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Study about basic of network (topologies) and types of network-LAN,
 Topology which refers to the way interconnection path between many
users or nodes are arranged.
A network topology may be physical, mapping hardware
configuration, or logical, mapping the path that the data must take in
order to travel around the network.

There are mainly five types of network topologies:->

1. Mesh topology.
2. Bus topology.
3. Star topology.
4. Ring topology.
5. Tree topology.

1.mesh topology:->
In mesh topology every device has dedicated point-to-point link to every other
Mesh systems usually rely on a routing table, which tells every node
(a) how to communicate with the access point, and
(b) how a node should direct traffic that is trying to go somewhere.

Unlike other network topologies, it can be divided into two kinds:

->Fully connected mesh topology and,
->Partially connected mesh topology
A fully connected mesh topology has all the nodes connected to every
other node. If you know the graph theory, then it is like a fully connected
graph where all the nodes are connected to every other node.
a partially connected mesh topology does not have all the nodes
connected to each other.
Advantages of mesh topology ::
 Each connection can carry its own data load thus illuminating the traffic
problems that can occur when links shared.
 Provides security and privacy means while every message travels along a
dedicated line its provide security to that data.
 It is robust.
Disadvantages of mesh topology ::
 Installation and configuration are difficult if the connectivity gets more
 Cabling cost is more and the most in case of a fully connected mesh
 It is usually implemented in limited fashion.

2.Star topology:->

In star topology each device has a dedicated point-to-point link.

Only up to central controller usually called a HUB.
NOTE: Hub is a common connection point for nodes in network.
Device are node connected to each other directly so ,it doesn’t allow
direct traffic between device.

->Extended star topology:-

When star network is extended to include additional connected main

hub then it’s called extended star topology.

Advantages of star topology::

 Easy to connect new nodes or devices.
 Centralized management. It helps in monitoring the network.
 Failure of one node or link doesn’t affect the rest of network.

Disadvantages of star topology ::

 Too much dependency on central device has its own drawbacks. If it fails
whole network goes down.
 The use of hub, a router or a switch as central device increases the overall
cost of the network.
 Performance and as well number of nodes which can be added in such
topology is depended on capacity of central device.

3.Tree Topology:->

 It is a variation of Star Topology.

 Nodes in tree are linked to a central HUB that controls the traffic of a
 It has a root node and all other nodes are connected to it forming a
hierarchy. It is also called hierarchical topology.
There are two types of hub:
1.central hub.
2.secondary hub.
1.central hub::
All Secondary Hubs are connected to this Hub via links. This
Hub is a Active Hub. The active hub contains the repeater.

2.secondary hub::
A secondary hub provides a simple physical connection
between attached device. It maybe active or passive.
REPEATER:: It is a hardware device that regenerates the received bit patterns
before sending them out.

Advantages of Tree Topology::

 It is an extension of Star and bus Topologies, so in networks where these
topologies can't be implemented individually for reasons related to
scalability, tree topology is the best alternative.
 Expansion of Network is possible and easy.
 Here, we divide the whole network into segments (star networks), which
can be easily managed and maintained.
 Error detection and correction is easy.
 Each segment is provided with dedicated point-to-point wiring to the
central hub.
 If one segment is damaged, other segments are not affected.
Disadvantages of tree toplogy::
 Because of its basic structure, tree topology, relies heavily on the main
bus cable, if it breaks whole network is crippled.
 As more and more nodes and segments are added, the maintenance
becomes difficult.
 Scalability of the network depends on the type of cable used.

4.Ring Topology:->
In Ring Topology, Each device has a dedicated point-to-point connection
with only two devices on either side of it.

 Network users “Token passing method” for transferring data.
 A short message called a Token passed around the ring.
 Each computer in sequence receives token and passed it to node until
either electronic address matches of node or token return to its original
 A signal is passed along ring in one direction from device to device.
 Each device in ring includes repeaters, when device receives a signal
intended for another devices, its repeater regenerate the bits and passes
them to next node.

Advantages of Ring Toplogy::

 This type of network topology is very organized. Each node gets to send
the data when it receives an empty token. This helps to reduces chances
of collision. Also in ring topology all the traffic flows in only one direction
at very high speed.
 Even when the load on the network increases, its performance is better
than that of Bus topology.

 There is no need for network server to control the connectivity between

 Additional components do not affect the performance of network.
 Each computer has equal access to resources.
Disadvantages of Ring Topology::
 Each packet of data must pass through all the computers between source
and destination. This makes it slower than Star topology.
 If one workstation or port goes down, the entire network gets affected.
 Network is highly dependent on the wire which connects different
 MAU’s and network cards are expensive as compared to Ethernet cards
and hubs.

5.Bus Topology:->

A Bus Topology is Multipoint connection.

One long cable act as a main cable or backbone to link all the devices in
the network.
Nodes are connected to the bus by dropline and tap.

Dropline:: It is a connection running between the device and main cable.

Tap:: It is a connector that either splices join into the main cable or punctures
the sheathing of a cable to create a contact with metallic core.

As a signal travels along the backbone some its energy is transferred into
Signal becomes weaker and weaker the farther it has to travel. So, there
is a limit on the no. of taps a bus can support and the distance between
those tap.
Advantages of Bus Topology::
 It is easy to set-up and extend bus network.
 Cable length required for this topology is the least compared to other
 Bus topology costs very less.
 Linear Bus network is mostly used in small networks. Good for LAN.
Disadvantages of bus topology::
 There is a limit on central cable length and number of nodes that can be
 Dependency on central cable in this topology has its disadvantages.
 If the main cable (i.e. bus ) encounters some problem, whole network
breaks down.
 Proper termination is required to dump signals. Use of terminators is
 It is difficult to detect and troubleshoot fault at individual station.
 Maintenance costs can get higher with time.
 Efficiency of Bus network reduces, as the number of devices connected
to it increases.
 It is not suitable for networks with heavy traffic.
 Security is very low because all the computers receive the sent signal
from the source.

There are three types of network described as below::
1. Local Area Network(LAN).
2. Metropolitan Area Network(MAN).
3. Wide Area Network(WAN).

1. Local Area Network::->

 A LAN is a Network that is used for communicating among computer
devices, usually within an office building or home.
 It allows users to share devices like printer, application data and other
network resources.
 It transfers the data at high speed(More than 1 mbps and can reach up
to 100 Mbps for an Ethernet network, and 1Gbps with FDDI or Gigabit
 It exists in limited geographically area(up to few Kilometers).
 It is having a lower error rate.
 LAN technology is generally less expansive.

Limitation of LAn::
 Susceptible towards violation of privacy.
 Threats on data security are likely to take place.
 Covers a limited data.
 Maintenance costs are high.

2 Metropolitan Area Network::

 A MAN is a large computer network that usually covers a city or a large
 A MAN might be owned and operated by a single organization.
 It may be a single network as cable television network or it may be a
connection of number of LANs together into a large network. For
example, a company can use a MAN to connect the LANs in all of its
offices in the city.
 MAN usually uses the LAN technology. Also a special standard has been
adopted for Man and it’s called DQDB(Distributed Queue Dual Bus).
 A MAN can support both data and voice.

Limitation of MAN::
 Installation cost is high.
 Requires accurate design and configuration.

2. Wide Area Network::

 A WAN is spreader over wide areas such as a cities, states, countries or

 Communication on a WAN takes place via telephone lines, satellite or
microwave transmission rather than physical cable.
 Generally, WANs are combinations of LANs.

 WAN work similar ta a LAN but on a large scale.

 TCP/IP protocol is used for WAN communication with the devices such as
routers, switches, firewalls and modems.