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By-pass Protein & Fat for

Ruminant Production

Pankaj Kumar Singh


Ph.D Scholar (Animal Nutrition)
Id. No. 45797
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Outline of Presentation
• Importance and Metabolism of dietary protein
and fat in ruminants' diet

• Necessity of rumen bypass protein and fat

• Methods of production of bypass fat and protein

• Supplementation of bypass protein and fat

• Impact of bypass protein and fat on livestock


production
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Feed Factor & Animal Production
• Balanced diet Genetic potential

• 70% of total production cost

• Protein & Energy ~ Costly

• Strategic feeding management ~ Bypass nutrients

• Sustainable Dairy Production


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Protected Nutrients
• Bypass Protein

• Bypass Fat

• Chelated
Minerals
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Feed
Additives

Fat Bypass Protein


Supplement

Minerals and Vitamins

Grains Rumen Degradable


Byproducts Protein

High Quality Forages

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Types of digestive systems
• Ruminant Monogastric
• Multi- • Simple stomach
compartment
stomach.

Hind gut
fermentor

 Simple stomach, but very


large and complex large
intestine.

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RUMEN

Dietary
Protein

SMALL
INTESTINE

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Ruminants~ Microbial protein synthesis
Essential amino acids synthesized

Microbial protein is not sufficient during:


Rapid growth &

High milk production~ Methionine

Additional exogenous amino acid supply to the


duodenum (example, by feeding by-pass protein)
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Dietary protein
Rumen microbes
Microbial Protein

 Inefficient for rapid growth & High milk production

Provide source of protein that escapes rumen fermentation

“BYPASS PROTEIN”
Rumen Undegradable Protein
Rumen Protected Protein
Rumen Escape Protein 9
 Escape digestion in rumen

 Passes intact to the lower digestive tract

 Digested and absorbed in lower GIT

 Provides dietary protein and amino acid directly


to the animal.

 Higher quality

 Improve Performance of Livestock

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Method of Protein Protection
 Oesophageal groove closure
 Post Ruminal Infusion
 Heat Treatment
 Formaldehyde treatment
 Protection of Amino acids
 Use of Amino Acid Analogues
 Use of encapsulated amino acid 11
Method of Protein Protection
I. Esophageal Groove Closure
 Extension of the oesophagus from cardia to reticulo -omasal orifice

 Oesophagus groove closure~ Conditional reflex

 Stimulated by act of sucking or drinking

 Can occur in adult animals

 Use of copper sulphate


 Liquid to pass directly through esophageal groove into the abomasum

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Method of Protein Protection
II. Post ruminal infusion:
Protein or amino acids directly in duodenum or abomasum

Post ruminal infusion of casein or S-containing amino acids

Casein (as a source of protein) infused in abomasum


Milk yield 20 kg

Casein (g/day) Increase in milk yield (%)

200 18
400 25
600 29
(Whitelaw et. al., 1985) 13
Method of Protein Protection
III. Heat treatment:
Dry heating at more than 100°C at various exposure time

150°C for 2 hrs ~GNC (Senger, 1998)


100°C for 30 Sec ~ Soyabean (Walli and Sirohi, 2004)
* Traditional Boiling of crushed maize & wheat
Protein is protected

Inactivation of enzymes and inhibiting factors


Improvement of the nutritive value of the feeds

Improvement in the animal performance.

Drawback:
Excessive heat ~ Mailard reaction 14
Method of Protein Protection
IV. Binding with tannin:

Tannin naturally occuring phenolic compound

Two types: Hydrolysable & Condensed Tannin

Tannin- protein complex~ not degraded in the rumen

Degraded in small intestine

Hydrolysable tannin used @ 2-4%

Sorghum ~ natural protection


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Method of Protein Protection
V. Formaldehyde treatment
• Formaldehyde @ 1.0–1.2 g per 100 g of cake protein is
sprayed on cake in a closed chamber

• Sealed in plastic bags for 4 days

• Formalin gets adsorbed on the cake particles

• Reversible and pH dependent protection of proteins


against proteolytic enzymes

• In the acidic pH (abomasum), bonds are loosened

• Proteins ~ free for digestion 16


Protect essential amino acids ~ available for tissue
protein synthesis

Formaldehyde is degraded to CO2and H2O in the liver

Milk safe for human consumption


As no trace of formalin detected in milk

Check the growth of moulds~ less aflatoxins storage

Reduces glucosinolate of mustard cake.

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Parameters Untreated Treated
MOC MOC
Buffalo Calves
Average daily body weight gain (g) 386.00 600.00
Average DM intake (Kg/day) 3.28 3.59
DM intake (kg/kg gain) 8.68 5.93
Cost of feeding per kg live wt gain (Rs.) 31.32 22.42
Lactating buffalo
Milk Yield (kg /day) 5.98 6.65
Fat yield (kg/d) 383.63 452.00
SNF yield (kg/d) 553.7 616.20

(Chatterjee and Walli, 2003) 18


HIGH BYPASS PROTEIN SOURCES

 High bypass protein.


 High in essential amino acids
 High in Vitamins-B.

Low availability
High price
Excess oil ~ rancidity.
Inadequate drying may allow molding
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High in available lysine

High in methionine

High cost of drying

Expensive source of bypass protein

Palatability problems
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High amounts of phosphorus and fat

Limitations

The value of protein in meat meal depends on

Amount of heat applied in drying

Amount of bone and hair contamination.


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High protein
 Low lysine and methionine
High fibre
Cheaper locally

High protein
 Low lysine & methionine
High fibre
Cheaper locally
Laxative nature.
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Soybean seed meal Sunflower seed meal

Rape seed (Canola) seed meal


Safflower seed meal
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Feed RUP (%) Feed RUP (%)
Blood meal 80 Soybean hulls 42
Fish meal 70 Berseem 37
Bajra 68 Wheat grain 36
Soybeans, roasted 65 Linseed meal 35
Maize (grain) 65 Cotton seed meal 35
Wet brewers grain 64 Soybean meal 35
Rice straw 63 Cowpea 32
Meat & bone meal 55 Alfa-Alfa hay 30
Corn gluten meal 55 Groundnut meal 30
Brewer’s dried 53 Corn silage 30
Para grass 52 Rapeseed meal 28
Sorghum 52 Barley 27
Subabul 51 DORB 25
Cottonseed hulls 50 Sunflower meal 24
Rice bran 49 Oat grain 20
Wheat straw 45 Urea 0 24
When to Feed Rumen bypass protein
More beneficial when the animal's requirement for
protein is not met through microbial protein

 In early lactation period of high yielders (15 kg/day)

 In rapidly growing (1 kg/day) calves

 Animals thriving on poor quality roughages

 Stressed animals

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Specification for Bypass Protein Feed
CHARACTERISTICS %, DM basis
Moisture ,% by mass , Max. 10
CP(N×6.25),% by mass , Min. 30
EE, % by mass, Min. 3.5
CF,% by mass, Max. 8.0
AIA,% by mass, Max. 2.5
UDP,% by mass, Min. 20
RDP,% by mass, Max. 9
Source: NDDB,Anand
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Reduces dietary amino acid loss as ammonia and urea
Conserve energy through less urea synthesis in rumen
Increases availability of amino acids supply
Efficient protein synthesis
Increases growth rate by 25-30% (Chatterjee & Walli, 2003)
Early age at first calving
Increases milk yield about 10% (Walli and Sirohi, 2004)
Improve reproductive efficiency
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Rumen Protected Fat

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USE OF DIETARY FAT IN DAIRY ANIMALS
 High density energy source (2.25 X carbohydrate)
 Prevent negative energy balance during early lactation
 Helpful in “Energy challenged” phase

Poor productivity and reproductive performance


 Prevent Acidosis and Laminitis
 Incorporation of fatty acid into milk fat
 Lowering heat production
 Prevents dustiness of feed
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Role of fat in controlling acidosis
Reduce acidosis - formulation of balanced
rations
Excess Dietary Carbohydrate Dietary fats

rumen
Acidotic

Ideal
rumen

Starch bacteria Fibre bacteria

Fatty acid profile is a key factor determining the nutritional value of a


fat
Rumen-active oil

Fish oil, vegetable oil,


high-oil ingredients

• Kills rumen bacteria


• Reduces fibre digestion
• Produces trans fatty acids – milk fat
LIMITATION OF HIGH FAT IN FEEDS?
Avg. dairy animal can digest 5-7% of fat in diet (Palmquist, 1992)
Fat in Dairy Ration should be 3% fat maximum 6-7% DM (NRC, 2001)

Excess Dietary (rumen active) Fat:


 Lower interstinal absorption of fat at high intake
 Depress dry matter intake
 Decrease fiber digestion:
Coating of fibrous portion of diet with lipids
Modification in cellulose degrading bacteria
Toxic to cellulolytic bacteria
Reduction in availability of essential minerals
Formation of complexes with mineral- FA complex 32
RUMEN BYPASS FAT
 High M.P.

 Insoluble at rumen temp.

 No harmful effect on rumen fermentation

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TYPES OF RUMEN PROTECTED FAT
Rumen
Protected Fat

Conventional Stable Rumen


Fat Fat

Hydrogenated Calcium Salt of


Fat or Tallow Fatty Acid

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Methods of Fat Protection
1.Natural Dietary Rumen Protected Fat:
Oils seed ~ Natural protection due to hard outer
seed cover (eg. Cottonseed and full fat soya)

2. Hydrogination of fat

3. Formaldehyde treatment of oil seeds

4. Calcium salt of long chain fatty acids

5. Fusion Method
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Methods of Fat Protection
2. Crystalline/ Prilled Fatty acids (eg.Tallow):

 Made from saturated fat or hydrogenated fatty acids

 Due to high melting point, solid at room to rumen temp.


(39 ºC) and melts at above 50 ºC

 Remain inert in rumen

 Digestible in small intestine

Drawback:
Less digestible~ high proportion of saturated fatty acids
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Methods of Fat Protection
3. Formaldehyde treatment of oil seeds:
 Crushed oilseeds are treated with foamaldehyde
(1.2 g
per 100 g protein) in plastic bags or silo for a week

 Internal FA content of oilseeds is protected from


Lipolysis
Biohydrogination

•Drawback:
Inconsistent result due to physical breakdown of
the treated oil seeds during mastication by the
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animals
Methods of Fat Protection
4. Fusion Method:
 Fatty acids heated with Ca (OH)2 in the presence of catalyst
 Product is a hard mass of calcium saponified salts
Indigenous Method (Naik, 2013):
 4 kg rice bran oil is heated in aluminium vessel
 Add 1.6 kg calcium hydroxide dissolved in 10 litre of water
 Boil for 30 minute without cover
 Filter through cloth
 Sun dried
Product contains
70-75% fat, 7-8% Ca, 80-85% rumen protected fat.
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Properties of Ca soap
• Ca-Soap is inert, if pH remains more than 5.5
• In acidic pH of abomasum, Ca-soap dissociated & then
absorbed efficiently from small intestine
Limitations:
 Pungent Soapy taste – poor palatability
 Not completely Rumen inert

Rumen pH % dissociated % Bypass


4 90 10
4.5 76 24
5 50 50
5.5 24 76
6 9.1 90.1
6.5 3.1 96.9
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Feeding of By-pass fat
Commercial Preparations:
o Dairylac
o Magnapac

o Megalac

Feeding systems and rates


 Dose rate 0.4 to 0.8kg/cow/day in the post-calving ration
 Gradual incorporation into the ration over a few days
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Rumen-protected fat – filling the energy gap

Bodyweight
THE ‘ENERGY GAP’

Dry matter intake

Milk Yield

Months after Calving


Calving Calving
Effects bypass fat on egg quality

Higher bypass fat diets produce more viable


oocytes
Benefits of Feeding By-pass Fat
Dairy cows have an essential need for fat

Increase energy density


Formulate more-balanced
rations
Increase milk yield and milk quality

 Reduced risk of ketosis and fatty liver syndrome


 Improves digestive performance
 Minimize body wt. loss after calving
 Improve BCS
 Improve reproductive efficiency
Dietary protein and fat are essential
and costly nutrients of ration of livestock.
These nutrients should be protected from
degradation in the rumen to meet the
high nutritional demand of high
producing ruminants.
Thus, rumen bypass protein and
rumen bypass fat are essential to increase/
optimize the productivity of ruminants.
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Thank You

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REFERENCES
 Skaar,T.C.R.R.Grummer,M.R.Dentine,andR.H.Stauffacher.
(1980).Seasons effects on prepartum and postpartum fat and niacin
feeding on lactating performance and lipid metabolism.J.Dairy
Sci.,72:2028.
 Huber.J.T.,G.Higginbotham,R.A Gomez-
Alarcon,R.B.Taylor,K.H.Chen,S.C.Chan,andZ.Wu(1994).Heat stress
interactions with protein,supplementalfat,and fungal cultures.J.Dairy
Sci.,77:2080-2090.
 Huber.J.T.,G.Higginbotham,R.A Gomez-
Alarcon,R.B.Taylor,K.H.Chen,S.C.Chan,andZ.Wu(1994).Heat stress
interactions with protein,supplementalfat,and fungal cultures.J.Dairy
Sci.,77:2080-2090.
 Skaar,T.C.R.R.Grummer,M.R.Dentine,andR.H.Stauffacher.
(1980).Seasons effects on prepartum and postpartum fat and niacin
feeding on lactating performance and lipid metabolism.J.Dairy
Sci.,72:2028.
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 Henderson(1973).JOURNAL OF GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY
 Jenkins(T.C.91993).LIPID METABOLISM IN THE RUMEN.J.DAIRY
SCIENCE
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 Pinnoti,L.,Campagnoli,A.,Sangalli,L.,Rebucci,R.,dell’Orto,V.andBaldi,A.
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 Niango,A.J.,H.E.Amos.M.A.Froetschel,andC.M.Keery(1991).Dietary
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