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Motion of Particles in Fluid

J. F. Richardson, J. H. Harker, J. R. Backhurst, Coulson and

Richardson’s Chemical Engineering, Volume 2: Particle Technology

and Separation Processes, edisi ke 5, 2002

3.2. FLOW PAST A CYLINDER

AND A SPHERE

The flow of fluid relative to an infinitely long

cylinder, a spherical particle and a non-spherical

particle is considered, followed by a discussion of

the motion of particles in both gravitational and

centrifugal fields.

For a non-viscous fluid flowing past a cylinder,

as shown in Figure 3.1, the velocity and direction

of flow varies around the circumference. Thus at

A and D the fluid is brought to rest and at B and C

the velocity is at a maximum.

Since the fluid is non-viscous, there is no drag,

and an velocity gradient = ∞ exists at the surface

of the cylinder.

.

If the fluid is incompressible and the cylinder is

small, the sum of the kinetic energy and the

pressure energy is constant at all points on the

surface according to Bernoulli equation.

The kinetic energy is a maximum at B and C

and zero at A and D, so that the pressure falls

from A to B and from A to C and rises again

from B to D and from C to D; the pressure at A

and D being the same.

No net force is therefore exerted by the fluid on

the cylinder.

It is found that, although the predicted pressure variation for a non-viscous fluid = results obtained with a viscous fluid over the front face, very considerable differences occur at the rear face.

When a viscous fluid flows over a surface,

the fluid is retarded in the boundary layer (layer

where there is velocity gradient) which is formed

near the surface and that the boundary layer

increases in thickness with increase in distance

from the leading edge.

If the pressure ➘ in the direction of flow, the

retardation of the fluid ➘ and the boundary layer

is thinner in consequence.

If the pressure ➚, however, the retardation ➚

and the thickness of the boundary layer

increases more rapidly.

The force acting on the fluid at some point in

the boundary layer may then be sufficient to

cause flow in the reverse direction with the

result that an eddy current is set up.

A region of reverse flow then exists near the

surface where the boundary layer has

separated as shown in Figure 3.2.

At any position after separation point, the

velocity rises from zero at the surface to a

maximum negative value and falls again to

zero.

Boundary layer

It then increases in the positive direction until it

reaches the main stream velocity at the edge of

the boundary layer, as shown in Figure 3.2.

At PQ the velocity in the X-direction is zero and

the direction of flow in the eddies is clockwise

For the flow of a viscous fluid past the cylinder,

the pressure decreases from A to B and also

from A to C so that the boundary layer is thin

and the flow is similar to that obtained with a

non-viscous fluid.

From B to D and from C to D the pressure is

rising and therefore the boundary layer rapidly

thickens with the result that it tends to separate

from the surface

If separation occurs, eddies are formed in the

wake of the cylinder and energy is thereby

dissipated and an additional force, known as

form drag, is set up.

In this way, on the forward surface of the

cylinder, the pressure distribution is similar to

that obtained with the fluid of zero viscosity.

On the other hands, on the rear surface, the

boundary layer is thickening rapidly and pressure

variations are very different in the 2 cases

Therefore, there are two force components: the

skin friction (or viscous drag) and the form drag

(due to the pressure distribution).

At low velocity, no separation of the boundary

layer takes place, although as the velocity is

increased, separation occurs and the skin friction

gradually decreases

If the velocity of the fluid is very high, however,

or if turbulence is artificially induced, the flow

within the boundary layer will change from

streamline to turbulent before separation takes

place.

Since the rate of transfer of momentum through

a fluid in turbulent motion >> that in a fluid

flowing under streamline conditions in boundary

layer, separation is less likely to occur, because

the fast-moving fluid outside the boundary layer

is able to keep the fluid within the boundary

layer moving in the forward direction.

If separation does occur, this takes place

nearer to D in Figure 3.1, the resulting eddies

are smaller.

Turbulence may arise either from an increased

fluid velocity or from artificial roughening of the

forward face of the immersed body.

Prandtl roughened the forward face of a sphere

in which sand particles have been stuck to the

front face, as shown in Figure 3.3, with the

result that the drag was considerably reduced.

For the case of creeping flow, that is flow at very

low velocities relative to the sphere (Re′ < 0.2),

the drag force F on the particle was obtained by

Stokes who solved the hydrodynamic equations

of motion, the Navier–Stokes equations, to give:

.

Equation 3.1, which is known as Stokes’ law is

applicable only at very low values of the particle

Reynolds number and deviations become

progressively greater as Re' increases.

Conditions of flow relative to a spherical

particle are similar to those relative to a

cylinder, except that the flow pattern is 3D.

The flow is characterised by the Reynolds

number Re'(= udρ/μ) in which ρ is the density

of the fluid, μ is the viscosity of the fluid, d is

the diameter of the sphere, and u is the

velocity of the fluid relative to the particle.

3.3. THE DRAG FORCE ON A

SPHERICAL PARTICLE

3.3.1. Drag coefficients

The most satisfactory way of representing the

relation between drag force and velocity

involves the use of two dimensionless groups.

The first group is the particle Reynolds number

Re' (= udρ/μ).

The second is the group R'/ρu 2 , in which R' is

the force per unit projected area of particle in a

plane perpendicular to the direction of motion.

For a sphere, the projected area is that of a

circle of the same diameter as the sphere.

1. R'/ρu 2 is a form of drag coefficient, often

denoted by the symbol

'. Frequently, a drag

C D

coefficient C D is defined as the ratio of R' to

1/2 ρu 2 .

When the force F is given by Stokes’ law

(equation 3.1), then:

Equations 3.1 and 3.5 are applicable only at

very low values of the Reynolds number Re'

(Re′ < 0.2) (region a in Figure 3.4)

.

turbulent BL

Laminar BL and

Laminar BL and

slight separation

Laminar BL and

large separation

and reduced

no separation

separation area

The relation between R'/ρu 2 and Re' is

conveniently given in graphical form by means

of a logarithmic plot as shown in Figure 3.4.

The graph may be divided into four regions as

shown.

Region (a) (10 −4 < Re' < 0.2)

In this region, the relationship between R'/ρu 2

and Re' is a straight line of slope −1

represented by equation 3.5:

.

Region (b) (0.2 < Re' < 500–1000)

In this region, the slope of the curve changes

progressively from −1 to 0 as Re' increases.

Several workers have suggested approximate

equations for flow in this intermediate region.

Dallavelle(6) proposed that R'/ρu 2 may be

regarded as being composed of two component

parts, one due to Stokes’ law and the other, a

constant, due to additional non-viscous effects.

Schiller and Naumann(7) gave the following

simple equation which gives a reasonable

approximation for values of Re' up to about

1000:

.

Region (c) (500–1000 < Re' < 2 × 10 5 )

In this region, Newton’s law is applicable and

the value of R'/ρu 2 is approximately constant:

.

Region (d) (Re' > 2 × 10 5 )

When Re' exceeds about 2 × 10 5 , the flow in

the boundary layer changes from laminar to

turbulent and the separation takes place nearer

to the rear of the sphere.

The drag force is decreased considerably and:

A comprehensive review of the various

equations proposed to relate drag coefficient to

particle Reynolds number has been carried out

by Clift, Grace and Weber(8).

One of the earliest equations applicable over a wide range of values of Re' is that due to

Wadell (9) which may be written as:

.

Subsequently, Khan and Richardson(10) have

examined the experimental data and suggest

that a very good correlation between R'/ρu 2

and Re' , for values of Re' up to 10 5 , is given

by:

3.3.2. Total force on a particle

The force on a spherical particle may be

expressed using eq’s 3.5, 3.9, 3.10 and 3.11

for each of the regions a, b, c and d as follows.

The projected area of the particle is πd ^{2} /4. Thus the total force on the particle is given by:

This is the expression originally obtained by

Stokes(1) already given as equation 3.1.

In region (b), from equation 3.9:

This relation (in region c) is often known as

Newton’s law.

Alternatively using equation 3.13, which is

applicable over the first three regions (a), (b)

and (c) gives:

3.3.3. Terminal falling velocities

If a spherical particle is allowed to settle in a

fluid under gravity, its velocity will increase until

the accelerating force is exactly balanced by the

resistance force.

Although this state is approached exponentially,

the effective acceleration period is generally of

short duration for very small particles.

If this terminal falling velocity is such that the

corresponding value of Re' < 0.2, the drag force

on the particle is given by equation 3.15.

If the corresponding value of 0.2 <Re' < 500,

the drag force is given approximately by

Schiller and Naumann in equation 3.17

Under terminal falling conditions, velocities

rarely correspond to Re' 10 5 , with the small

particles generally used in industry.

The accelerating force due to gravity is given

by:

where ρ s is the density of the solid.

The terminal falling velocity u 0 corresponding to

region (a) is given by:

.

0: subscript for

terminal velocity

The terminal falling velocity corresponding to region (c) is given by:

In the expressions given for the terminal falling

velocity, the following assumptions are held:

(a) That the settling is not affected by the

presence of other particles in the fluid. This

condition is known as “free settling”. When the

interference of other particles is appreciable, the

process is known as “hindered settling”.

(b) That the walls of the containing vessel do

not exert an appreciable retarding effect.

From equations 3.24 and 3.25, it is seen that

terminal falling velocity of a particle in a given

fluid becomes greater as both particle size

and density are increased.

If for a particle of material A of diameter d A and

density ρ A , Stokes’ law is applicable, then the

terminal falling velocity u 0A is given by equation

3.24 as:

.

Similarly, for a particle of material B:

The condition for u 0A = u 0B is then:

If Newton’s law is applicable, equation 3.25

holds and:

For equal settling velocities:

In general, the relationship for equal settling

velocities is:

where S = 1/2 for the Stokes’ law region, S = 1

for Newton’s law and, as an approximation, 1/2

< S < 1 for the intermediate region.

This method of calculating the terminal

falling velocity is satisfactory provided that it

is known which equation should be used for

the calculation of drag force or drag coefficient.

It has already been seen that the equations

give the drag coefficient in terms of the particle

Reynolds number Re' 0 (= u 0 dρ/μ) which is itself

a function of the terminal falling velocity u 0

which is to be determined.

The problem is most effectively solved by the

generation of a new dimensionless group

which is independent of the particle velocity.

The resistance force per unit projected area of

the particle under terminal falling conditions R' 0

is given by (applicable for any Re'):

.

= drag force/(cross-sectional area) at terminal velocity (using subscript 0)

This is used to determine terminal velocity if the flow regime is

known. In this case the regime is Stokes’ law regime

.

Applicable at

terminal velocity

=2/3 Ga

C D ' 0 .Re' 0 2 = 2/3 Ga

Using equations 3.5, 3.9 and 3.10 to express

R'/ρu

2

in terms of Re' over the appropriate

range of Re', then:

Re 0 ’ < 0.2

0.2<Re 0 ’ <

1000

Re 0 ’ > 1000

(R' 0 /ρu

2 )Re' 0 2 = 2/3 Ga can be evaluated if the

0

properties of the fluid and the particle are

known.

Derived from

Stokes’ law (3.5)

Derived from Schiller and

Naumann eq. Law (3.9)

Derived from

Newton’s law (3.10)

In Table 3.4, values of log Re' are given as a

function of log{(R'/ρu 2 )Re' 2 } and the data taken

from tables given by Heywood (11), are

represented in graphical form in Figure 3.6.

In order to determine the terminal falling velocity of a particle, (R' _{0} /ρu _{0} ^{2} )Re' _{0} ^{2} is evaluated and the corresponding value of Re' _{0} , and hence of the terminal velocity, is found either from Table 3.4 or from Figure 3.6.

To be

used to

determine

terminal

velocity

To be

used to

determine

particle

diameter

Example 3.1

What is the terminal velocity of a spherical

steel particle, 0.40 mm in diameter, settling in

an oil of density 820 kg/m 3 and viscosity 10 mN

s/m 2 ? The density of steel is 7870 kg/m 3 .

Solution

For a sphere:

3.8. MOTION OF PARTICLES IN A

CENTRIFUGAL FIELD

In most practical cases where a particle is moving

in a fluid under the action of a centrifugal field,

gravitational effects << and may be neglected.

The equation of motion for the particles is similar

to that for motion in the gravitational field, except

that the gravitational acceleration g must be

replaced by the centrifugal acceleration rω 2 ,

where r is the radius of rotation and ω is the

angular velocity.

Centrifugal

force

analogous to the particle

motion in gravitational field

g replaced by r 2

For a spherical particle in a fluid, the equation

of motion for the Stokes’ law region is:

As the particle moves outwards, the

Particle velocity

accelerating force increases and therefore it

never acquires an equilibrium velocity in the

fluid.

drag force

Particle acceleration

Centrifugal force

It works normal the fluid

rotating flow and away

from the axis of rotating fluid flow

bouyancy force

.

The solution of equation 3.112 takes the form:

For Stokes flow

If the particle starts (t = 0) at a radius r 1 and

at zero velocity (dr/dt) = 0, then by making

derivation to equation 3.114:

.

.

2 B.C’s. (r and

dr/dt at t=0, r=r 1 )

for 2 eq’s to get

2 constants B 1

and B 2

3.114

Hence r/r 1 may be directly calculated at any

value of t , although a numerical solution is

required to determine t for any particular value

of r/r 1 .

If the inertial term on the right-hand side of

equation 3.108 is neglected (there is force

balance), then:

only r is variable

Thus, the instantaneous velocity (dr/dt) is equal

to the terminal velocity u 0 in the gravitational

field, increased by a factor of rω 2 /g.

Equation 3.109 modifies to:

Thus the time taken for a particle to move to a

radius r from an initial radius r 1 is given by:

For Stokes flow

For a suspension fed to a centrifuge, the time

taken for a particle initially situated in the liquid

surface (r 1 = r 0 ) to reach the wall of the bowl (r

= R) is given by:

.

analogous to the

particle motion in

gravitational field

Bowl centrifuge

Feed added to spinning bowl

Sedimentation of particles

occurs in centrifugal field

Flow is upwards at a particular

rate which determines

residence time t in device

Separation happens if

sedimentation velocity is high

enough for particle to reach side

of bowl within residence time

Large particles have higher

settling velocities than small

particles

Both large and small have small

Re numbers (<1) and obey

Stokes’ Law

The residence time t is equal to

the volume of liquid V m 3 in the

bowl divided by the feed

volumetric flow rate q in m 3 /s.

The volume V = πb(r 2 2 -r 1 2 )

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