “Preferred work’ means any work which is taken up for implementation on a Priority basis under a scheme;

• “Prescribed” means prescribed by rules made under this Act;

• “Programme Officer” means an officer appointed under sub-section (1) of Section 15 for implementing the scheme;

• “Project” means any work taken up under a scheme for the purpose of providing employment to the applicants;

• “Rural area” means any area in a state except those areas covered by any urban local body or a cantonment board established or constituted under any law for the time being in force;

• “Scheme” means the scheme notified by the state government;

• “State Council” means the State Employment Guarantee Council constituted;

• “Unskilled manual work” means any physical work which any adult person is capable of doing without any skill or special training.

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4.3 OBJECTIVES OF MGNREGS:

The primary objective of the act is to enhance livelihood security in rural areas by providing at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult member volunteer to do unskilled manual work.

The other objectives are following:

1. Directing the colossus amount of wage towards creating productive and durable assets

of irrigation, drought proofing, land and water conservation, horticulture and connectivity to general prosperous livelihood support system.

2. To benefit the community by providing employment, raising agricultural productivity and increasing natural resources base, particularly water. The process envisaged to attain the objectives would result in strengthening the grassroots processes of democracy and infusing transparency and accountability in governance.

3. Strong social safety net for the vulnerable groups especially women, scheduled tribe and scheduled caste by providing a fall-back employment source through the process of right based legislation, when other employment alternatives are scarce or inadequate.

4. Growth engine for sustainable development of an agricultural economy. Through the process of providing employment on works that address causes of chronic poverty such as drought, deforestation and soil erosion, the act seeks to strengthen the natural resources base of rural livelihood and create durable assets in rural areas. Effectively implemented, MGNREGA has the potential to transform the geography of poverty.

5. Empowerment of rural poor through the process of a rights-based law.

6. New ways of doing business, as a model of governance reform anchored on the principle of transparency and grass root democracy. Thus, MGNREGA foster conditions for inclusive growth ranging from basic wage security and recharging rural economy to a transformative empowerment process of democracy.

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7. Effecting greater transparency and accountability in governance.

The ‘right to work’ is a ‘directive principle’ in Indian Constitution which was formalized through the enactment of NREGA (2005). It is seen as a mechanism of income transfer, infrastructure development and promoting rural production and consumption markets – a multifarious strategy indeed. MGNREGA has found priority policy attention in India’s 11th five year plan (2007-12) under a broader objective of ‘Bharat Nirman’ aiming for resurgence in rural areas. Some consider MGNREGA a natural response to non-inclusive growth that occurred during reform process of last two decades. The format of MGNREGA and its nationwide implementation was a result of persistence by civil society and activities which is a common mechanism to influence policy in India. The aim of MGNREGS is to “foster conditions for inclusive growth ranging from basic wage security and recharging rural economy to a transformative empowerment process of democracy.

MGNREGS is unique, being large in size, intended to cover long periods, disburse huge funds and he dynamically responsive to climatic and rainfall conditions and above all open to any adult intending to work for wage often lower than local casual wages. Since self- targeting is inherent to scheme, besides chronic poverty manifest for example in food inadequacy, it also intends to mitigate idiosyncratic risk and shocks faced by households due to being differently-abled or death of earning member. MGNREGS can attract the unemployed or underemployed rural youth; because of immediate cash availability and 100 days of assured work which functions as a short-term relief objective. Indian policy appear confident that MGNREGS can be important normally, even in the absence of price or income shocks and that it can smoothen seasonal fluctuations in labour demand and, therefore, wage rate in rural areas where rainfall patterns and insufficient irrigation preclude year-round crop cultivation. Other objectives include, generation of productive assets, empowering rural women, reducing rural-urban migration, fostering social equity and environmental protection. It may thus be inferred that MGNREGA is just not a welfare initiative. It is a development effort that can take the Indian economy to a new trajectory. It has three distinct goals- protective, preventive and promotive. Protective goal seek to provide relief from deprivation; preventive to avert deprivation; and promotional to improve real income and capabilities.

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It protects the rural poor from vulnerabilities by providing them demand based employment. It prevents risks associated with agricultural investment and forced migration of the rural poor. It brings in buoyancy in rural economy via increased consumption demand. All these pertain to suggest that MGNREGA can Act as a growth engine by expanding rural resource base and integrating the rural economy with the rest.

Thus, what is considered to be crucial is the empowerment of the poor through the provision of a right-based law, which would act as a strong safety net in the lack of alternative employment opportunities for poor people. The other key attributes of this scheme are time bound guarantee, labour-intensive work, decentralized participatory planning, women empowerment, work site facilities and above all, transparency and accountability through the provision of social audits and right to information.

Thus, MGNREGS has four main objectives; to reduce poverty, to encourage sustainable development in the agrarian economy, to promote empowerment and to promote grass root democracy. Some civil society experts even claim that the MGNREGS is truly a historic opportunity for dramatic socio- economic transformation in rural India. The MGNREGS, which promises the largest ever employment programme in human history, has the potential to provide a “big push” in India’s regions of distress. It is a revolutionary, because it is the first right based rural development policy for ever.

4.4 FEATURES OF THE NATIONAL RURAL EMPLOYMENT GUARANTEE SCHEME

1. Adult members of a rural household may apply for employment if they are willing to

do

unskilled manual work.

2. Such a household will have to apply for registration to the local Grama panchayath in writing or orally.

3. The Grama panchayath after due verification will issue a job card to the household as a whole. The job card will bear the photograph of all adult members of household willing to work under MGNREGS. The job card with photograph is free of cost.

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4. A job card holding household may submit a written application for employment to the Grama panchayath stating the time and duration when work is sought. The application for work must be for at least fourteen days of continuous work.

5. The Grama panchayath will issue a dated receipt of the written application for employment against which fifteen day guarantee to provide operates.

6. Employment will be given within 15 days of submitting the application for work or from the date when work is sought by an employment seeker.

7. If employment is not provided within 15 days, a daily unemployment allowance in cash has to be paid. Liability of payment of unemployment allowance is on the states.

8. At least one-third of persons to whom work is allotted have to be women.

9. Wages are to be paid according to minimum wages as prescribed under the Minimum Wages Act 1948 for agricultural labourers in the state, unless the centre notifies a minimum wage rate which in any case shall not be less than Rs.60 per day.

10. Disbursement of wages has to be done on a weekly basis and not beyond a fornight.

11. Panchayath Raj Institution (PRI) has a principal role in planning and implementation.

12. Each district has to prepare a shelf of projects. The shelf of projects has to be prepared on the basis of priority assigned by the Grama sabha. At least 50 per cent of works have to be allotted to Grama panchayath for execution. A ratio of 60:40 between wages and materials has to be maintained. Contractors and use of labour displacing machinery is prohibited.

13. Work should ordinarily be provided within a 5km radius of the village or else extra wages of 10 per cent are payable.

14. Worksite facilities such as crèche, drinking water, shade have to be provided.

15. Social Audit has to be done by the Gram Sabha.

16. Grievance redressal mechanisms have to be put in place for ensuring a responsive implementation process.

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17. All accounts and records relating to the scheme are to be made available to any person desirous of obtaining a copy of such records on demand and after paying a specified fee.

18. The focus of the scheme shall be on the following works in their order of priority:

1.1 Water conservation and water harvesting;

1.2 Drought proofing (including afforestation and tree plantation);

1.3 Irrigation canals including micro and minor irrigation works;

1.4 Provision of irrigation facility to land owned by households belonging to the scheduled Castes and scheduled tribes or to land of beneficiaries of land reforms or that of the beneficiaries under the Indira Awas Yojana of the government of India;

1.5 Renovation of traditional water bodies including desilting of tanks;

1.6 Land development;

1.7 Flood control and protection works including drainage in water logged areas;

1.8 Rural connectivity to provide all-weather access; and

1.9 Any other work which may be notified by the central government in consultation with the state government.

19. Creation of durable assets and strengthening the livelihood resource base of the rural poor shall be an important objective of the scheme;

20. The works taken up under the scheme shall be in rural areas;

21. The state council shall prepare a list of preferred works for different areas based on their ability to create durable assets.

22. The scheme shall be subject to appropriate arrangements as may be laid down by the state government under the rules issued by it for proper maintenance of the public assets created under the scheme.

23. Under no circumstances shall the labourers be paid less than the wage rate.

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24. When wages are directly linked with the quantity of work, the wage shall be paid according to the schedule of rate fixed by the state government for different types of work every year, in consultation with the state council;

25. The schedule of rates of wages for unskilled labourers shall be so fixed that a person working for seven hours would normally earn a wage equal to the wage rate;

26. The cost of material components of projects including the wages of the skilled and semi-skilled workers taken up under the scheme shall not exceed forty per cent of the total project costs.

27. It shall be open to the programme officer and Grama panchayath to direct person who applied for employment under the scheme to do work any type permissible under it.

28. The scheme shall not permit engaging any contractor for implementation of the projects under it;

29. As far as practicable, a task funded under the scheme shall be performed by using manual labour and tools;

30. Every scheme shall contain adequate provision for ensuring transparency and accountability at all level of implementation;

31. Provisions for regular inspection and supervision of works taken up under the scheme shall be made to ensure proper quality of work as well as to ensure that the total wages paid for the completion of the work is commensurate with the quality and quantity of work done;

32. The District Program Coordinator, the Programme Officer and the Grama panchayath implementing the scheme shall prepare annually a report containing the facts and figures and achievements relating to the implementation of the scheme within his or its jurisdiction and a copy of the same shall be made available to the public on demand and on payment of such fee as may be specified in the scheme;

25

33. All accounts and records relating to the scheme shall be made available for public scrutiny and any person desirous of obtaining a copy or relevant extracts there from may be provided such copies or extracts on demand and after paying such fee as may be specified in the scheme;

34. A copy of the muster rolls of each scheme or project under a scheme shall be made available in the offices of the Grama panchayath and the Programme officer for inspection;

35. Any person interested after paying such fee as may be specified in the scheme.

4.5 FUNDING PATTERN OF THE SCHEME:

The programme will be implemented as a centrally sponsored scheme as cost sharing basis between the centre and the administration.

The central government bears the costs on the following items:

1. The entire cost of wages of unskilled manual workers;

2. Seventy five per cent of the cost of material and wages of skilled and semiskilled Workers

3. Administrative expenses as may be determined by the central government, this will include inter alia, the salary and the allowances of the programme officer and his supporting staff and work-site facilities;

4. Expenses of the National Employment Guarantee Council;

The state government bears the costs on the following items;

1. Twenty five per cent of the cost of material and wages of skilled and unskilled workers;

2. Unemployment allowances payable in case the state government cannot provide wage employment on time

3. Administrative expense of the State Employment Guarantee Council

4. Administrative expenses towards salary of the officials at district and state levels appointed under MGNREGS;

26

Government of India will release its share of fund to District Programme Coordinator. Corresponding Administration’s share to the district will be released by the commissioner for Rural Development and Local Self Government to the District Programme Coordinator.

4.6 CONDITIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT AND MINIMUM ENTITLEMENT OF LABOURERS:

1. The adult members of every household who

a) Reside in any rural area; and

b) Are willing to do unskilled manual work,

may submit their names, age and the address of the household to the Grama Panchayath at the village level (hereafter in this schedule referred to as the Grama panchayath) in the jurisdiction of which they reside for registration of their household for issuance of a job card.

2. It shall be the duty of the Grama panchayath to register the household, after making such enquiry as it deems fit and issue a job card containing such details of adult members of the household affixing their photographs, as may be specified by the state government in the scheme.

3. The registration made under paragraph 2 shall be for such period as may be laid in the scheme, but in any case not less than five years, and may be renewed from time to time.

4. Every adult member of a registered household whose name appears in the job card shall be entitled to apply for unskilled manual work under the scheme.

5. All registered persons belonging to shall be entitled to employment in accordance with the scheme made under the provision of this act, for any days as each applicant may request, subject to maximum of one hundred days per household in a given financial year.

27

6.

The Programme Officer shall ensure that every applicant referred to in paragraph 5 shall be provided unskilled, manual work in accordance with the provisions of the

scheme within fifteen days of receipt of an application or from the date he seeks work

in

case of advance application, whichever is later: provided that priority shall be given

to women in such a way that at least one third of the beneficiaries shall be women who have registered and requested for work under this act.

7.

Application for work must be for at least fourteen days of continuous work.

8.

There shall no limit on the number of days of employment for which a person may apply, or on the number of days of employment actually provided to him subject to the aggregate entitlement of the household.

9.

Application for work may be submitted in writing either to the Grama panchayath or

to

the Programme Officer, as may be specified in the scheme.

10.

The Grama Panchayath and Programme Officer, as the case may be, shall be bound to accept valid applications and to issue a dated receipt to the applicant. Group application may also be submitted.

11.

Applicants who are provided with work shall be so intimated in writing, by means of

a

letter sent to him at the address given in the job card and by a public notice

displayed at the office of the panchayath at the district, intermediate or village level.

12.

As far as possible, employment shall be provided within a radius of five kilometer of the village where the applicant resides at the time of applying.

13.

A

new work under the scheme shall be commenced only if

a) At least fifty labourers become available for such work; and

b) The labourers cannot be absorbed in the ongoing work:

The provided that this condition shall not be applicable for new works, as determined by the state government, in hilly areas and in respect of afforestation.

28

14. In case the employment is provided outside such radius, it must be provided within the block, and the labourers shall be paid ten per cent of the wage rate as extra wages to meet additional transportation and living expenses.

15. A period of employment shall ordinarily be at least fourteen days continuously with not more than six days in a week.

16. In all cases where unemployment allowance is paid or due to be paid, the Programme Officer shall inform the District Programme Coordination (DPC) in writing the reasons why it was not possible for him to provide employment or cause to provide employment to the applicants.

17. The DPC shall

why

employment could not be provided in cases where payments of unemployment allowances are involved.

in

his Annual

report to the state council explain as

to

18. Provision shall be made in the scheme for advance applications, that is an application which may be submitted in advance of the date from which employment is sought.

19. Provision shall be made in the scheme for submission of multiple applications by the same person provided that the corresponding periods for which employment is sought do not overlap.

20. The Grama panchayath shall prepare and maintain or cause to be prepared and maintained such registers, vouchers and other documents in such form and in such manner as may be specified in the scheme containing particulars of job cards and passbooks issued, name, age and address of the head of the household and the adult members of the household registered with the Grama panchayath.

21. The Grama panchayath shall send list or lists of the names and addresses of households and their adult members registered with it and supply such other information to the concerned Programme Officer at such periods and in such form as may be specified in the scheme.

29

22. A list of persons who are provided with the work shall be displayed on the notice board of the Grama panchayath and at the office of the Programme Officer and at such other places as the Programme Officer may deem necessary and the list shall be open for inspection by the state government and any person interested.

23. If the Grama panchayath is satisfied at any time that a person has registered with it by furnishing false information, it may direct the Programme Officer to direct his name to be struck off from the register and direct the applicant to return the job card provided that no such action under this paragraph shall be directed unless the applicant has been given an opportunity of being heard in the presence of two independent persons.

24. If any personal injury is caused to any person employed under the scheme by accident arising out of and in the course of his employment, he shall be entitled to free of charge such medical treatment as is admissible under the scheme.

25. Where hospitalization of the injured worker is necessary, the state government shall arrange for such hospitalization including accommodation, treatment, medicines and payment of daily allowance not less than half of the wage rate required to be paid had the injured been engaged in the work.

26. If a person employed under a scheme dies or becomes permanently disabled by accident arising out of and in the course of employment, he shall be paid by the implementing agency an Exgratia payment at the rate of twenty five thousand rupees or such amount as may be notified by the central government and the amount shall be paid to the legal he is of the deceased or the disabled as the case may be.

27. The facilities of safe drinking water, shade for children and periods of rest, first aid box with adequate material for emergency treatment for minor injuries and other health hazards connected with the work being performed shall be provided at the worksite.

30

28. In case the number of children below the age six years accompanying the women’s working at any site is five or more, provisions shall be made to depute one of such women worker to look after such children.

29. The person deputed under paragraph 28 shall be paid wage rate.

30. In case the payment of wages is not made within the period specified under the scheme, the labourers shall be entitled to receive payment of compensation as per the provision of the Payment of Wage Act, 1936.

31. The wage under a scheme may be paid either wholly in cash or in cash and kind provided that at least one fourth of the wage shall be paid in cash only.

32. The state government may prescribe that a portion of wages in cash may be paid to the labourers on a daily basis during the period of employment.

33. If any personal injury is caused by accident to a child accompanying any person who is employed under a scheme such person shall be entitled to free of charge such medical treatment for the child as may be specified in the scheme and in case of death or disablement through an extra payment as may be determined by the state government.

34. In case of every employment under the scheme, there shall be no discrimination solely on the ground of gender and the provision of the Equal Remuneration Act, 1976 (25 of 1976) shall be complied with.

31

4.7 IMPLEMENTING AND MONITORING AUTHORITIES OF THE SCHEME:

4.7.1 CENTRAL EMPLOYMENT GUARANTEE COUNCIL (CEGC):

The central government constitutes a council to be called the Central Employment Guarantee Council to discharge the functions, and perform the duties, assigned to it by or under this Act. The headquarters of the central council is at Delhi. It consists of the following members to be appointed by the central government, namely;- a chairperson, not more than such number of representatives of the central ministries including the Planning Commission not below, not more than such number of representatives of the state government as may be determined by the central government, not more than fifteen non-official members representing Panchayati Raj Institutions, organization of workers and disadvantaged groups, such number of representatives of the states as the central government may, by rules, determine in this behalf, a member secretary not below the rank of joint secretary to the Government of India.

4.7.1.1 FUNCTIONS AND DUTIES OF CENTRAL COUNCIL:

A. The Central Council shall perform and discharge the following functions and duties namely:

1. Establish a central evaluation and monitoring system;

2. Advice the central government on all matters concerning the implementation of this Act;

3. Review the monitoring and redressal mechanism from time to time and recommend improvement required;

4. Promote the widest possible dissemination of information about the schemes made under this Act;

5. Monitoring the implementation of this Act

6. Preparation of annual reports to be laid before Parliament by the central government on the implementation of this Act

7. Any other duty or function as may be assigned to it by the central government.

B. The Central Council shall have the power to undertake evaluation of the various schemes made under this Act and for that purpose collect or cause to be collected statistics pertaining to the rural economy and the implementation of the schemes.

32

4.7.2 STATE EMPLOYMENT GUARANTEE COUNCIL (SEGC):

For the purposes of regular monitoring and reviewing the implementation of this

scheme at the state level, every state government shall constitute a State Council to be known

(name of the state) State Employment Guarantee Council with a chairperson and

such number of official members as may be determined by the state government from Panchayati Raj Institutions, organizations of workers and disadvantaged groups. The terms and conditions subject to which the chairperson and members of the State Council may be appointed and the time, place and procedure of the meetings (including the quorum at such meetings) of the State Council shall be such as may be prescribed by the state government. The State Council shall have the power to undertake an evaluation of the schemes operating in the state and for that purpose to collect or cause to be collected statistics pertaining to the rural economy and the implementation of the scheme and Programmes in the state.

as the …

4.7.2.1 THE DUTIES AND FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE COUNCIL:

1. Advising the state government on all matters concerning the scheme and its implementation in the state;

2. Determining the preferred work;

3. Reviewing the monitoring and redressal mechanism from time to time and recommending improvements;

4. Promoting the widest possible dissemination of information about this Act and the scheme under it;

5. Monitoring the implementation of this Act and the scheme in the state and coordinating such implementation with the central council;

6. Preparing the annual report to be laid before the state legislature by the state government.

7. Any other duty or function as may be assigned to it by the central council or the state government.

33

4.8 PRINCIPAL AUTHORITIES FOR PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SCHEMES:

4.8.1 GRAMA SABHA

The Grama Sabha is the grass root level institution to ensure community participation for implementation of the scheme. The Grama Sabha shall select the works to be taken up under the scheme. It shall monitor, supervise, and undertake the social audit of the implementation of the scheme. The Grama Sabha shall be a forum for sharing information about the scheme so that people may come forth for registration as well as for verification of applicants and for reporting each aspect of the implementation of the scheme.

4.8.2 GRAMA PANCHAYATH:

The Grama Panchayath shall be responsible for identification of the projects in the Grama Panchayath area to be taken up under a scheme as per the recommendations of the Grama Sabha and the Ward Sabha and for executing and supervising such works. A Grama Panchayath may take up any project under a scheme within the area of the Grama Panchayath as may be sanctioned by the Programme Officer. Every Grama Panchayath shall, after considering the recommendations of the Grama Sabha and the Ward Sabha’s, prepare a development plan and maintain a shelf of possible works to be taken up under the scheme as and when demand for work arises. It shall forward its proposals for the development project including the order of priority between different works to the Programme Officer for scrutiny and preliminary approval prior to the commencement of the year in which it is proposed to be executed. The Programme Officer shall allot at least fifty per cent of the works of in terms of its cost under a scheme to be implemented through the Grama Panchayath. The Programme Officer shall supply each Gram Panchayath with the muster rolls for the works sanctioned to be executed by it; and a list of employment opportunities available elsewhere to the residents of the Grama Panchayath. The Grama Panchayath shall allocate employment opportunities among the applicants and ask them to report for work. The works taken up by a Grama Panchayath under a scheme shall meet the required technical standards and measurements. The Panchayath at district, intermediate and village level shall be the principal authorities for planning and implementation of the schemes made under this Act.

34

4.8.2.1 DUTIES OF GRAMA PANCHAYATH

1. Preparation and approval of Annual plan, flowing from the District perspective plan.

2. Preparation of prioritized list of works with likely cost/ estimate.

3. Preparation of calendar of programme for their own work.

4. Identification and categorization of number and nature of employment opportunities.

5. Matching of opportunities with those who demand for labour

6. Receipt of applications for registration.

7. Identification and verification of applications and registration of job seekers.

8. Issue of job card.

9. Intimation to applicant allotting dates of work and worksite.

10. Publication of list of works, calendar of programmes and list of job seekers etc.

11. Execution of 50 per cent works on cost terms.

12. Supervision and monitoring.

13. Disbursement of wages.

14. Maintenance of Records/Muster roll/Household job card/ Individual employment details etc.

15. Payment of unemployment allowances.

4.8.3 BLOCK PANCHAYATH

The Block panchayath will be responsible for planning at the Block level monitoring and supervision of scheme at panchayath level. It has to approve the Block level plan for forwarding it to the District Programme Coordinator. It has also the responsibility of executing 30 per cent of works on cost terms.

4.8.4 DISTRICT PANCHAYATH

The District panchayath will be responsible for approving the District perspective plan under the scheme, monitoring and supervising the Employment Guarantee Scheme at the District. District panchayath will also have also the responsibility of executing 20 percent of works on cost terms.

35

4.8.5 PROGRAMME OFFICER:

At every Panchayath at intermediate level, the state government shall appoint a person who is not below the rank of Block Development Officer with such qualifications and experience as may be determined by the state government as Programme Officer at the Panchayath at intermediate level. The Programme Officer shall assist the Panchayath at intermediate level in discharging its functions under this Act and any scheme made there under. The programme Officer shall be responsible for matching the demand for employment with the employment opportunities arising from projects in the area under his jurisdiction. The Programme Officer shall prepare a plan for the Block under his jurisdiction by consolidating the project proposals prepared by the gram Panchayath and the proposal received from intermediate Panchayath. The Programme Officers shall function under the direction, control and superintendence of the District Programme Coordinator. The state government may, by order, direct that all or any of the functions of a Programme officer shall be discharged by the Grama Panchayath or a local authority.

4.8.5.1 THE FUNCTIONS OF THE PROGRAMME OFFICER:

1. Monitoring of projects taken up by the Grama panchayath and other implementing agencies within the Block.

2. Sanctioning and ensuring payment of unemployment allowances to the eligible households.

3. Ensuring prompt and fair payment of wage to all labourer employed under a programme of the scheme within the Block.

4. Ensuring that regular social audits of the works within the jurisdiction of the Grama panchayath are carried out by the Grama sabha and that prompt action is taken on the objections raised in the social audit.

5. Dealing promptly with all complaints that arise in connection with the implementation of the scheme within the block.

6. Any other work as may be assigned to him by the District Programme Coordinator or the state government.

36

4.8.6 DISTRICT PROGRAMME COORDINATOR:

The Chief Executive Officer of the District Panchayath or the collector of the district or any other district level officer of appropriate rank as the state government may decide shall be designated as the District Programme Coordinator for the implementation of the scheme in the district. He is responsible for the implementation of the scheme in the district in accordance with the provisions of this Act and the rules made there under. The District Programme Coordinator shall prepare in the month of December every year a labour budget for the next financial year containing the details of anticipated demand for unskilled manual work in the district and the plan for engagement of labourers in the works covered under the scheme and submit it to the District panchayath.

4.8.6.1 FUNCTIONS OF THE DISTRICT PROGRAMME COORDINATOR:

1. To assist the District panchayath in discharging its functions under this Act and any scheme made there under;

2. To consolidate the plans prepared by the Blocks and project proposal received from other implementing agencies for inclusion in the shelf of project to be approved by the panchayath at district level;

3. To accord necessary sanction and administrative clearance wherever necessary.

4. To coordinate with the programme officers functioning within his jurisdiction and the implementing agencies to ensure that the applicants are provided employment as per their entitlements under this Act;

5. To review, monitor and supervise the performance of the Program Officers;

6. To conduct periodic inspection of the works in progress; and

7. To redress the grievances of the applicants.

37

4.9 MGNREGS IN KERALA

This scheme could have been welcomed enthusiastically as a boon to Kerala in the background of the realities related to poverty, low work participation of women, unemployment and the concerns over ecology and water resources and agriculture. In Kerala, the program was initiated in February 2006 in the rural areas of two districts- Palakkad and Wayanad. The programme came extended to Kasaragod and Idukki by February 2007 in second phase and to the remaining 10 districts by January 2009 in third phase. This programme came to be known as a Kerala State Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. The Government of Kerala has issued detailed guidelines for implementing MGNREGS. The responsibility has been assigned primarily to Local Self Government. In Kerala there are elected Village Councils (Grama panchayath) for an average population of thirty thousand. The agglomeration of few neighbouring Grama Panchayath (GP) is called a Block Panchayath. For each revenue district, there is an elected District Council (District panchayath). Thus there is a three-tier system of local self governments, each one with specific functions and responsibilities. The implementation of scheme through panchayath in close association with the Kudumbasree system has been one of the defining features of MGNREGS implementation in the state. Kerala has one of the highest unemployment rates in the country. But most of the unemployed are educated. Thus MGNREGS has only limited application in trackling the problem of unemployment among the poor of Kerala. The salient features of the MGNREGS in Kerala are;

1. Implementation of MGNREGS through Grama Panchayath.

2. Communicating the distinctive features of the scheme to the various stakeholders, especially to panchayath leaders.

3. Involvement of Kudumbasree network of poor women in a big way.

4. Focus on total resource management in forest areas, river basins and watershed areas as the state has very little public land.

5. Designing processes and programmes to see that MGNREGS fits into the administrative operating system now existing in Panchayath.

6. Institution of consistent and coherent information and accountability systems and participatory processes to ensure transparency.

7. Aiming of zero corruption in implementing MGNREGS.

38

4.10 IMPLEMENTATION MECHANISM OF MGNREGS IN KERALA:

The Kerala Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (KREGS) introduced in June 2006, even though the scheme was formally inaugurated on 2nd of February, 2002 in Pattambi in Palakkad district. The state government constituted a State Employment Guarantee Council with a chairperson to advise the state government on all matters concerning the scheme and its implementation, determine preferred work, review the monitoring and redressal mechanisms, promote dissemination of information about this Act and scheme and prepare annual report to be laid before the State Legislature. The Rural Development Department is the nodal agency for implementing the Act. The Rural Development Commissioner is the nodal Officer for implementation of MGNREGA at the state level. At the district level, the District Collector is the nodal officer. A District Project Officer with necessary staff is appointed to assist the District Collector. The District Programme Coordinator shall constitute a committee at the District Level with the following members for the smooth implementation of the scheme. District Programme Coordinator as its chairman and Joint Programme Coordinator as its Convener. The other members of committee are Project Officer DRDA, Deputy Director of Panchayath, District Labour Officer, Principal Agriculture Officer, District Soil Conservation Officer, District Mission Coordinator Kudumbashree, Divisional Forest Officers, Lead District Manager, Tribal Development Officer/ P.O ITDP, Assistant Development Commissioner, Assistant Project Officer(SM), and any such other officials decided by the District Programme Coordinator.

At the Block Panchayath level, a Block Programme Officer in the rank of Block Panchayath Secretary has been appointed to coordinate the scheme at the three levels of Panchayath and its implementation. At the gram Panchayath level, an overseer/Assistant Engineer and an Accountant-cum-computer operator are appointed to assist the Gram Panchayath and its Secretary. The Programme will be implemented through the Panchayathi Raj Institutions (PRI’s) namely Grama Panchayath, Block Panchayath and District Panchayath in the ratio 50:30:20. The Gram Sabha is the statutorily mandated institutional mechanism for community participation. The Act authorizes the Gram Sabha to recommend works to be taken up under the scheme, to monitor and supervise these works and to conduct social audits of the implementation. Pratap Singh (2009),Grama Sabha has to play a very crucial role in implementing MGNREGS, especially in three important stages in the process of MGNREGS

39

viz., i) preparation of shelf of projects; ii) appraisal of shelf of projects; and iii) conducting of social audit. These activities are very essential for the effective implementation of MGNREGS, which necessarily warrant convening the meeting of the Grama Sabha. There are instances where Grama Sabha meeting were not convened in certain areas of the district in certain states.

The Gram Panchayath is responsible for all other works related to planning and implementation. The Block Panchayath is responsible for planning at the block level, and for monitoring and supervision. District Panchayath is responsible for finalizing the district plans for MGNREGA, which is comprehensive plan of action for the scheme for the district, and its monitoring and supervision. As per the MGNREGS, a perspective plan has to be made and should be discussed and approved with modifications suggested by Gram Sabha at the Gram, Block and district Panchayath level. The annual plan is worked out from this perspective plan. The demand for work, the nature and time of work and preference is decided by those who are likely to seek employment. A number of micro level organizations are involved in the formulation and implementation of MGNREGA programme at the Panchayath level which are given a central role in the planning and implementation of MGNREGA and are the sole agencies responsible for implementation of local development projects under the scheme in Kerala. The Panchayath Governing Council, which has been strengthened by the decentralized planning introduced in Kerala since 1996 has a pivotal role to play in the smooth functioning of MGNREGA. It is the Grama Panchayath that takes a leading role in publicizing the novel programme among people. At the Panchayath level, MGNREGS was given publicity by means of processions, distribution of pamphlets, awareness classes and Grama Sabhas. Kudumbashree is a women’s organization working under a state level poverty alleviation programme. It reaches to all households in the Panchayath through Neighbour Hood Groups (NHGs). In each ward the NHGs are grouped in to an Area Development Society (ADS). At the Panchayath level the Kudumbashree activities are managed by the Community Development Society (CDS), elected from among the ADS. Involvement of Kudumbashree is one of the most important aspects that make the programme in Kerala unique. Planning starts from NHG and it moves up to the Panchayath governing body. The process of implementation begins from Panchayath and ADS becomes the lowest tier to mobilize workers and supervise the work at which they are entrusted with the role of supervision, distribution of implements, marking of attendance in NMR, etc.

40

CHAPTER 5 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

41

Table 5.1 Sample Profile

     

Cumulative

 

Categories

Frequency

frequency

 

Lessthan/=37

23

23

38

to 45

32

55

Age

46

to 55

25

80

Greaterthan/=56

20

100

Income group

APL

60

60

BPL

40

100

 

SC/ST

23

23

Community

OBC

57

80

OTHERS

20

100

 

Agriculture Labour

48

48

Main occupation

Non Agriculture Labour

10

58

Own farming

27

85

 

Livestock farming

15

100

Source: Primary Data

Table 5.1 exhibits the profile of the sample respondents (beneficiaries) selected for the study.

The majority of the respondents (57 per cent) belong to the age group of 38 to 55. Majority of

the respondents belongs to the income group of APL (60 per cent).Majority of the

respondents are belongs to the community of OBC (57 percent).Majority of the respondents

belongs to the occupation of agriculture labour (48 per cent).

42

5.1

Level of Awareness of MGNREGS program among Beneficiaries

5.1.1

One- Way ANOVA on Level of Awareness of Beneficiaries based on Age

The levels of Awareness of MGNREGS program among Beneficiaries are

expressed on four different dimensions they are work features, Worksite facilities, Wages,

Work rules. The Beneficiaries have expressed their Awareness level on all these Dimensions

using 5-point scale. With a view to verifying whether there is any difference in these

expressed opinion among the Beneficiaries in the different Age group, analysis of variance-

the one way ANOVA is done and the results are presented below along with the hypothesis.

Table 5.2 Descriptive statistics

   

Work

Worksite

   
 

Age

N

features

facilities

Wages

Work rules

     

Mean

Lessthan/=37

23

4.22

4.22

3.98

3.94

38

to 45

32

4.34

4.11

4.05

4.23

46

to 55

25

4.44

4.20

4.31

4.32

Greaterthan/=56

20

4.00

3.50

4.06

3.97

Source: Primary Data

The hypotheses can be stated as follows:

H0:

There is no variation in the mean scores obtained for the variables related to the

Level of Awareness of MGNREGS program among Beneficiaries based on Age.

H1:

There is variation in the mean scores obtained for the variables related to the

Level of Awareness of MGNREGS program among Beneficiaries based on Age.

43

Table 5.3 ANOVA Table

   

Sum of

df

Mean

F

Sig.

Squares

Square

 

Between

2.394

3

.798

3.631

0.016**

Groups

Work features

Within Groups

21.100

96

.220

   

Total

23.494

99

     
 

Between

7.007

3

2.336

8.863

0.000**

Worksite

Groups

facilities

Within Groups

25.300

96

.264

   

Total

32.307

99

     
 

Between

1.537

3

.512

1.282

0.285

Groups

Wages

Within Groups

38.350

96

.399

   

Total

39.887

99

     
 

Between

2.562

3

.854

3.586

0.017**

Groups

Work rules

Within Groups

22.861

96

.238

   

Total

25.422

99

     

Source: Primary Data **Significant at 5 per cent level of significance

The result of the One way ANOVA for the variables “Work features, Worksite facilities,

Work rules” based on Age gives F values of 3.631, 8.863 and 3.586 respectively, which are

significant at 5 per cent level (p=0.016,0.000,0.017<0.05).Hence, the null hypothesis is

rejected. This implies that there is a significant difference in the mean scores obtained on the

level of awareness on Work features based on Age of respondents the Age group between 46

to 55 have higher mean (4.44), on level of awareness on worksite facilities the age group

lessthan/=37 have higher mean (4.22) and on level of awareness on work rules the Age group

between 46 to 55 have higher mean (4.32). In the case of Wages based on four categories of

Age, the corresponding F value of 1.282 is found to be not significant at 5 per cent level

(p=0.285>0.05).Hence, the null hypothesis is not rejected. This implies that there is no

significant difference in the mean scores obtained for Wages based on four categories of Age.

To conclude, while the Awareness of Beneficiaries differ significantly as to Work features,

Worksite facilities, Work rules based on Age, their Awareness level is found to be similar in

the case of Wages.

44

5.1.2 One-Way ANOVA on Level of Awareness of Beneficiaries based on Income group

The levels of Awareness of MGNREGS program among Beneficiaries are expressed on four

different dimensions they are Work features, Worksite facilities, Wages, Work rules. The

Beneficiaries have expressed their Awareness level on all these Dimensions using 5-point

scale. With a view to verifying whether there is any difference in these expressed opinion

among the Beneficiaries in the different Income group, analysis of variance-the one way

ANOVA is done and the results are presented below along with the hypothesis.

Table 5.4 Descriptive statistics

Income

 

Work

Worksite

   

group

N

features

facilities

Wages

Work rule

     

Mean

 

APL

60

4.27

4.06

4.02

4.16

BPL

10

4.27

3.76

4.23

4.10

Source: primary Data

The hypothesis can be stated as follows:

H0:

There is no variation in the mean scores obtained for the variables related to the Level

of Awareness of MGNREGS program among Beneficiaries based on Income group.

H1:

There is variation in the mean scores obtained for the variables related to the Level of

Awareness of MGNREGS program among Beneficiaries based on Income group.

45

Table 5.5 ANOVA Table

   

Sum of

df

Mean

F

Sig.

Squares

Square

 

Between Groups

.000

1

.000

.002

0.967

Work features

Within Groups

23.494

98

.240

   

Total

23.494

99

     
 

Between Groups

2.200

1

2.200

7.162

0.009**

Worksite facilities

Within Groups

30.106

98

.307

   

Total

32.307

99

     
 

Between Groups

1.105

1

1.105

2.793

0.098

Wages

Within Groups

38.782

98

.396

   

Total

39.887

99

     
 

Between Groups

.076

1

.076

.295

0.588

Work rules

Within Groups

25.346

98

.259

   

Total

25.422

99

     

Source: Primary Data **Significant at 5 per cent level of significance

The result of the One way ANOVA for the variable “ Worksite facilities” based on the two

categories of Income group gives F value of 7.162 which is significant at 5 per cent level of

significance (p=0.009<0.05). Hence, the null hypothesis is rejected. This implies that there is

significant difference in the mean scores obtained on the level of awareness on worksite

facilities based on Income group of respondents. The higher mean for APL (4.06) in

comparison to BPL (3.76) implies that the level of awareness on worksite facilities is higher

among respondents belong to APL category. In the case of other variables as Work features,

Wages and Work rules based on the two categories of Income group, the corresponding F

value of .002, 2.793, .295 are found to be not significant at 5 per cent level (p=0.967, 0.098,

0.588>0.05).Hence, the null hypothesis is not rejected .This implies that there is no

significant difference in the mean scores obtained on level of awareness as to Work features,

Wages, Work rules based on two categories of Income group. To conclude Level of

Awareness of Beneficiaries differ significantly as to Worksite facilities based on Income

group, their Awareness Level is found to be similar in the case of other variables like Work

features, Wages, Work rules.

46

5.1.3 One- way ANOVA on Level of Awareness of Beneficiaries based on Main occupation

The levels of Awareness of MGNREGS program among Beneficiaries are

expressed on four different dimensions they are Work features, Worksite facilities, Wages,

Work rules. The Beneficiaries have expressed their Awareness level on all these Dimensions

using 5-point scale. With a view to verifying whether there is any difference in these

expressed opinion among the Beneficiaries in the different Main occupation, analysis of

variance-the one way ANOVA is done and the results are presented below along with the

hypothesis.

Table 5.6 Descriptive statistics

   

Work

Worksite

   

Main occupation

N

features

facilities

Wages

Work rule

     

Mean

 

Agriculture labour

48

4.48

3.97

4.41

4.33

Non Agriculture

         

labour

10

4.10

3.67

3.78

3.87

Own farming

27

4.02

3.94

3.66

3.92

Livestock farming

15

4.16

4.02

4.13

4.09

Source: Primary Data

The hypothesis can be stated as follows:

H0:

There is no variation in the mean scores obtained for the variables related to the Level

of Awareness of MGNREGS program among Beneficiaries based on Main occupation.

H1:

There is variation in the mean scores obtained for the variables related to the Level of

Awareness of MGNREGS program among Beneficiaries based on Main occupation.

47

Table 5.7 ANOVA Table

   

Sum of

df

Mean

F

Sig.

Squares

Square

 

Between

4.293

3

1.431

7.154

0.000**

Groups

Work features

Within Groups

19.201

96

.200

   

Total

23.494

99

     
 

Between

.898

3

.299

.915

0.437

Groups

Worksite facilities

Within Groups

31.408

96

.327

   

Total

32.307

99

     
 

Between

11.018

3

3.673

12.212

0.000**

Groups

Wages

Within Groups

28.869

96

.301

   

Total

39.887

99

     
 

Between

3.756

3

1.252

5.547

0.001**

Groups

Work rules

Within Groups

21.667

96

.226

   

Total

25.422

99

     

Source: Primary Data **Significant at 5 per cent level of significance

The result of the One way ANOVA for the variables “Work features, Wages, Work rules”

based on Main occupation gives F values of 7.154, 12.212, 5.547 respectively, which are

significant at 5 per cent level (p=0.000, 0.000, 0.001<0.05). Hence, the null hypothesis is

rejected. This implies that there is significant difference in the mean scores obtained on the

level of awareness on Work features, wages and work rule based on main occupation of

respondents. The higher mean is for Agriculture labour as to work features, wage and work

rules (4.48, 4.41 and 4.33) implies that the level of awareness on three dimensions is higher

among respondents belonging to the said groups. In the case of Worksite facilities based on

main occupation, the corresponding F value of .915 is found to be not significant at 5 per

cent level (p=0.437>0.05). Hence, the null hypothesis is not rejected. This implies that there

is no difference in the mean score obtained for Worksite facilities based on main occupation.

To conclude, while the Awareness Level of Beneficiaries differ significantly as to Work

features, Wages, Work rules based on Main occupation, their Awareness level is found to be

similar in the case of Worksite facilities.

48

5.2 Effectiveness of MGNREGS Program as Perceived by its Beneficiaries

The Effectiveness of MGNREGS program as perceived by its Beneficiaries on four dimensions based on Age, Income group and Main occupation. To explain the possible variations in the mean scores of these four dimensions based on Age, Income group and Main occupation under study, a MANOVA is proposed to be used. The effectiveness is accessed from four dimensions.

MANOVA is used here to test the following Hypotheses:

H0:

There is no significant variation in the mean scores for the set of variables on

effectiveness of MGNREGS program as perceived by its Beneficiaries based

on Age, Income group and Main occupation.

H1:

There is significant variation in the mean scores for the set of variables on

effectiveness of MGNREGS program as perceived by its Beneficiaries based

on Age, Income group and Main occupation.

The output of MANOVA is presented in Multivariate Test Table, Table of between – subject’s effects of variables and Estimated Marginal means Table.

49

Table 5.2.1 MANOVA for Analyzing Variance in Effectiveness of MGNREGS Program as Perceived by its Beneficiaries based on Age, Income group and Main occupation

Table 5.8 Multivariate Tests

 

Multivariate Tests

 

Effect

Value

F

Hypothesis df

Error df

Sig.

 

Pillai's Trace

.473

4.264

12.000

273.000

0.000**

Wilks' Lambda

.561

4.804

12.000

235.763

0.000**

Age

Hotelling's Trace

.724

5.286

12.000

263.000

0.000**

Roy's Largest Root

.630

14.338

b

4.000

91.000

0.000**

 

Pillai's Trace

.137

3.517

a

4.000

89.000

0.010**

Income

Wilks' Lambda

.863

3.517

a

4.000

89.000

0.010**

group

Hotelling's Trace

.158

3.517

a

4.000

89.000

0.010**

Roy's Largest Root

.158

3.517

a

4.000

89.000

0.010**

 

Pillai's Trace

.413

3.629

12.000

273.000

0.000**

Main

Wilks' Lambda

.629

3.762

12.000

235.763

0.000**

occupation

Hotelling's Trace

.525

3.836

12.000

263.000

0.000**

Roy's Largest Root

.365

8.293

b

4.000

91.000

0.000**

Source: Primary Data **significant at 5 per cent level of significance

50

Table 5.9 Tests of Between-Subjects Effects

   

Type I Sum of Squares

 

Mean

   

Source

Dependent Variable

df

Square

F

Sig.

 

Economic aspect

4.768

3

1.589

4.872

0.003**

Social aspect

4.721

3

1.574

4.418

0.006**

Age

Work related aspect

2.009

3

.670

2.457

0.068

Authority

3.550

3

1.183

3.347

0.022**

related aspect

 

Economic aspect

.649

1

.649

1.990

0.162

Income

Social aspect

.398

1

.398

1.117

0.293

group

Work related aspect

.906

1

.906

3.323

0.072

Authority related aspect

.558

1

.558

1.578

0.212

 

Economic aspect

5.935

3

1.978

6.065

0.001**

Main

Social aspect

6.700

3

2.233

6.270

0.001**

occupation

Work related aspect

5.875

3

1.958

7.185

0.000**

Authority related aspect

9.249

3

3.083

8.720

0.000**

Source: Primary Data **significant at 5 per cent level of significance

Table 5.10 Estimated Marginal Mean

 

Grand Mean

 
     

95% Confidence Interval

Dependent Variable

Mean

Std. Error

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

Economic aspect

3.913

.074

3.766

4.060

Social aspect

3.903

.078

3.749

4.057

Work related aspect

3.334

.068

3.199

3.469

Authority related aspect

3.914

.077

3.761

4.068

Source: Primary data

51

Table 5.11 Age

 

Age

       

95% Confidence Interval

Dependent Variable

 

Age

Mean

Std. Error

Lower

 
 

Bound

Upper Bound

 

Lessthan/=37

3.707

.136

3.437

3.977

38

to 45

3.940

.144

3.654

4.226

Economic aspect

46

to 55

4.238

.142

3.956

4.519

Greaterthan/=56

3.767

.156

3.457

4.078

 

Lessthan/=37

3.683

.142

3.401

3.965

38

to 45

3.907

.150

3.608

4.205

Social aspect

46

to 55

4.209

.148

3.915

4.503

Greaterthan/=56

3.812

.163

3.488

4.136

 

Lessthan/=37

3.197

.124

2.950

3.444

Work related

38

to 45

3.330

.132

3.069

3.591

aspect

46

to 55

3.580

.130

3.323

3.837

Greaterthan/=56

3.229

.143

2.945

3.513

 

Lessthan/=37

3.737

.142

3.456

4.018

Authority

38

to 45

3.965

.150

3.667

4.262

related aspect

46

to 55

4.187

.148

3.894

4.480

Greaterthan/=56

3.769

.163

3.446

4.092

Source: Primary Data

52

Table 5.12 Income group

 

Income group

 
 

Income

   

95% Confidence Interval

Dependent Variable

group

Mean

Std. Error

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

 

APL

3.957

.094

3.770

4.144

Economic aspect

BPL

3.869

.131

3.609

4.129

 

APL

3.980

.098

3.785

4.175

Social aspect

BPL

3.825

.137

3.553

4.097

Work related

APL

3.345

.086

3.174

3.515

aspect

BPL

3.323

.120

3.086

3.561

Authority related

APL

3.992

.098

3.798

4.187

aspect

BPL

3.836

.136

3.565

4.107

Source: Primary Data

53

Table 5.13 Main Occupations

 

Main occupations

 
       

95% Confidence

Interval

Dependent Variable

Main occupation

Mean

Std. Error

Lower

Upper

Bound

Bound

 

Agriculture labour

4.267

.085

4.097

4.436

Non agriculture labour

3.750

.242

3.269

4.230

Economic aspect

Own farming

3.643

.119

3.406

3.880

Livestock farming

3.993

.159

3.677

4.309

 

Agriculture labour

4.252

.089

4.075

4.429

Non agriculture labour

3.742

.253

3.239

4.244

Social aspect

Own farming

3.582

.125

3.335

3.829

Livestock farming

4.035

.166

3.705

4.365

 

Agriculture labour

3.640

.078

3.485

3.795

Non agriculture labour

3.289

.221

2.850

3.729

Work related aspect

Own farming

3.008

.109

2.792

3.224

Livestock farming

3.399

.145

3.110

3.688

 

Agriculture labour

4.330

.089

4.154

4.506

Authority related

Non agriculture labour

3.800

.252

3.299

4.300

aspect

Own farming

3.542

.124

3.296

3.789

Livestock farming

3.985

.166

3.656

4.314

Source: Primary data

54

The estimated marginal means and MANOVA Tables 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 5.12 and 5.13 indicate that the mean scores of the four variables on effectiveness of MGNREGS program perceived by Beneficiaries, taken together vary over the Age, Income group and Main occupation. The statistical significance of the variation of the means confirms this. Moreover, the MANOVA characterized by powerful pillai’s trace test is significant at 5 percent level of significance (value of F 4.264 with P=0.000<0.05). But when the four variables based on Age and Main occupation are taken independently except Income group, variation can also be found statistically in the test of between- subject effects (P<0.05). As per Grand mean, the authority related aspect (3.914) and economic aspect (3.913) having higher mean scores. Considering Age, the mean score of beneficiaries’ perception towards the effectiveness of MGNREGS program belonging to the Age group of 46 to 55 are high among the three variables selected being 4.238, 4.209 and 4.18).Similarly, the analysis based on Main occupation of Beneficiaries with their perception towards effectiveness of MGNREGS, the beneficiaries among Agriculture labour are having higher mean compared to other groups being 4.267, 4.252, 3.640 and 4.330. Besides, pillai’s trace test is also significant at 5 per cent level of significance which indicates the means score variation is statistically significant at 5 per cent level of significance (F value 3.629 with P= 0.000<0.05). While considering all the four factors as a whole, the factors such as Economic aspect, Social aspect, Work related aspect, Authority related aspect are found to play great role in beneficiaries perception towards the effectiveness of MGNREGS program as their mean values are 3.913, 3.903, 3.334 and 3.914 respectively.

55

CHAPTER 6

FINDINGS, RECOMMENTATION AND CONCLUSION

56

6.1 FINDINGS

6.1.1 SAMPLE PROFILE OF BENEFICIARIES

The study is based on female married respondents having their own house. Majority (57 per cent) of the sample respondents belong to the age group of 38 to 55. Considering the respondents as to their Income group, 60 per cent of them belong to APL category in addition Majority (57 per cent) of the Beneficiaries belongs to the community of OBC. The Main occupation wise classification shows that 48 per cent belongs to agriculture labourers. It is also found that 10 per cent of the respondents were having knowledge on MGNREGS program from their own Grama panchayath Offices.

6.1.2 LEVEL OF AWARENESS OF MGNREGS PROGRAM AMONG

BENEFICIARIES

1. Considering the four dimensions on level of awareness of MGNREGS program based on Age, the statistical variation in the mean scores of the responses of the selected beneficiaries in all the four dimensions are tested with One-way ANOVA and the value of F of three dimensions such as “Work features, Worksite facilities and Work rules” are found statistically significant at 5 per cent level of significance (value of P<0.05 in these cases).In case of Work features and Work rules, level of awareness of MGNREGS program among beneficiaries are found to be high on Age group range from 46 to 55 and in case of Worksite facilities the level of awareness, it is high on Age group lessthan/=37.

57

2. Considering the four dimensions on level of awareness of MGNREGS program based on Income group. The statistical variation in the mean scores of the responses of the selected beneficiaries about the Income group in all four dimensions is tested with One-way ANOVA and the value of F of one dimension such as Worksite facilities is found statistically significant at 5 per cent level of significance (value of P<0.05 in these case).In the case of Worksite facilities the level of awareness of MGNREGS program among beneficiaries based on Income group of respondents, APL category have high level of awareness than BPL category.

3. Considering the four dimensions on level of awareness of MGNREGS program based on Main occupation, the statistical variation in the mean scores of the responses of the selected beneficiaries about the Main occupation in all four dimensions is tested with One-way ANOVA and the value of F of three dimensions such as Work features, Wages and Work rules are statistically significant at 5 per cent level of significance (value of P<0.05 in these cases). In the case of Work features, Wages and Work rules, the level of awareness of MGNREGS program among beneficiaries based on Main occupation of respondents, Agriculture labour have high level of awareness than others.

58

6.1.3 EFFECTIVENESS OF MGNREGS PROGRAM AS PERCEIVED BY ITS

BENEFICIARIES

By analyzing the effectiveness of MGNREGS program as perceived by its beneficiaries on four dimensions based on Age, Income group and Main occupation, it is observed from the output of MANOVA model after taking all the aspects on the effectiveness of MGNREGS program, only two aspects such as Authority related aspect and Economic aspect is more effective (Grand 3.914 and 3.913). But Age wise consideration, the beneficiaries’ perception towards effectiveness of MGNREGS program belonging to the Age group of 48 to 55 is high in three dimensions. Considering the Main occupation of beneficiaries, the perceptions towards effectiveness of MGNREGS program among Agriculture labour are found to be high in all the four dimensions. This is validated by observing the powerful pillai’s Trace in the MANOVA model and it is statistically significant F value with P<0.05.

59

6.2 RECOMMENDATION

1. The study recommends that the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme be continued. MGNREGS is a valuable and valued opportunity for the rural poor and particularly for women to earn a living wage in a dignified manner. The MGNREGS has great potential for increasing the volume of employment among the rural unemployed and underemployed.

2. It is also recommend that the work under MGNREGS be expanded.

3. Awareness campaign for participants regarding the main objectives and intents of the MGNREGS scheme should be organized at Grama panchayath level.

4. The study recommends to improving the basic amenities in the working place.

5. Social Audit is one of the most effective tools in rectifying and minimizing some of the errors, bottlenecks and hindrances. So due care has to be taken in social audit to include all beneficiaries.

6. Awareness regarding the Grievance redressal mechanism available under this scheme should be provided to the beneficiaries.

60

CONCLUSION

The study is an overall attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of MGNREGS in polpully panchayath. The study reveals that there are number of factors like Economic aspect, Social aspect, Work related aspect, Authority related aspects that may affect the effectiveness of MGNREGS. Up to certain extent, implementation of MGNREGS is effective in polpully panchayath. The level awareness of MGNREGS program among beneficiaries based on four factors such as Work features, Worksite facilities, Wages and Work rules are satisfactory to some extent.

61

BIBLIOGRAPHY

www.Google search.com

www.Wikipedia.com

www.nrega.nic.in

62

APPENDIX

63

INTERVIEW SCHEDULE

EFFECTIVENESS OF MAHATMA GANDHI NATIONAL RURAL EMPLOYMENT GUARANTEE SCHEME (MGNREGS) WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO POLPULLY PANCHAYATH

A.

PERSONAL INFORMATION OF BENEFICIARY

1.

Age

: ………………years

 

2.

Gender

: Male

Female

Female

Female

3.

Marital status

: Married

: Married Unmarried

Unmarried

3. Marital status : Married Unmarried

4.

Income group

: APL

BPL

BPL

BPL

5.

Community

: SC/ST

OBC

OBC

OBC

OTHERS

6.

Main occupation

: Agriculture labour

6. Main occupation : Agriculture labour
 

Non Agriculture labour

  Non Agriculture labour

Own farming

Own farming

Small shop

Small shop

Livestock farming

Livestock farming

Tailoring

Tailoring

7.

Type of House

: Own House

: Own House Rented

Rented

: Own House Rented

B.

MGNREGS DETAILS

 

8.

From where did you come to know about MGNREGS

MGNREGS DETAILS   8. From where did you come to know about MGNREGS Grama panchayath Media

Grama panchayath

MGNREGS DETAILS   8. From where did you come to know about MGNREGS Grama panchayath Media

Media

MGNREGS DETAILS   8. From where did you come to know about MGNREGS Grama panchayath Media

Poster

NeighboursB. MGNREGS DETAILS   8. From where did you come to know about MGNREGS Grama panchayath

64

MGNREGS DETAILS   8. From where did you come to know about MGNREGS Grama panchayath Media

9.

Level of Awareness of MGNREGS program among Beneficiaries

 

Please put a tick mark on the appropriate answers

Very high = 5 High = 4 Average = 3 Poor = 2 Very poor = 1

9.1

WORK FEATURES

5

4

3

2

1

9.1.1

Registration process

         

9.1.2

Issue of Job card

         

9.1.3

Selection of work

         

9.1.4

Execution of work

         

9.1.5

Nature of work

         

9.1.6

Time duration of work

         

9.2

WORKSITE FACILITIES

5

4

3

2

1

9.2.1

Safe Drinking water

         

9.2.2

First Aid

         

9.2.3

Shelter

         

9.3

WAGES

5

4

3

2

1