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Pipeline Pigging - Procedure

Pipeline Pigging - Procedure

Petroleum Development Oman L.L.C.

UNRESTRICTED Document ID: PR-1082

September 2001 Filing Key: EDMS

Pipeline Pigging

Procedure

Keywords:

This document is the property of Petroleum Development Oman, LLC.


Neither the whole nor any part of this document may be disclosed to
others or reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any
form by any means (electronic, mechanical, reprographic recording or
otherwise) without prior written consent of the owner.
Authorised for Issue:

Signed: ……………………………

Saif Al Harthy, UOP

CFDH Production

The following is a brief summary of the 3 most recent revisions to this


document. Details of all revisions prior to these are held on file by the
issuing department.

Revision Date Author CDFP Scope/Remarks


No.

Rev 1 Oct 98 UOP/1 UOP/1 OP-01 rewritten to new format and


updated.

Sep 01 UOP/1 UOP/1 Reviewed and revalidated

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY BLANK.

Contents
THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY BLANK.

1. Introduction

1.1 Background

Oilfield pipelines periodically need to be cleaned to ensure


that the optimum flow of product is maintained and that
there is no undesirable increase in pressure drop across any
line due to the deposition of wax or other debris and to
prevent corrosion under such deposits. Normally, the
cleaning process (‘pigging’) is routine and achieved by the
use of ‘pigs’ which scrape the lines clean. Occasionally,
special ‘intelligent pigs’ may be used to survey and inspect
the internals of pipelines.

1.2 Purpose

The purpose of this procedure is to outline the requirements


for the safe launching and retrieval of pigs from live
pipelines.

1.3 Distribution/Target Audience

Operations personnel and pipeline maintenance contractor


personnel.

1.4 Structure of this Document

 Procedure description.
 Roles, authorities and responsibilities of key
players.

 Schedule when to apply this procedure.

 Forms to be used.

2. Business Controls Procedure


2.1 Scope

This procedure is applicable to ALL situations where


pigging of pipelines is required.

2.2 Procedure Description

2.2.1 Scheduling

2.2.1.1 The minimum pigging frequency shall be carried


out according to the requirements of the Pipeline Code
of Practice, as detailed in ERD-10-01.

2.2.1.2 The Pipeline Maintenance Services Contractor is


responsible for the preparation, distribution and
execution of all pigging schedules. These shall be
approved and authorised by the Activity Executor,
OTT/23, before any work commences.

2.2.1.3 Inter-plant lines that are scheduled for pigging


shall be agreed by the Area Co-ordinator.

2.2.1.4 Pigging schedules shall be prepared such that


lines within a system or sub-system are pigged in a
sequence that takes into account the direction of flow in
the system.

2.2.1.5 To prevent further deposition of dislodged


debris, the time between the pigging of subsequent
sections of pipeline shall be minimised.

2.2.2 Preparations

2.2.2.1 Agreed pigging schedules shall be prepared and


distributed by the Pipeline Maintenance Services
Contractor according to the requirements of OTT/232.
The likely distribution is as follows:

 Area Programmers.
 Programming.

 Corrosion Control Team Leader.

 Production Chemistry.
 Finance Services.

2.2.2.2 Two days prior to the launch, the Workshop


Supervisor shall generally check the pig(s) and
refurbish or replace them as required. Specifically, the
locator(s) and transmitter(s) shall be checked and
associated batteries charged.

2.2.2.3 Two days prior to the launch, the Pipeline


Maintenance Services Contractor and the Field
Supervisor shall ensure that the saver pits are empty
and remain empty.

2.2.2.4 One day before the launch the Field Supervisor


shall confirm the launch event to the relevant parties at
the receiving point and advise the expected travel time
using the Pigging Authorisation form.

2.2.2.5 The launch supervisors at the respective


launch/receive points will make ready their
launch/receive facilities.

2.2.3 Launcher/Receiver Safety Precautions

2.2.3.1 In the procedure steps below, there are several


references to the need to ensure, by visual inspection or
direct measurement, that complete replacement of one
type of fluid with another has taken place, e.g.
displacing air with fluids, displacing air with gas, etc.

2.2.3.2 In the case of closed drain systems, it is essential


that the appropriate and correct methods are used to
ensure total displacement of the various gases or fluids
before proceeding to the next activity in this procedure.

2.2.3.3 Blockages of drain and vent valves by pig cups


or large quantities of debris are possible. Similarly,
pressure gauges are sometimes faulty or are broken. At
least two pressure gauges shall be fitted to the barrel of
the launcher/receiver to guard against this event.

2.2.3.4 If there is ANY doubt that the barrel is not at


zero pressure, close vent and drain valves and re-
pressure the equipment. Observe very carefully the
changes in pressure that are indicated, particularly
when the barrel is depressurised again.
2.2.3.5 When opening the door of a launcher or a
receiver, NEVER stand in front of the door or at the
side where the hinge is fitted. Ensure that nobody
stands directly in line with the door.

2.2.3.6 The receiver shall always be lined up prior to


launching a pig.

2.2.3.7 Special precautions need to be taken on receiving


pyrophoric dust. Before opening the receiver the barrel
shall be damped down from a water source. Disposal of
the dust shall be as per PDO recommendations for
disposal of hazardous waste and not dumped in the
desert.

2.2.3.8 Naturally Occurring Radiation Material


(NORM) may, in some areas, be produced from the
reservoir and be entrained in pigging debris. Those
receivers where NORM is present must be identified
and indicated to the pigging crew.

2.2.3.9 Special precautions shall be taken in


circumstances where NORM is present, with particular
attention being paid to Personal Protective Equipment
(PPE) and to the handling and disposal of debris during
and after the recovery of the pigs.

2.2.4 Launch Procedure


Figure 1 Typical Launcher Receiver Arrangement

2.2.4.1 Ensure kicker valves (C1 + C2 +C3) and


isolation valve (B) are closed while valve (I) is open.

2.2.4.2 Open drain valve (D) and vent valve (E) to drain
and depressurise the launcher barrel. Confirm zero
pressure (see 2.2.3.3). Unseat bleed screw on door.

Note 1: If no fluid flows through the bleed


screw, remove bleed screw. Airflow into
the trap indicates that fluid is still flowing
from the trap via the drain. When the
airflow stops the trap is fully drained and
the door may be opened.

Note 2: A number of older doors may not


be fitted with bleed screws. In these cases
additional precautions shall be taken
before opening the door, e.g. confirm by
visual observation that draining has
stopped.

2.2.4.3 Open door (F) (see 2.2.3.5) in accordance with


manufacturer’s procedures.

2.2.4.4 Load pig into barrel, ensuring that the front


driving cups are in contact with the reducing portion of
the barrel.

2.2.4.5 Check door seal - clean and lightly oil mating


surfaces. Close door. Close drain valve (D). Ensure that
door is securely locked.

2.2.4.6 Open the balance valve (I) (if fitted) across the
barrel eccentric reducer in order to prevent the pig
coming into contact with the main isolation valve, whilst
pressuring up the barrel. Open kicker valve (C2) then
slowly crack kicker valve (C3) open. As oil/gas enters,
air will be displaced from the barrel through the vent
valve (E).

2.2.4.7 When barrel is full of oil, close vent valve and


allow the barrel to pressurise fully. In the case of a gas
pipeline, air will be replaced by gas. Continuous
readings shall be taken until 100% gas is detected at the
vent valve (see 2.2.3.1).

Note 1: Ignition sources shall be removed


from the area and continuous
atmospheric monitoring within the area
shall be carried out.

Note 2: In H2S designated areas the


procedures for entering and working in
an H2S area must be followed.

2.2.4.8 Check that all pressure gauges give the same


reading. Close kicker valves (C2) and (C3).

2.2.4.9 Close balance valve (I).

2.2.4.10 Set the pig signallers (G1) and (G2). Open main
isolating (barrel) valve (B) fully.

2.2.4.11 Open kicker valve (C1) fully.


2.2.4.12 Slowly close by-pass valve to force oil flow
through the launcher until pigsig (G1) trips showing
that the pig has left the barrel and is travelling through
the pipeline. Reset the pig signaller .

2.2.4.13 Open by-pass valve (A).

2.2.4.14 Close kicker valve (C1).

2.2.4.15 Close main isolating (barrel) valve (B).

2.2.4.16 Drain and depressurise as in 2.2.2.2 above.

2.2.4.17 Close drain valve (D) and vent valve (E). Clean
and empty saver pit.

2.2.4.18 Complete 'Pipeline' and 'Launch' sections of


the Pigging Log sheet.

2.2.5 Receiving Procedure

(Refer to Figure 1, Typical Launcher/Receiver


Arrangement)

2.2.5.1 At the start, by-pass valve (A) is open, main


isolating valve (B) and kicker valves (C1), (C2), (C3) are
closed.

2.2.5.2 Ensure that drain valve (D) is closed and that the
door (F) is secured as per manufacturer’s procedure,
and that the balance valve (I) is open.

2.2.5.3 Open vent valve(s) (E).

2.2.5.4 Open (C2), crack Open (C3), and fill the barrel
while air is being vented via (E).

2.2.5.5 In the case of a gas pipeline, air will be replaced


by gas. Continuous readings shall be taken until 100%
gas is detected at the vent valve (see 2.2.3.1).

Note: Ignition sources shall be removed from the area


and continuous atmospheric monitoring shall be carried
out for hydrocarbons.
2.2.5.6 In H2S designated areas the procedures for
entering and working in an H2S designated location
must be followed. (PR-1078)

2.2.5.7 When the barrel is full of fluid, close vent


valve(s) (E) and allow the barrel to pressurise fully.
Check that the barrel pressure gauge shows the same
value as the line pressure gauge.

2.2.5.8 Open kicker valve (C1) fully and open main


isolating valve (B). This allows fluid to flow through the
receiver.

Note: In the case of low flow there is a risk of the pig


stopping across the by-pass tee. If two kicker lines and
valves are installed stoppage of the pig can be avoided
by closing the by-pass valve (A) to divert all the oil
through the receiver.

2.2.5.9 Confirm there is no leakage from the door seal


and fittings before leaving the site.

2.2.5.10 Arrival of the pig is shown initially by pig alert


(G1) being activated. Pig alert (G2) should activate
shortly afterwards to show that the pig has entered the
barrel. If (G2) does not activate, the by-pass valve (A)
must be closed or throttled to force the pig into the
barrel.

2.2.5.11 Once pig is 'home' in the barrel, open by-pass


valve (A) fully.

2.2.5.12 Close main isolating valve (B).

2.2.5.13 Close kicker valve(s) (C1), (C2) and (C3).

2.2.5.14 Drain and de-pressure through drain valve (D)


and vent valve(s) (E). Ensure that the balance line (if
fitted) across the reducer is open. Confirm that pressure
is zero (see 2.2.3.3). Unseat bleed screw on door.

2.2.5.15 If no fluid flows through the bleed screw,


remove bleed screw. Airflow into the trap indicates that
fluid is still flowing from the trap via the drain. When
the airflow stops the trap is fully drained and the door
may be opened (see 2.2.3.1).
Note: A number of older doors may not be fitted with
bleed screws. In this case additional precautions shall be
taken before opening the door, e.g. confirm by visual
observation that drain has stopped (see 2.2.3.1).

2.2.5.16 Open door (F) (see 2.2.3.5) and remove pig.

2.2.5.17 Clean out receiver barrel and take sample of


debris, if quantity is greater than 20kg or if specifically
instructed. A sample sheet shall be completed and sent
with the sample to the appropriate laboratory. Check
door seal, - clean and lightly oil mating surfaces.

2.2.5.18 Close door (F), drain valve (D), and vent valve
(E). Ensure door (F) is secured as per manufacturer’s
procedures.

2.2.5.19 Inspect pig for damage and action


refurbishment and/or return ready for its next use.

2.2.5.20 Ensure that 'retrieval' section data is passed to


launch supervisor for completion of the Pigging Log
sheet.

2.2.5.21 Complete the pigging log sheet.

2.2.5.22 Empty and clean the saver pit and cross check
the valve positions before leaving the site.

2.2.6 Non Standard Pigging

In the event that pigging activities are required on a line


not equipped with permanent pig launching/receiving
facilities, the following additional requirements shall
apply.

2.2.6.1 Temporary launching/receiving facilities shall be


constructed specifically for the project, which will
assure safe performance of the pigging activity. The
configuration shall be similar to that found on Figure 1,
Typical Launcher/Receiver Arrangement, contained in
this document.

2.2.6.2 Sufficient valving shall be provided to assure


isolation of the trap from the pipeline, and pressure
gauges shall be installed in order to allow personnel
involved in the pigging activity to confirm the pressure
in the barrel.

2.2.6.3 A procedure for the non-routine pigging activity


shall be prepared. The procedure shall be reviewed and
approved by the appropriate pipeline support personnel
prior to commencement of work.

2.2.6.4 As a minimum, the non-routine procedure shall


include the necessary steps and related valve
movements (open/close) to assure safe launching and/or
receiving of the pig.

2.2.6.5 Sketches of all pertinent facilities shall be


provided.

2.2.6.6 Special attention shall be paid to any flexible


hoses used to ensure that they are adequately anchored
and pressure rated.

2.2.7 Pig Bypass Arrangements

2.2.7.1 For lines carrying liquid, the bypass (% of the


circumference) on the pig shall be:-

 3-5% for fluid velocities greater than 1 metre per


second.
 2-3% for velocities between 0.5 to 1 metre per
second.

 0% for velocities less than 0.5 metres per second.

2.2.7.2 Pig cups shall be sufficiently oversized (typically


by 4%) to provide efficient sealing.

2.2.7.3 Several pig types can be used but the efficiency


shall be determined before selecting. Possible types
include cup drive and disk type but spheres are not
recommended for cleaning or liquid swabbing purposes.

2.3 Roles and Responsibilities

ROLE RESPONSIBILITY
OTT/16 Defines pigging programme.

OTT/23 Activity executor.

Pipeline Maintenance Preparation and execution of all


Services Contractor pigging schedules.

Area Co-ordinator. Pigging and system co-ordination.

Workshop Supervisor Pig checking.

Field Supervisor Checking saver pits.

Launch Supervisors Launch/receive facilities.

2.4 Execution of the Procedure

This procedure is invoked on an ad-hoc basis whenever


there is a need for the launching or receiving of pigs.

2.5 Related Forms

Pigging Authorisation Form (Attachment 1)

Pigging Log Sheet (Attachment 2)

2.6 Related Business Control Documents

DOCUMENT TITLE NUMBER

Procedure Hydrogen Sulphide Management PR-1078

Procedure NORM

Procedure Disposal of Chemical Waste


2.7 Review and Improvement

This procedure is valid for a nominal period of two


years from the date of issue or revision. A one year
grace period extension is valid with a notice issued by
the CFDH that the procedure is under review. Feedback
received from end users will be considered in the review
cycle and improvements incorporated where
appropriate.

2.8 Step-out Approval

In circumstances where compliance with the procedure


is considered inappropriate or when the intended
activity cannot be effectively completed or safely
performed, then step out approval must be obtained
from the Asset Manager - using the Operations
Procedure Variance Form.
Appendix A

Glossary of Terms, Definitions &


Abbreviations

CDFP Corporate Discipline Focal Point

CFDH Corporate Functional Discipline Head

Attachment 1

PIGGING AUTHORISATION
SHEET

Pigging No 05286
PETROLEUM
DEVELOPMENT OMAN
Authorisation

Line Code:

From: To:

Diameter: Length: Medium:

Velocity: Pig Type: By-pass %:

Special pig Features:

Procedures as Operations Standard PR-1082

Authorisation is requested for Pigging as described above on Date


:_____________
Expected Travel
Expected Launch
Time:_____________ Time:______________

Signed:_______________ Name:________________ Ref Ind:________

LAUNCHING

Modification to Procedure:

Operational Difficulties:

Operator required? Authorisation required from:________(Custodian)


_________

Authorisation given for launching of Pig described above (by Custodian, on


day before launch)
Ind:____
Signed:______________ Name:___________
Time:____

Date:____

Pig launching may proceed (by Operator, immediately before the launch)

Signed:______________ Name:___________ Ind:____ Time:____ Date:____

RETRIEVING

Modification to Procedure:

Operational Difficulties:

Operator required? Authorisation required from:________(Custodian)


_________

Authorisation given for launching of Pig described above (by Custodian, on


day before launch)

Signed:______________ Name:___________ Ind:____ Time:____ Date:____

Pig launching may proceed (by Operator, immediately before the launch)
Name:___________
Signed:______________ Date:____
Ind:____

Time:____

GAS TESTING FOR HYDROCARBONS to be carried out by licensed Gas


Tester (Class A or B), before vehicle access to launcher/receiver area. Results may
be recorded below:

Station Time Date Result Name Signature G/tester


Exp
Date

Attachment 2

PIPELINE PIGGING LOGSHEET

PIPELINE PIGGING LOGSHEET

DATE:

PIPELINE :

PIPELINE CODE

LOCATION (from / to)

SERVICE (oil / gas)

LENGTH (km)

DIAMETER (inches)

PIG LAUNCH INFORMATION :


DATE / TIME PIG LAUNCHED

PRESSURE (before/after)

TYPE OF PIG / MAKE

BY PASS (open / closed)

NUMBER OF CUPS

NUMBER OF PINS (per disc)

CIRCUMFERENCE OF CUPS (inches)

CUP MATERIAL

NUMBER OF DISCS

CIRCUMFERENCE OF DISCS (inches)

DISC MATERIAL

CIRCUM. OF FOAM PIG / SPHERE (inches)

BRUSHES (y / n, type)

BRUSH CONDITION

PIG RETRIEVAL INFORMATION :

DATE/TIME PIG ARRIVED

PIG RUN TIME (hrs:min)

AVERAGE PIG SPEED (km/hr)

DEBRIS RECOVERED (kg)

TYPE OF DEBRIS

ANALYSIS IF DEBRIS > 0.5 kg/km (y/n)


CIRCUMFERENCE OF CUPS (inches)

CIRCUMFERENCE OF DISCS (inches)

CIRCUM. OF FOAM PIG / SPHERE (inches)

BRUSH CONDITION

PIG DAMAGE

REMARKS :

1) COVER PIGS AGAINST SUNLIGHT

2) PLACE PIGS IN BRACKETS DURING TRANSPORT

3) CLEAN PIGS DIRECTLY AFTER USE

4) CHECK TIGHTNESS NUTS/BOLTS. NAME :

SIGN :

DISTRIBUTION :

Form Custodian: OTT/22 and OTT/24

Attachment 3

USER FEEDBACK SHEET FOR OPERATIONS


PROCEDURES

Any user who identifies an error, inaccuracy or ambiguity in this


Operations Procedure document is requested to advise the
document custodian by completing this form and sending it to
UOP/1 with comments.

User’s Name: …………………………… Ref. Ind:


……………………. Date: …………………………

New Operations Procedure


required? Yes / No (delete as
applicable).

New Operations Procedure/name or New Operations


error location (e.g. Procedure number, Procedure/Comment/Error/ Suggestion
page, paragraph).
Print Date: 3-Sep-01

Print Date: 3-Sep-01 PR-1082

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