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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)

Volume 8, Issue 4, April 2017, pp. 1824–1830, Article ID: IJCIET_08_04_207


Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=8&IType=4
ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316

© IAEME Publication Scopus Indexed

AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON M20


GRADE OF CONCRETE BY PARTIAL
REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT WITH STONE
DUST AND FINE AGGREGATE WITH
CRUSHED FINE AGGREGATE
Dr. B. Madhusudana Reddy
Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering,
Sri Venkateswara University College of Engineering, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India

B. Bharathi
PG Student, Department of Civil Engineering,
Sri Venkateswara University College of Engineering, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India

ABSTRACT
In the present experimental investigation stone dust (stone dust which is passing
through 90 micron sieve) is used as partial replacement of cement by weight at
varying percentages i.e., 10%, 20%, 30% respectively. The fine aggregate is replaced
by crushed fine aggregate at varying percentages i.e., 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%
respectively. The influence of Stone Dust and Crushed Fine Aggregate on compressive
strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength of M20 grade of concrete is
investigated. The test results of concrete prepared using different combinations of
stone dust as replacement of cement and crushed fine aggregate as replacement of
fine aggregate are compared with that of controlled concrete. Based on test results, it
can be observed that the concrete prepared with a combination of 20% replacement
of cement by stone dust and 50% replacement of fine aggregate by crushed fine
aggregate posses improved properties compared to controlled concrete. The
controlled concrete is M20 grade design mix using normal ingredients of concrete
without any replacement.
Key words: Crushed Fine Aggregate, Controlled Concrete, Stone Dust, Partial
Replacement.
Cite this Article: Dr. B. Madhusudana Reddy and B. Bharathi, An Experimental
Investigation on M20 Grade of Concrete by Partial Replacement of Cement with
Stone Dust and Fine Aggregate with Crushed Fine Aggregate. International Journal
of Civil Engineering and Technology, 8(4), 2017, pp. 1824–1830.
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An Experimental Investigation on M20 Grade of Concrete by Partial Replacement of Cement with
Stone Dust and Fine Aggregate with Crushed Fine Aggregate

1. INTRODUCTION
Concrete is the most widely used consumable material today all over the world. The
constituents of concrete are coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, cement and water. Rapid
increase in construction activities leads to acute shortage of conventional construction
materials. So the Advancement in utilization of wastes in concrete as admixture reduces
pollutants in environment and maximizes usage of natural resources. During the production
of cement CO2 is produced which cause global warning. Hence, by reducing cement
consumption environment can be protected to certain extent. An attempt was made to
partially replace the cement with waste material stone dust with an aim not to loose the
strength far from original concrete mix. It is conventional that sand is being used as fine
aggregate in concrete. The river deposits are the most common source of fine aggregate.
Now-a-days the natural river sand has become scarce and very costly. Hence we are forced to
think of alternative materials. The Crushed fine aggregate may be used in the place of river
sand fully or partly. A comparatively good strength is expected when sand is replaced
partially or fully with or without concrete admixtures. It is proposed to study the possibility of
replacing sand with locally available crushed fine aggregate without sacrificing the strength
and workability of concrete.

2. MATERIALS & EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME


2.1. Properties of Materials

2.1.1. Cement
In the present investigation Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) of 53 Grade confirming to IS
specifications was used. The properties of cement are shown in Table 1.

Table 1 Physical Properties of Cement


S.No Property Value
1 Fineness 1.5%
2 Specific Gravity 3.12
3 Normal Consistency 31 %
Setting Time
4 i) Initial Setting time 95 Min
ii) Final Setting time 240 Min

2.1.2. Stone Dust


The Stone dust (SD) used in the investigation is obtained from the quarry at Chandragiri near
Tirupati Andhra Pradesh. Stone Dust is obtained by sieving dust passing through 90 micron
sieve. X-ray diffraction method (XRD) is conducted on stone dust it shows that it contains
93% SiO2. Reference XRD, it is ensured that due to the presence of SiO2, stone dust posses
pozzolanic activity. So, the stone dust is used for partial replacement of cement.

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Dr. B. Madhusudana Reddy and B. Bharathi

Figure 1

2.1.3. Fine Aggregate


Locally available river sand confirming to IS specifications was used as the fine aggregate in
the concrete preparation. The properties of fine aggregate are shown in Table 2.

Table 2 Physical properties of Fine Aggregate


S.No Property Result
1 Specific Gravity 2.56
2 Fineness Modulus 2.6
3 Grading of Sand Zone – II

2.1.4. Coarse Aggregate


Coarse aggregate of nominal size 20 mm and 12.5 mm, obtained from the local quarry
confirming to IS specifications was used. The properties of coarse aggregate are shown in
Table.3
Table 3 Properties of Coarse Aggregate
S.No Property Result
1 Specific Gravity 2.61
2 Water Absorption 0.4%
3 Fineness Modulus 6.53

2.1.5. Crushed Fine Aggregate


The crushed fine aggregate (CFA) used in the investigation is obtained from the quarry at
Chandragiri near Tirupati Andhra Pradesh.
Locally available crushed fine aggregate confirming to IS specifications was used as the
fine aggregate in the concrete preparation. The properties of crushed fine aggregate are shown
in Table 4
Table 4 Physical properties of Crushed fine aggregate
S.No Property Result
1 Specific Gravity 2.55
2 Fineness Modulus 3.15
Grading of Crushed fine
3 Zone – I
aggregate

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An Experimental Investigation on M20 Grade of Concrete by Partial Replacement of Cement with
Stone Dust and Fine Aggregate with Crushed Fine Aggregate

2.2. Concrete Mix Proportion


M20 grade of concrete was designed as per the Indian Standard code of practice IS 10262-
2009. The various ingredients for one cubic meter of concrete for different mixes are shown
in Table 6.

Table 5 Mix Proportions for M20 Grade Concrete


Cement Fine Aggregate Coarse 20 mm CA 12.5 mm CA WATER
Aggregate(CA)
340 646 1198 720 478 170
1 1.9 3.52 2.11 1.41 0.5

Table 6 Quantities of Ingredients per cum of M20 Grade Concrete


Crushed Crushed
Stone Stone Fine Coarse
Cement fine Water Cement fine
S.No dust Dust Aggregate Aggregate
(%) aggregate (lit) (kg) aggregate
(%) (kg) (kg) (kg)
(%) (kg)
1 100 0 0 170 340 0 646 0 1198
2 90 10 0 170 306 34 0 710 1198
3 80 20 0 170 272 68 0 426 1198
4 70 30 0 170 238 102 0 213 1198
5 80 20 25 170 272 68 484.5 161.5 1198
6 80 20 50 170 272 68 323 323 1198
7 80 20 75 170 272 68 161.5 484.5 1198
8 80 20 100 170 272 68 0 646 1198

2.3. Experimental Programme


Concrete test specimens consist of 150 mm × 150 mm × 150 mm cubes, cylinders of 150 mm
diameter and 300 mm height and 100 mm × 100 mm × 500 mm prisms. Concrete cubes were
tested at different curing periods (3, 7, 28, 56 and 90 days) to get the compressive strength.
Cylindrical specimens were also tested at the age of 28 days to obtain the split tensile strength
of concrete. The prisms were tested to obtain the flexural strength of concrete. The rate of
loading is as per the Indian Standard specifications.

Table 7 Preparation of Specimens

S.No Sample No. of Samples Total


Type of test 3 7 28 56 90
days days days days Days
1 Compressive Strength Cubes 24 24 24 24 24 120
2 Split Tensile Strength Cylinders --- ---- 24 --- --- 24
3 Flexure Strength Prisms --- ---- 24 --- --- 24

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


3.1. Compressive Strength
The variation of the cube compressive strength of M20 grade concrete for various
combinations of stone dust and crushed fine aggregate with various curing periods is shown
in Fig.1. The cube compressive strength indicates the average of three test results.
It can be observed that the compressive strength of concrete containing Stone dust 20% as
replacement of cement with a combination of 50% crushed fine aggregate as replacement of

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Dr. B. Madhusudana Reddy and B. Bharathi

fine aggregate give more strength compared to controlled concrete. The compressive strength
increases at stone dust 20% & crushed fine aggregate 50% by 10.51% compared to control
concrete.
40
Compressive Strength (MPa)
35
30
25
3Days
20 7Days
15 28Days
10 56Days
5 90Days
0
Control mix 10%SD 20%SD 30%SD
Mix Combinations

Figure 1 Compressive strength of concrete at different Percentages (%) Stone dust


Compressive Strength (MPa)

40
35
3Days
30
25 7Days
20 28Days
15
56Days
10
5 90Days
0

Mix Combinations

Figure 2 Variation of cube Compressive Strength of M20 Grade concrete with different percentages
of Stone dust & Crushed fine aggregate

3.2. Split Tensile Strength


The variation of split tensile strength of M20 grade of concrete with various percentages of
Stone Dust and Crushed fine aggregate content is shown in Fig. 3. The split tensile strength of
concrete at SD20% & CFA 50% increases more compared to controlled concrete. The split
tensile strength increases at SD20% & CFA 50% by 7.8% compared to control concrete.

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An Experimental Investigation on M20 Grade of Concrete by Partial Replacement of Cement with
Stone Dust and Fine Aggregate with Crushed Fine Aggregate

Split Tensile Strength(MPa)


3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5 28 days
1
0.5
0
control SD 10% SD 20% SD 30% SD 20% SD 20% SD 20% SD 20%
concrete & CFA & CFA & CFA & CFA
25% 50% 75% 100%

Mix Combinations

Figure 3 Variation of Split Tensile Strength of M20 Grade of Concrete with different percentages of
Stone dust and Crushed fine aggregate

3.3. Flexural Strength


The variation of flexural strength of M20 grade of concrete containing various combinations
of stone dust and crushed fine aggregate is shown in Fig.4. The flexural strength of concrete
increases upto 20% replacement of cement with stone dust beyond which the strength
decreases compared to conventional concrete. Keeping Stone dust 20% as constant and
replace fine aggregate with crushed fine aggregate at varying percentages of 25,50,75 &100%
respectively. The flexure strength increases at SD20% &CFA 50% by 9.6% compared to
control concrete.
3.9
Flexure Strength (MPa)

3.8
3.7
3.6
3.5
3.4
28DAYS
3.3
3.2
3.1

Mix Combinations

Figure 4 Variation of Flexural Strength of M20 Grade of Concrete with different percentages of Stone
Dust and Crushed fine aggregate.

4. CONCLUSIONS
The results of the experimental investigation indicate that the combined application of stone
dust and crushed fine aggregate can be adopted positively for ordinary portland cement and
natural sand replacement. It can be concluded that with the increase in the percentage of
stone dust as partial replacement for cement can increases the strength upto20% and beyond

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Dr. B. Madhusudana Reddy and B. Bharathi

that strength decreases. By keeping SD 20% constant and replace fine aggregate with varying
percentages of Crushed fine aggregate. The strength is more at SD20% & CFA 50%
combination compared to controlled concrete. It is further noted that the variation of
compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength of M20 grade of stone dust
concrete with increasing in the crushed fine aggregate indicates the similar trend.

REFERENCES
[1] IS: 10262-2009. Concrete Mix Proportioning – Guidelines (First Revision). Bureau of
Indian Standards, New Delhi.
[2] IS 516:1959. Methods of Tests for Strength of Concrete, Bureau of Indian Standards,
New Delhi, India.
[3] IS: 12269:1987. 53 Grade Ordinary Portland Cement–Specifications. Bureau of Indian
Standards, New Delhi.
[4] IS: 383:1970 (Reaffirmed 1997) Specification for Coarse and Fine Aggregates from
Natural Sources for Concrete. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi
[5] Felixkala T, Partheeban, “Granite powder concrete”, Indian journal of science and
Technology, vol.3,no 3, March 2010.
[6] Tasnia Hoque, Muhammad Harunur Rashid, MD. Rokon Hasan, EBNA FORHAD
MONDOL in 2013 examined the Influence of Stone Dust as Partially Replacing Material
of Cement and Sand on some Mechanical Properties of Mortar. International Journal of
Advanced Structures and Geotechnical Engineering ISSN 2319-5347, Vol. 02, No. 02,
April 2013. IJASGE 020203 Copyright © 2012 Basha research centre. All rights reserved.
[7] Ankit Nileshchandra Patel, Jayeshkumar Pitroda “Stone Waste: Effective Replacement of
Cement for Establishing Green Concrete” international Journal of Innovative Technology
and Exploring Engineering ISSN: 2278-3075, Volume-2, Issue-5, and April-2013
[8] Nagabhushana and Bai, H. S., (2011) “Use of crushed rock powder as replacement of fine
aggregate in mortar and concrete”. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Volume 4,
No. 8: 917-922.
[9] Lohani, T.K., Padhi, M., Dash, K.P. and Jena, S. (2012) “Optimum utilization of Crushed
fine aggregate as partial replacement of sand in Concrete”.Int. Journal of Applied
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[10] Kujur, F. E., Vikas, S, Anjelo, F. D., Ehsan, A., and Agarwal, V.C., (2104) Stone Dust as
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