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n sume a ‘hes Sunn Pate or a von, Sea geet Mon, A ma” a p23 ‘ino een tt a dy pon cme sa cre en) pt son rh pinot ee ow pon site,» ote ben sen Asn es reer" in plc, Weasel 24 Hk a At (29) arn aoe 8 I A Critical Survey of Modern Studies on Muhammad’ MAXIME RODINSON tia constant temptation forthe nonspeit onda for he specials ‘whose expertise in another) 1 imagine that everything as been ‘hid on apolar subject. We ae ll deplorably lacking in magiation in the facto dlsooveries that romain oe made. However, the perpetual evolution in histor den even when the docimentaton increases only ssefodealy) conan sis this wens of ed st Mn he he sy ote eo. pao on he subyequent period) by Leone Coetni sppetied 8 Wilan begining in 100S the reearher cou ight fea a sense of discouragement. And Jets inthe years lowing the pubctig of Catan study, 2 aumber of| tmoks appezed which have prolly stesed our perspective. Inde, in recent ears a number of netting biographical states have Been ube, and at lent some of hem ate of such nature as 1 oer "eas previo held "This current fret in the Prophet has causes which at in good mea sure foritous/The polite! stuation of recent years ha traced he tenon ofthe general public tothe peoples of Islam an especialy to howe who, one may 8 erated this elslon, i. the Arabs A French ook cub involved ia pushing a seis of biographies recently con dicted kindof pol among reader for the purpose of determining hich ofthe great men they wished o appear hit Bograph sees {nin what order of preference. Makamimad was at se ead ofthe fist » ad bya large margin. I this terest has ited he publication of| Some good works, one ought paps tobe satised and to overtook the tars tha are mixed ia with he go00 gran “The Annal dell Ila of Castano Which reference has lea bse made, marks both the elimination andthe end of «period of scholars investigation, Following the ary efforts of K.P. Ludovico Marae” tho prefaced hs tvansation of the Quran with = biographical study of Matammad, two centuries enseed during which scolorly ivestiation nade signiint progres.” European scholars cole! Arabic man erp, began foe trams, and write commentaries ypon them. Scholrystues us gradually accumulated. Te historical cuook of the niacenth century coupled with ciel atitde which had fist ‘en applied in stales on Homer und the Bible mide posible the ist, Tealy sent works ised on the material which wing poli investigation had produced" Following lengthy introduction on pretamie Arabia, Cactany as sited by his coltborators, compiled and arranged (yearby yer, and ‘reat by eve) all the material which the sources, the Arab Rstrians, ‘ttered. The resultant conclusions based the fat, which Took int fount the vatant forms in which they were found inthe sures, were companied by steal alsa that rected the methodol Shep ‘ico eich Lanlos and Seigobos had jot set forth as uboltly nd Pensible forthe historian. Later generations fee from the poss eendancy, have opatded this aitude as Ryperercal In ober areas {oo they were able fo show that it had bec eases, However, he field under consideration here, there are unfortunatly numerous ex fimples which poin up the value ofthis esl approach. Numerous trons in Arab appear each year evidencing nd eoncence in sures Tot are several centric ater than the events which they report The counts found in our Muslin soures of events whic occured atthe etoning of slam do indeed rogue special methodol ty. or the pone of oral tramisionconsts a robin whose plications have not ye Ben ful explored Be thal ay H muy, might have seemed seul 0 go beyond the quisicthaustive sompiation of Catan Nevertheless while this mon nena production was coming out, serous facana sn his work became ‘ident presisely inthe aren of the comation of materi from the ources. Dusiag the same petiod, another team, composed ofthe most (quliiod Orem, pushed the Pabugit of Ton Satin floes vot one STUDS ON MUHAMMAD as umes, # source of capital importance which contained some ofthe most "als and varied documents that have come dows Tous, But which {Cactan wtiized only partly However, stove and beyond the mater of this documentary lacs, certain scholars were able oso that was pose Lo make prowess n| ‘he fk more by shifting the foes of one's examination of texts lend known tha by ulinng new documents. Tha te Swed scholar Tor ‘Andrae tempted to explore in greater depth the personality of the Propet inthe ight ofthe work of tho acy prt ths entry onthe [ychology of religion? From another vantage point. his Morough Tnomledge ofthe Syrie Church peated bi to she eatiey now hab ‘on the Custan environment in wick sam developed” Those ives [ntone were coninsed ty K. Ahers who acted accurate only up 03 Stl pott) thatthe tide of Mohammad toward Css wos {Ssenialy Christian 'YThe scholars ofthe peti were interested i te investigation of inflaches. Those works which sited op Christian nr ‘nce were counterislanced by those which emphasized fens nen, this ater having Bee studies early us 1883 by Rabb Abraham Geiger in catfully Dalanoed study." The same tendency was subsequently ‘intinued by C. C. Torey and others.” Somewhit more Boal, ious studies were devoted to Judeo-Chrisian sources Of Quranic mative fad concepts." Sues ofthis genre are assuredly very necessary. Iam twas not hoen in sale container in an enironmea zd agaist the germs of other Meolgies ge contemporary Musim authors and ce tui other frequently imine. Is highly presypaous to bee tat fone can say the developmeat of naieat Iam by ignoring the reat World religions whore infucnce, we now know, penetrated all parts of [Abia atthe bepining of the seventh century, Ths hid of investiga tho, bowever, had its exces. I an the risk of foreting the dete vigil of Ilr an he evident fact that study of atvence canoe fal explain the origin of « new Meologcal phenomenon or is own Partclardyamivm, One most never ander any circumstances o& i ay re shun a stactral analysis which takes ito account the fnetional bocesriy of the new ideology Afterall, Muhammad became neither & Jew nor & Chris. Ad i tat had happened, it would fave been nocesnry not only 0 determine the infencs that hd brought about his onverson but alo 1 explain why it was hat he had allowed himself be ituenced ‘Wile not having devoted complete work to the fe of Mubarmad in 2% runes om La ‘it emtrety foe man domited European stoes on Mobummad during the fist third of this centry. He was Hens Lammers, This Belgian Jet, Fronch at hear, a good Arabi though not without hi weakness in tl regard, was endowed with the power of indtatizabie work and with «combative temperament wich hs prety profesion channeled in {he divestion of scholar. He lo possessed remarkable ality oy bold of those living guilities communicated bythe ancient texts alone sith crary talent mbih enabled im to convey these to hi eet, is scholarly and historical expositions (which were aay ile or ‘oral did not distin th wse of thetreal devices: abd ofen in thei Daring cezndo he made wie of Arabic quotations or rsrtd to hi favorite French poets sich a Vici Hugo and Hen de Borie. In ton, he was filed with holy contempt for Iam, fore "delve ory” and is works, forts casenbliag” and “acvoue” Propet, or the Arabs of the desert who i his jadgment were cowards a vagger fs, planderers and destroyers. ASoleted wi the Universite Sat oweph of Beet, an active enter of Arabi tis, Ne Biterysftcked {inthe same spt) the Shsiflan woops led by the Meccan Faisal (ad supported by the Protestant Lawrence) agai the French who were represented by the pious geneal Gouraud. Turning omar the past be lashed out agai the caliph “AB, Faas dant ancestor, whom he haracterzed as obese uly, timid, immoral, gen othe rain of Is wife, the “dull” and "compisining” Fatima. Taking 8 poston 9p ‘posed to Muti tration, he rehabiltte the Usyad dy whose Fete ladiference toward slam delighted him, « dynasty which (0 their credit as he saw felled upon Sian Christians to adminis he ativated lands conquered bythe Aras, and which tempi 0 subs {he chronic enavchism ofthe “savage” Bedouin. Taking op the iver tions begun by Tense Goldrher and the eas which he ba st fort, mens pusod othe extreme the crial analy of Msi triton, ‘smashed without more the later pital tendcsies bind the mt tives which recounted the deeds an sayings ofthe Prophet and thos of ik Companions In this entless an desperate pursuit of the apo hal, be utlized without dcretion the etal tool which the minetenth etary had wed ga Bis ow lth. "Te only soso acepabl 10 him were those tht reflected unfavorably on Mum and is fay, His excessive prejudice, his vilton ofthe txt ite ow aten and hi rors have judy ealed forth severe judgments, However, one mst ecognige that his colowal efforts at demas also had constructive opens stuns ox MUNAROAD ” teh, Thy ave fred wo be much more ih emandig of Soares With the onli of try ely wet down ‘Sow ates aruling, mower, re 8 We must eatin ‘nts comestom the ear sy bythe Dash sch Frant Bu, heh spmsntocompreentNe sumoay of Earopesn Schon of {he pe proto World War I Tht wrk whic peed in Geman in 980 wan elagenent of ah caker Dons ei pinion 1S, {ed contain considerable mato formation taken om al of he {rile sores sd aay eal nthe eho te Sica om of European Isaniss, of whom he hed an alow exhaustive Ionedge, With te robet good sense of scarcer, be Jeced oth the hypeeiicinofceran Arai ao the Dd eon ‘ace of Mastin thir sce. Within the arc of te concer, the tk has ot ten exceed and reais a npn ol ‘Apa fom tis menemental stneary aed every presplve ad ‘nial ogtsphy of Tor Andre ced above a wl cen oer Spec wor hs period priced only grog sketch pe Pete ahr uagatl he deo greta whom Me fave mentoocd, and numerotsseclinedlnvesigaton in popes” “Though le apart, we mu eal ataton ote Sogrupy of Maha ined bY Emile Demengicm.2 «welled mor though wont he topos of slap eucatinly 9 teary work cen by he ‘ie eae taken In comporton, the eqn eof ge, he fteence of any srpunenaton on or jain of, Hews. This tight coal work ceeds ming etm Core mpremion of the mic in wich the Heo the Pope fled hs seed trum oeeptn nthe Ara worl enclose te miner of European sent sues, Ras sin Kamit ring the poo of tan were cacourage by thio. Inga eavienment to andenake ses and promote ipo wich tere fen more tern or th ghey dhe ont ely an {ore see vale, Tis tempera trend ncn nd of thw i hoe states sit upon a oft sg) sine the gurtahlar ten bad the aGvanag one conscientious reeareer, However, (he Marist method id Tea them cope me Sealy (ough under & fSnewhat mor mate form) the crcl questions comesed wh he Socal soodiacs ofthe cei Minion movement, Tho hls wee, moot, of diferent opm mith there tht here were aed